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3otm ^itantB 







J P^l c7 

O F T H E 


L A W 

O F 




Eight BOOKS. 

f' f .- J -J >xL 

Written in Latin by the BarotiTuFENDORF, 
Counfellor of State to his late Swedijh Maje- 
fty^ and to the late King of Pruffia, 

Done into English by B^SIL KENNETT, D D. 
late Prelident of Corpus Chrijlt College in Oxford. 


To which are added 

All the large NOTES of Mr, Barbeyrac, 

Tranflated from the beft E D I T I O N ; 

Together with Large T A B L E S to the Whole. 

The Fourth Edition, carefully Correfted. 

To which is now prefixed 

Mr. Barbeyrac's Prefatory DISCOURSE, 


An Hiftorical and Critical Account of the Science of 

Morality, and the Progrefs it has made in the»World, from the 
earlieft Times down to the Publication of this Work. 

Done into English by Mr. CAREW of Lincoln s~Inn. 

LONDON: ^^'^^ 

Printed for J. Walthoe, R. Wilkin, J. and J. Bokwicke, S. Birt, 

T. W A R D, and T. Os b o r n e. 


rf - 


To the Right Honourable 

Sir Nathan fFright, Knight, 



GkeatSektuo^ ENGLAND, 

One of the LORDS of Her MAJESTY'S moft 
Honourable PRIVY-COUNCIL, t^c. 


H E Author and Subjeft, here prefent- 
ed to your Lordlhip, have in them- 
felves, the beft of Claims to fo great 
a Proteftion : For, neither can he 
whofe known Capacity, Induftry, and Integrity, 
rendered him the Ornament of his own Profefli- 
on, and of his Prince's Council, apply himfelf with 
more Succefs, than to one, who has rifen, by the 
fame Steps, to a nobler Eminence of Honour and 

a z Em« 


T^lje Epiftle Dedicator^. 

Employment^ nor ought any other, than the Guar- 
dian and Difpenfer of piiblick Eqnity,to be acknow- 
ledged as the Patron of the Law of Nature and Na- 
tions. But the Ambition of this Addrefs was alike 
needful, in Refped of all the Tranflators j as an 
Occafion of acknowledging the Influence which 
they feel from your Lordfhip s Authority, with Re- 
gard both to their Fundion and their Studies : 
Your Lordfhip efteeming it no lefs worthy a Part 
of your Charader and Office, to fupport the moft 
primitive Church, and the moft regular Univerfi- 
ties ', than to prefide over the Juftice of the wifeft 
State, or to dired the Policy of the happieft 

I am^ 

With all Duty and Refpetl, 

Tour Lord/hi fs moft obliged 

Humble Servant, 




P R E F A C E. 

T is a i>tlcmma frequently urged again ft Verfions 
of this Kind, that i4/hen a Subject lies remote from 
vulgar Confideration,Ter fons of Learning will pur- 
fue the Knowledge of it in the learned Language s^ 
whilfl others mtfl remain equally Strangers to it 
in all, which yet abates proportionally of its Force, 

C g3>i.^^ji^^;^all according as either the original Terformance has 

J^een le/S fortunate in Stile j or as the Improvements of a modern 
Tongue have been able to extend them [elves to the abflrufefl Rea- 
fonings, and to [peak even ofThilofophy with the Advantages of Elo- 
quence. As there is a Concurrence of thefe two Conditions, to ju- 
flify the prefent Attempt j fo the fecond of them, which, through 
perfonal Inability, may have been impaired, feems yet to be recom- 
pen fed, by a peculiar IVeight and Trevalency in the firft. For the 
Commendation of our Author s ^Judgment hath fcarce been more 
univerfal, than the Cenfure of his Compofition ; which though, by 
all, acknowledged to be exprejfive, yet to moft appears fo difficult 
and difc our aging, that they fometimes fancy the Senfe to have brok- 
en its IVay through the Thrafe, and to have left thefe Irregularities, 
as the Tokens of its Violence. It is true, he has not failed in the 
very Entrance of his Work, to apologize for this Vefeci of Orna- 
ment J but the Tlea he offers is, what may better excufe the ne- 
cefjary Roughnefl of a Subjetl, than the particular Unhappinef of 
a IVriter. Another vifible T)i [advantage there was, which called 
for Relief. Our Author having pub lifjed the firfl T)r aught of this 
great Undertaking in the Tear mdclx, with the Title <?/ Elementa 
Jurifpi udentise, having al[o employed the Labour and ColleBions of 
twelve Tears, in bringing it to its pre je7it Method and Name.^ was 
not content to have drawn together all Affi/lances, which were of 
direct and immediate U[e, from the Stores of Morality, Toliticks, 
and Law j but engaged him f elf in a longer and wider Search, y^un- 
tung through the whole Circle of philological Authors, antient and 



modern, and dijpofing, Under the Heads of his Work, the mo ft re- 
mote Examples, and IHu ft rat ions. Hence e-verj Tage came to he 
loaded, 7iot only with numerous Citations at large, hut with di [or- 
derly Marks -9/ Addition, Reference, Comparilbn, and the tike: 
As if the Confufion of a [welling Margin had run over, atiddi [charg- 
ed it [elf upon the Text. Thus the Teriods were frequently dif 
jointed, the Argument interrupted, or ohfcured, and the great eft 
Tart of the main Body thrown into the dif agreeable Figure of a 

Some Endeavours ha've been here applied towards the lefening of 
both thefe ImperfeBions. In ReJpeCi of Stile, it is hoped, that the 
Metal, how rude foe^ver and incapable of being polifjed to exaH 
Beauty, yet after a fee ond melting, may appear lef deformed, and 
may paf into more general life : But it is beyond Doubt, that the 
other Inequality has been farther recti fled, by our cafling under the 
Tage the needle [^ and mifjapen Mafi of foreign Supplies j iMch 
it might have been no unpardonable Boldnef utterly to have pared 
away ; but that we ought to be cautious ofpra&ifing upon an Au- 
thor, and to take Care, lefl by cutting off an Excrefcency, we 
fjould endanger the Life of a T>eftgn. 

Cuftom has not fo far prevailed over Decency, as to engage the 
Tranflators in proclaiming the Juftice of their Choice, and Merit of 
their Author. Much lef^ would they ground his Charaher on the 
invidious Argument of Comparifon. To contend with the admired 
Karnes of Grotius, Selden, and the Right Reverend the prefent 
Lord Bifhop of Peterborough, is what he ought to decline in Toint of 
Mode fly, if7iotof Safety. Tet this fe ems to have fallen out to 
his Advantage, that no one of thofe great Men attempted a com- 
pleat Body of moral, or political Doctrine. The firfl chofe rather 
to infifl on Authorities taken from the Hiflorians, Civilians, and 
Canofifls, than on philofophical Deduliions, from the Nature of 
Men, and the Reafons of Things. The [econd entred no farther 
into this Subject, than as the Jewifli Inflitutions directed hh Vieqji/, 
My Lord of Peterborough, having overthrown the deceitful Fabrich 
of a late treacherous Builder, and fettled the Science of Morality 
on its truefl and deepejl Foundations, left the Super ftruClure to be 
raifed by inferior Hands. Thus, while each had a particular Boun- 
dary to his own Enquiries, all contributed to the TerfeCiion of our 
Authors Syflem : In which, as he abftains not from grateful Re- 
membrances of thefe, and other learned Benefa&crs, fo he now 
teaches theTiiblifher of this Tranflation, mo ft gladly to acknowledge 
the Favour and Ajfiftance of his Friends ; of whom two eJpeciaUy^ 
the Reverend Mr. Percivale, and the Reverend Mr. Itchiner, ^ en- 
tirely rendering the fifth and eighth Books, have, with the fame 
Kindne/S, accepted a Tart in his Burthen, and allowed him a Share 
in their Reputation and SucceJ^. 






Of the Origin and Variety of 
moral Entities. 





^H E IntrodiiUion. 

Man's Life is governed hy moral 


What are moral Entities^ 'what is their 
Caufe and End. 
4. 'The Way of producing them, lloeir In- 
fiitution. 'their Operation^ and from 
f. 'Their Divifion. 

6. Their State what. 

7. Their natural and adventitious State. 

8. Peace and Wa'r^ hovj manifold ? 

9. Determinate States. 

TO. States having reffe£t to Time. 

1 1 . Certain Precepts concerning States, 

I i. The Diviftons of fingle Perfons. 

1 3 . Jnd compound. 

14. Some Precepts about moral Perfons, 
I f . Feigned Perfons. 

16. Moral Things. 

17. The Divifion of moral Modes, 

The remaining moral ^alities. 
Moral ^lantities. 
How moral Entities perifi. 







CHAP. It' 

Of the Certainty of moral Sci- 

Seft. I . TT/f O S T Men deny that there is a de- 
*■'''' monjirative Certainty in moral Sci- 

2. What is a Demonflration. 

3 . The Principles of a Demonflration, 

4. Demonflration agrees to that moral Science 

only., that treats of the Goodnefs or Evil 
of Man's ^Slions. 
f. The Uncertainty of moral Things is ob' 
; ; jeited. 

6. Whether any Thing he good or had before 

any Inflitution. 

7. Whether Shame he a Proof of it. 

8. Of the Extent of moral Allions^ as to the 

S>. GrotiusV Opinion conftdered. 
10." In moral ^antities there is a Latitude. 
X I . What is called morally certain. 


Of the Underflanding of Man, 
as it concurs to moral A^ 

Sea. I. 



. n^WO Faculties of the Underflanding. 
. * What is the Genius of the rcprefen- 

tative Faculty of the Underfiand- 


3 . TloeUnderftanding natural apprehends Things 

moral rightly. 

4. Confcience what it is, and hovJ manifold. 
f. A right and probable Confcience. 

6. Rules for a probable Confcience. 

7. Rules how to choofe Things profitable. 

8. A dubious Confcience. .. 
5?. A fcrupulous one. 

10. Ignorance, what it is, and how manifold. 

1 1 . Error, of how many Sorts. 

1 2. Error in lawful Actions . 

13. Speculative Error about neceffary Actions, 

1 4. Or indifferent ones. 
I f . Practical Error. 

1 6. Error in an ill ASlion. 


Of the Will of Man, as it con- 
curs in, or confents to moral 

Sea. \.r\Fthe Acts of the Will. 

2. ^ Of the Liberty of the Will. 

3. That the TVill mufl of Necefjity he indiffe- 

rent.^ I. e. not forced to choofe good or evil. 

4. How the Will is inclined to good Things, 

and to Goodnefs in general. 

f . Cer- 


f. Certain Difpofitions of the Body ftir up the 

6. As alfo fome Habits. 
J. And Pajfions. 
8. Alfo Intemperance . 
p. Ah ions of a mxt Nature. 
IOj Involtintary and forced Anions. 


Of moral Actions in general, and 
of their Application to the A- 
gent, or their Aptnefs to he 

Seft. I. 117 H A t a mm-alA^on is. 
'^ t. Its Matter. 

3 . Its Form^ivhere ive treat of a moral Caufe. 

4. A moral A^ion conftdered in it felf is a 

pofitive Entity. 
y. The Caufe, or Ground ivhy a'tbing may be 
imputed, or not. 

6. Things not to be imputed to a Man are 

Things neceffary. 

7. The Operations of our vegetable Faculties. 

8. Things impoffible. 

p Things compelled, -where mecr Execution is 
treated of. 

Things done through Ignorance. 

Things done, or fcen in a Dream. 

Evils to come to pafs. 

But evil Actions proceeding from an Ha- 
bit, miift certainly be imputed. 

H01V other Mens Atlions may be imput- 
ed to us. 




Of the Qualities of moral A- 

Se£t. i . JJO IV many an the Realities of moral 
* -*■ Anions. 
2. A neceffary lawful AUion. 

The Goodnefs or Evil of AElions, in what 

they conftft. 
A good Ailion mujl have all Things requi- 
fite, an evil one if made fucb^ by want- 
ing one Condition. 
GOD can't be the Caufe of any Evil. 
Juftice is either in Perfons or Actions. 
What is the Juflice of Anions. 
Univerfal and particular Juflice. 
Juflice diftributive. 

GrotiusV Opinion about Juflice. 
AriftotleV Judgment upon the fame. 
HobbesV Opinion of Juflice and Wrong. 
What is an unjufl A£lion. 
What an Injury is. 

An Injury is done by Deftgn and Choice 
only, where the Nature of a Fault 
is treated of . 
No Wrong is done to any Man that wills 










Of the Rule of moral ABionSy or 
of haw in general. 

Sea. I. 




. A Law differs from CounfeJ. 

•^^ z. From a Bargain, or Covenant. 

And from Right. 
What a Law is. 
What an Obligation. 

Hro} it comes to pafs that a Man is 

7. No Man is obliged to himfelf. 

8. He that is to be obliged, mufl have a Superior. 
p. How a Man may lay an Obligation on ano- 

It can't be done by meer Force. 
Nor by any Excellency of Nature alone. 
What gives greater Force to an Obligati- 

1 3. The Law-giver and Law ought to be known. 

14. What are the effential Parts of a Lawl 
Wloat is the Permifflon of a Law? 
The Matter of Laws. 
Who is obliged by a Law? 
The Divifion of a Law. 




Of the §luantity [or Efiimation'\ 
of moral Anions. 

Sc£t. 1. '~pHE ab folate Quantity of moral AEli- 
•* ons. 
1. What Intention is required to make an 
Atlion good before G O DV Tribw 

3. What Intention is good in human Judica- 


4. What is a perfeSt and compleat Action. 
f. The relative ^antity of Actions. 

C H A P. IX. 

Of the Imputation of moral A- 

Se£t. I . r\ F actual Imputation. 

^-^ 2. Of Imputation through Favour. 
3 Of Imputation from Debt. 
4. What can be effectually imputed to ano- 
f. Merit and Demerit, what. 
6. How the EffcSls of moral ABions may be 



B O O K 11. C H A P. I. 

// is not agreeable to tide Nature 
of Man to live without Laws. 

Sect. I . TUHelher a Lawmay be impofed on Man^ 
'' is doubtful. 
1. What Freedom of TV'iU is. 

5. IVhatSfl of Freedopi of in God. 
4. IV bat is t toe Freedom of Meafis. 

f. Man too noble a Creature to he allowed 
fiich a Freedom. 

6. 'Tloe Corruption of fuch a Freedom. 

7. 'the Variety of Mens 'Tempers. 

8. Man's natural Weaknejs and Rudenefs. 


Of the natural State of Man. 

Se6t. I . yl/f A N's natural State diverfly conftdred. 

t. •*'■* HisMiJery. 

3. Its LavDS and Rights. 

4. 'The State of Nature qualified. 

y. Whether it has an Inclination to War. 

6. Hobbes affirms ity and bis Reafuns are 


7. Mens Relation one to another concludes the 


8. H >bbes'5 Reafons anfwered. 

9. Reajon is not to be denied its Ufe in the 

State of Nature. 

10. The Manners of barbarous Nations do 

not make up the State of Nature. 

1 1 . Natural Peace has m Need of Covenants, 
li. Natural Peace is not to be trufied to. 


Of the Law of Nature in ge- 

Seft. I. 'T^HE Connexion. 

■* 2, 3 . The Law of Nature is not 
common to Man and Beajls. 
4. The Object of the natural Law is not ne- 

ceffary before there is a Law. 
J", 6. Whether the natural Law is common 

toG QXy and Man. 
7, 8, 9. The natural Law does not depend 

upon the Confcnt of Nations. 
10, II. Whether Profit be the Foundation of 

12. Whether the Law of Nature appears 

plain from the End of the Crea- 
tion. ' 

13. The Principles of natural Right are dif- 

covered by the Light of Reafon. 

14. The true Original of the Law of Na- 

ture^ is derived from the Condition of 

if. The fundamental Laiv of Nature. 
16, 17, 18. Hobbes'i Opinion is enquired 


19. The former Original is fufficient. 

20. The Obligation of the Law of Nature 

is from GOD. 

z\. Of the. Efiahliflment of the Law of Na- 

zz. Some Things are faid to be of the Law of 
Nature reduSlively and improperly. 

23. Whether the Law of Nature is different 

from the Law of Nations. 

24. A 'Divifton of the Law of Nature. 


Of the Duties and Terforman- 
ces of Man towards him f elf ; 
as well in Regard to the Im- 
provement of his Mind, as 
to the Care of his Body and 
of his Life. 

Sea. I. T^T^ery Man is to take Care of him- 
J^ /elf 
z. In what that Care conftfls. 
3. The Mind is to be inftruSled in Religion. 
4 And all corrupt Opinions to be rooted out 

of it. 
f. The Knowledge of a Man's fclf is neceffary. 

6. A Man fiould know his Soul and its Offi- 


7. And how great its Abilities are. 

8. Nothing above its Abilities may be attempt- 


9. How much we are to labour after Fame. 

10. And how much after Riches. 

1 1 . And about Pleafures. 

1 2. Our Paffions arc to be governed by Rea- 


13. Of our Study for Learning. 

14. Of the Care of the Body. 
If. Of the Ufe of Life. 

I (5 . What Obligations we are under to peferve 

17. How far Life is to be employed in the 

Service of others. 

18. Whether it is to be endangered for them. 

19. Whether Self-murder is lawful. 

* b 




Of Self-defence. 

Se£l. I . '^ HE Defence of a Man's [elf h a law- 
*■ ful Vioknce. 

2. And is or darned by the Law of Nature. 

3 . JVhat Sort of Defence is alloived in a Na- 

tural State. 

4. And what Sort in Cities. 

f. Whether it is lawful againfl one that mi- 

6. the Time for fuch Defence in a natural 


7, 8, p. AndhoTV tobe fettledinacivilState. 

10. Of n?vynin<j^ ar.y Part of the Body. 

1 1. C/ Cuafllij. 

12. Of a Box on the Ear. 

13. W he her a Miin is bound to fly. 

14. IV bet her the Chriftian Religion commands 

If. Slaughter committed in Self-defence^ is 

guilt lefs. 
\6. Of the Defence of our Goods. 
17, iS. Of a Night-thief . 
\(). Of fii-h Defence as is made by him who 

has offered the Injury. 


Of the Right and Trmlege of 

Seft. I TJO f^many Kinds of Neceffity there are. 

2. »^ Wherein the Right and Privilege of 

Neceffity confifis. 

3 . M^hat Right it gives every one over him- 

feif^ and direSliy over others^ 

4. And indireclly. 

f, 6, 7. IV hat R.ght it confers over other 

Mr,n Goods. 
8. M^hat we may do to others Goods to pre- 

ferve our own Goods. 

B O O K III C H A P. I. 

That no Man he hurt ; and if a 
Damage he done to any Man, 
that Reparation he made- 

Sect. I . '~pHA T no Man ought to do any Da 
*• mage to another., or his Concerns. 

2. T'hat if any he done, it ought to be repair- 


3 . What a Dam/rge or Hurt is. 

4. irijo are they that do an Hurt. 

f. How fuch as hurt otheis are obliged. 

6. How many Ways a Damage may be done. 

7. An Example of Reparation in a Murder- 


8. In one that has maimed another. 
p. In an Adulterer. 

10. In a Ravifloer. 

11. In a 'thief. 


That Men are to he accounted hy 
Nature equal. 

Se6t. 1 . 77 t^ery Man is to account another his 
^ Etjual. 

1. What is a natural^Efjualitjf. 
3 . T'he popnhir Reafons fof it. 

4 'the Opinion of juch an Equality makes 

Men helpful to one another. 
f. IIoiv 'Things are to be divided by it among 


6. Men offend againfl it by Pride. 

7. Arid by Affronts offered to others. 

8. Whether any be Servants by Na'rire 

9. Whence has proceeded that Inequality that 

is found among Men. 


Of the common Duiies of Hu" 

Se£t . I . T^ Very Man ought to promote the Inter efls 
•^ of others. 

2. And that either indefinitely. 

3. Or definitely by common Humanity. 

4. A leff'er Sort of Examples., viz. 

f. Of allowing a Way through another^s 

6. And for Carriage of Goods, 

7. Whether toll may be required for fuch a 


8 . Of our touching upon a jlrange Shore. 
p. Of entertaining Strangers. 

10. Of allowing a Settlement to Foreigners. 

11. Of grant I f,g a Market. 

1 2. /Whether a Man be bound to buy a Stran- 

ger's Goods. 

I 5. Of pennittiug Marriages. 

14. Whether any fingle Perfon may be de- 
wed what is common to all. 

If. Of Benefisence. 

\6. Of a gri'Jefu!., 

\-j. And ungrateful Mind. 


Of the Duty of heeping Faith, 
and the Diverfity of Oh ligati- 
ons to it- 

Se6l. I . ""THE R E muff be Covenants and Agree- 
•* ments in all huwan Societies. 
Z. Covenants are to be kept. 

3. Obligations are natural or adventitious. 

4. Atheijm deftroys all natural Obligations. 
f. A natural or civil Obligation. 

6. What is the Force of each of them. 

7. A 


7. ji perpetual and temporary Obligation. 

8. Obligations not mutual. 

p. Obligations perfeSlly or imperfe6Hy mu- 


Of the Nature of Tromifes and 
Ta&s [or Co'uenants'] in gene- 

Seft. 1 . 11/ Hence adventitious Obligations arife ? 

2. '^ What is Mr. HobbcsV transferring 

of Right ? 

3. No Man has a Right to all 'things, as 

Mr. Hobbes aff'erteth. 

4. In what a transferring of Right conftfis ? 
f. A meer Affertion doth not oblige. 

6. An imperfect Promife obligeth, but does 

not gizr another a Right. 

7. A per eSl Promife. 

8. Prumijes in the future Ten fe give no Right. 
p, 10, II. JVhether there be a Pwwer of 0- 

bliging in bare Palls., or Covenants. 


Of tlce Confent required in 
'making 'Fromijes and Ta&s. 

Sed. I . /^ Onfent is required to make Promifes 
^ and Palis. 

1. Confent is fignified openly or tacitly. 

3 . Confent fuppojes the Ufe of Reafon, 

4. Great t)runkennefs hinders it. 
f. Ofjuch as are under Age. 

6. Of Error in Promifes. 

•J. Of Error in Promifes and Contrails. 

8. Of Fraud. 

p. A Sufpicion of a Cheat makes Palls void. 

-i 0, II, 12) 13. Fear makes Promifes and 

Palis void. 
14. How Promifes.^ null in themfelves, may 

be made vaiid. 
If. Of the Confent of the Perfon to whom a 

Promife is made. 
16. Of the Signs and Inflruments of Con- 


Of the Matter of Tromifes and 

Sefl:. I. JI/' F are obliged to things poffible to be 
'^ done only. 

2. Promifes of things tmpoffible are void. 

3. ImpoflibiUties which arife about Cove- 


4. Uhether our utmoft Endetivour is fuffici- 


j-. Whether a Man be obliged to hear fuch ^f- 
fliltions as are above human Courage and 
Strength ? 

6. There is no Obligation to things unlawful. 

7. Difjoncfl Bargains do not oblige., though in 

our Power. 

8. Ndr fuch as can't be performed., but by 

fame foul AH ion. 

p. Whether things difjoncfly given cah be 're- 
covered ? 

i o. Other Mens Goods are promifed itt vaiH. 

II. 2m, and our own., if they are under any 
Obligation to another. 


Of the Conditions of Tromifes. 

Se6b. I . TJ O W many Ways is a Promife 
•*■ ■'■ made ? 

2. What is a Condition? 

3. A Condition refers to the Time prfent, or 

the Time to come. 

4. A Condition is either cafual., arbitrary., or 

f . An impoffible and unlawful Condition. 

6. The Addition of Place. 

7. The Addition of Time. 

8. The Difference between Bargains and con- 

ditional Promifes. 


Of the Minifiers or j4gents con- 
cerned in contra6ling Ohligati- 
onsfor other Men. 

Se£t. I. 7/7 -E may promife and bargain for ano- 
'^ ther. 
z. I^ow many Sorts of Commifjions there are ? 

3. Flow if a Deputy die before he hasfjnifj- 

ed ? 

4. The Difference between a Deputy and Me- 

f. How far another may accept a Promife 
for us. 

6. Heirs can't accept a Promife for a Perfon 


7. Of a Burden annexed to a Promife. 

8. The General Divifion of Palls., or Bar- 


B O O K IV. C H A P. I. 

Of Speech, and the Obligation 
which attends it. 

Sed:. I. r\FtheUfe of Speech. 

2. ^ Of the Diverftty of Signs. 

3. Of the Origin of Speech. 

4. Words ftgnify according to Impofition. 

* t> 2 I-. Im- 


f. Impofttion is attended with a CompaSl. 

6. 1'his CompaSl is either general, or parti- 


7. Whence the Obligation of dif covering our 

Mind to another. 

8. What Truth is, and what a Lye. 

J). Every Untruth is not a Lye ; and there- 
fore not criminal. 

10. Of the Right which is violated by lying, 

and whence it is derived. 

1 1 . How far Part of the Truth may be ho" 

neflly conceal' d. 
I z. Simulation in Things how far lawful. 

1 5 . Of ambiguous Speech. 
14. Of mental Refervations. 

I ^. Hozv far we may be allowed in /peaking 
falfly to Infants. 

16. It is lawful to [peak what is falfe, for 

the Prefervation of others. 
\j. How far the Cover nours of States may 

be indulged in giving out falfe Re- 
18. In what Manner it is lawful to deceive 

an ill defigning Curiofity. 
I p. It is lawful to Jpeak falfe to a profejfed 

20. Whether a guilty Perfon, arraigned, may 

deny the Charge. 
2.1. What the Advocates or Counfel may, in 

this Refpe£i, do for their Client. 

Of an OatK 

Seft. I. '~pH E Sanliity of an Oath. 
■» * // hat an Oath is. 

2 It mhjl be taken only by the Name tf 

4. And according to the Religion of him that 

f. Of the Intention of him that fwears. 

6. An Oath is an additional Bond of an Obli- 


7. Of Oaths obtained by Deceit. 

8. Of Oaths obtained by Fear. 
p. Oaths to perform Things unlawful, bind 


10. Nor thofe which hinder a greater Good. 

11. An Oath doth not alter the Nature of 

thofe Atlions to which they are join- 
1 1. An Oath excludes all Cavils. 

13. But is not always to be interpreted 


14, Or without fome tacit Conditions and Li- 

mitations . 
I f. An Oath is to be explained by the Inten- 
tion of the Impofer. 

16. Of an Oath made in another's Stead to 

oblige him. 

17. How an Heir is obliged by the Oath of 

the Dead, 

iS. A Divifion of Oaths, as, i. For Con- 
firmation, z. In bearing Witnefs. 
3. Decifive of a Controverfy. 4. 
Supple t or y, or Clearing. 
ip. Whether every Breach of an Oath is 

20. Of the Ways of difpenfing with Oaths. 


Of the Tower of Mankind o* 
'ver [the'\ Things [of the 

Seft. I. n^HE great eft Part of the Law is em- 
-* ployed about worldly Things. 

2. Man ufes other Creatures bjG O DV Or- 


3. Man does no Injury by defraying Vegeta- 


4. Some Doubts about kilUngand eatingliving 


f. Which yet is maintained. 

6. The Abufe of our Right over living Crea- 
tures is to be reproved. 


Of the Origin of 'Dominion or 

Sed. r. T^Roperty and Community are' moral 
^ ^lalities. 

2. What is Property and Community. 

3 . That it has no Place, but where there are 
more Men than one. 

4. It proceeds immediately from an Agreement 
among Men. 

f. Of the antient Community of Goods. 

6. By what Degrees Men departed from it. 

7. That it was profitable to Mankind. 

8. The Opinion of the Antient s about the 
Original of Dominion or Property. 

p. Grotius'i 'Judgment conftdered. 

, 12, 13. The Arguments of thofe 
who deny the Community of Goods 
iifed among the Antients. 

14. In what SenJ'e Dominion is faid to be by 
natural Right. 

If. How far Infants are capable of Pro- 

10, II, 12, 


Of the OhjeB of "Dominion and 

Seft. I . TU HA T is repired to make Things our 

wr own. 

I. Things 



2. Things confumed in their life are in vain 

made our own. 

3. ji Thing become our oivn JJjould be capable 

of keeping. 

4. The Ufe of feme Things made our own is 

common to all. 
f. The divine Grant is not contrary to our Do- 
minion over the Sea. 

6. Reafons againfi all Property on the 


7. What the Ufe of the Sea is. 

8. What Parts of the Sea are made a Pof- 


p. The main Ocean can't be in any Man^s Do- 

I o. How far Navigation and Commerce on 
the Sea is free. 


Of Occupancy. 

Se6t. I. "T^ HE fever al Ways of acquiring Do- 
■*■ minion. 
z. The original Methods of acquiring it. 

3 . Occupancy is gained in whole^ or by Par- 


4. The PoJfeJJion of Moveables depends on the 

Difpofal of the chief Govermur. 
J". In fame Places the catching of Wild-beajls 
is allowed to every one, 

6. In other Places it is the Privilege of great 

Men only. 

7. Whether he that hunts contrary to the 

Law, has a Property in the Beafl he 

8. When Things occupied are underfiood to be 

$j. When they are moveable. 

10. Whether a Wild-beafl becomes mine as 
foon as I have wounded it. 

1 1 . Whether the Fifli are ours, that are in 

our Ponds. 
iz. Things left become immediately the fir ft 

13. Of Treafures. 

14, Of Poff'effions obtained by War. 


Of additional Acquirements. 

Se61:. I . rj O Wmany Sorts of Additions. 

2. ■*^ 'Mditions properly belong to the Own- 

er of the Thing. 

3. How many Sorts of Fruits. 

4. The young ones of Beafis belong to the 

Owner of the Dam, or Mother. 
f. Things planted pafs with the Soil. 

6. How Buildings go along with the Soil. 

7. The Paper goes along with the Writing. 

8. The Canvafs with the Pi5lure. 

9. The Purple with the Garment. 

10. Of new Models in Things. 

1 1 . Of whole Countries left by Waters. 

12. Of Fields belonging to private Perfons. 

CHAP vm. 

Of Right over other Mens Goods 
or ToJTeJJions. 

Se£t. I . A Man may have a Right over other 
•" Mens Goods diver fe Ways. 

2. Ho%v many Sorts of Right we have over 

others Goods. 

3. The Right of holding in Fee [Simple. '\ 

4. The Right of a Ground-plat. 

f. The Right of an honefl Poffeffor. 

6. Services, what, and of how many Sorts ? 

7. The Ufe with the Profits. 

8. The bare Ufe. 
p. The Habitation. 

10. Tloe Works of Servants. 

1 1 . The Services of Cify-E/lates. 

12. And of Country-Farms. 


Of transferring of 'Property in 

Se6t. I . T T proceeds from Property, that we may 
■* alienate a Thing, 

2. The Confent of two Perfons is required in 

every Alienation. 

3. Which is to be exprejfed by fame Signs. 

4. An Alienation is made entirely, or upon 

f. Whether Livery be required in every Alie- 

6. Property is either accompanied with, or 

feparated from Poffcffion. 

7. M^hat, and how manifold Poffeffion is. 

8. How Property is gained by bargaining only. 
p. True and feigned Delivery. 


Of Wills and Teftaments. 

Sea. I. 

Ho W many derivative Ways of Ac- 
quifition ? 

z. Grotius'j Definition of a Will is examin- 

3. JVhat is a Will to us. 

4. Whether Wills proceeded from the Law 

of Nature, is doubted. 
f. The Antients difpofed of their Goods while 
they were living. 

6. How far Wills proceeded from the Law 

of Nature, and how far from pofitive 

7. An Inheritance given by Will, wantingdue 

Form, may be entered upon, if none op- 
pofe it. 



8. But the Heir may null that M^ill, as if his 

Anccflor had died inteftate. 
p. Donation in Cafe of Death. 


Of Succe[fions to Terfons who die 

Sea. I 

1 1 . Ufiicapion is alfo in Ufe among diverfe 


Of the Ohligations which arife 
immediately from Troperty. 

C Uccefjion to Perfons that die inteftate^ 
^ depends upon a Frcfimption of their 
z. Yet a] it is agreeable to Reafon. 

3 . Children are preferred before all others. 

4. Parents are to maintain their Children, 
f. IVbat is meant by Maintenance. 

6. IV ho are to be accounted Children ? 

7. IFhat :-nore than Maintenance is due to 

Children., and ivhy ? 

8. It is not neceffary that Goods flionld al- 

ways be equally divided among Chil- 

9. Legitimate Children arc to be p-ef erred be- 

fore natural., 

10. Proi-ided that the Father owns them^ 

11. Or does not diftnherit them. 

It. Of the Right of Reprefentation. 

13. Parents mtijl fuccecd for want of Chil- 


14. Jnd for JVant of them., the neareji Re- 

lations in their Order. 
I f. Whether Friends may be preferred before 

Kindred ? 
I (J. Or Bene favors before Relations ? 

17. "the Order among Kindred. 

18. the Civil Laivs alloiv a large Power of 

difpofing Eflates. 

1 9. fhe Heir of the Deceafed., how far he is 

obliged to pay his Debts. 


Of Usucapion or Trefcription. 

Sea. I. 

£' Fery one is obliged to abflain from an- 
' other's Goods. 
z. Others Goods kept by us are to be reflor- 

5 . M^hich is proved. 
4. Andilluflrated. 

f. Contra^s made about others Goods are 
void^ as foon as they are known. 

6. FVhat is gained by another's GoodSy mujl 

be rcflored. 

7. Ayi honejl PoffeJ/or is not bound to reflore, 

if the Gotds are decayed., or lofl. 

8. But he is bound to rejlore the prefcnt 


p. And fuch as are fpent., if he mufl have 
fpent others of the like Value. 

10. But not them he has neglected to ga- 

\\. He is not obliged., who has given away 
what was given him., but with a Di- 

1 2 . Nor if he has fold what he bought with 
a DiJlinElion alfo. 

15. Hotv he may recover the Price., who 

has really fold another Man's Goods ? 

14. JVloether if a Man buys another's Goods., 
he ought to refore them to the Sel- 
ler i 

If. He that has another's Goods^ and knows 
not the Owner., may keep them. 

16. Whether what is given for a bad Rea- 

fon muft be reflored'i 

Of Trice. 

Sea I JJ OWUfucapion and Prefcription dif- Sea. i. J Fter Property, the Meafure of Things 
iX fer ^'''^fl ^^ introduced. 


2. What Ufucapion is by the Roman Laws, 

and where it takes Place. 

3. How far bonejl Dealing is required in Ufu- 


4. C ntinual Poffeffion is required. 

r. T'he Rcafons of introducing Ufucapion. 

6. Whether the Law for Ufucapion be pe- 


7. Many refer Ufucapion to civil Right. 

8. Whether Ufucapion can arife from a tacit 

Dereliction of the Proprietor. 

9. It feems to depend upon the tacit Agreement 

of Nations. 

1 . How Ufucapion may be prejudicial to Chil- 

dren not yet bom. 

1. What is the moral ^antity of 'Things. 

2 . How many Kinds of Price. 
4. What ii the Foundation of the common 

Price of Things. 
f. Many profitable Things have no Price,and 
why ? 

6. Why the Prices of Things rife. 

7. Of the Price of Fancy. 

8. Of the lawful Price. 

9. Of the common Price. 

10. The Caufcs why the common Price rifes 

and falls. 

1 1 . The common Price is not fufficient for the 

Commerce of Man's Life. 

1 2 . Hence an eminent Price was fet in Money. 

13. Which 


I J. Which ^ for the mofl part, ivas made of 

14. How far the Gozernours of Societies may 

fet an EJlimate upon Money. 
If. Info doing, they ought to have Refpe5i to 

16. 'The Falue of Money is alfo fubjeSl to 




Of Contra&s in general, that 
prefuppofe the Trice of Things. 

Se6t. I. ^~nH E Difference between Bargains and 
*■ Contrails, according to Mr. Hobbes, 
1, According to the Interpretation of the Ro- 
man Law. 

3. Some Advice about what they have deli- 


4. Qur Opinion about the Difference. 

f. Contrails are divided into fuch as oblige, 
I. one Party only j and i.fuch as oblige 
both Parties. 

6. And into real, or hare Confent, virbal, 

and in Writing. 

7. In fome particular Name, and without a 


8. Beneficial and chargeable. 

p. How many Sorts of chargeable ContraEis. 
10. Of mixed Contrails. 

CHAP. Ill 

Concerning the Equality that 
ought to he ohferi^ed in charge- 
able Contracts. 

Seft. 1. '~p HE Equality to be obfervcd in charge- 
•*■ able Contrasts . 

2. The Faults of a Thing are to be difco- 


3. The Nature of a Contrail requires it. 

4. Whether what concerns not the Thing it 

felf, mufi be dif covered. 
f. The Faults known on both Sides need not 
be mentioned. 

6. No Man is to be feared into a ContraEl. 

7. In gainful Contrails Equality need not to 

be obfervcd. 

5. In a chargeable Contrail nothing is fuppof- 

ed to be given. 
5). How Inequality not fore-feen is to be cor- 

10. Whether Over-reaching in Buying be 


Of gainful Contra&s in parti- 

Se6t. r. 'WHA T a Commiffion is. 

z. *^ Thefpecial RefpcSl had to it by the 

3. The Pcrfon conimiffioned ought to be very 


4. How far he ought to be indemnified. 

f. Whether a Commiffion can be Jatisficd by 
an Equivalent. 

6. Of a Loan, and how it differs from a vo- 

lunt-iry Grant. 

7. Of a Charge. 


Of chargeable Contra&s in par- 
ticular J and, fir/i. of Bar- 
tering, Buying and Selling. 

Se£V. \. r\F Exchanging or Bartering. 

2: ^ When a Contrail of buying and Jell- 
ing is compleat. 

3. Of the Lofs or Gain of a Thing fold. 

4. Of Agreements commonly joined with 

f . What the Buyer otighi to perform to the 
Seller, and e contrario. 

6. Of buying in Hope and Expectation. 

7. Of Monopolies. 


Of Renting and Hiring, 

Se6t. I. "WHAT Things Hiring hath common 
''^ with Buying. 

2. The certain Ufe of a Thing, if it be inter- 

cepted, tends to the Lofs of the Leffor, 

3. The uncertain regularly tends to the Lofs of 

the Leffee. 

4. Whether the fame Work may be let to many 



Of the Loan of a con fume able 

Se6t. I . TUH A T a Loan is, and what a con- 
" fumeable Commodity. 

X. A 


2. A double Ufe of thefc Things. 

3. For 'what 'Things ijje are wont to be credited. 

4. Of tacit Lendihg. 

f . TVhether Lending he an Alienation. 

6. What if Money be altered in the intrinfic 


7. Or in the extrinftc Value. 

8. The DoHrine of the Jews about Ufury. 

p. That Ufury is not contrary to the La-w of 

10. T'he Arguments to the contrary are anfiver- 


1 1 . Some Contracis are much the fame as U- 


1 2. The Evafions ufed to avoid the Difgrace 

of Ufury. 

'chap. VIII. 

of TartnerJJjip. 

Seft. I . TJ O JV many Ways Partnerjhip maybe 



2. Money and Labour are balanced fever al 

5 . Irregular Partnerflnp. 
4. A Partnerfliip in all Goods. 


Of Contra&s depending on 

Seft. I. J) Ar gains mixt -with Chance. 

2. -^ They are ufed as well in Peace, 

5. As in War. 

4. Contra&s in laying Wagers. 
f. Contracts in Play. 

6. Of Rafflings. 
J. Of Lotteries. 
8. Of Infurance. 


Of accefjory Bargains, 

I . A Cceffory Contrails of tivo Sorts. 
-> •" Variety of additional Bargains. 


3. An additional Bargain., if it's lewd, is 


4. Sometimes it diforders Buftnefs. 

f. Being prefently added., is valid, if other 
Things agree. 

6. Being added, after fome Time, inthe Nega- 

tive, is liable to an Exception. 

7. Being affirmative, how far it is good. 

8. Of trupng. 

p. A Surety can't be engaged for wore than the 

10. But he may be more fir iSlly bound. 

11. What Advantages the Law allows a 


1 2. Of Bails. 

13. The Ufe of Pawns. 

14. A Pawn is either fruitful., or barren. 

I f . IVhether a Pawn may be gained by Ufe. 
16. What is the Difference between a Mort- 
gage and d Pawn. 


By what Means Obligations 
founded upon Compact may 
be dijjohed. 

Sed;. I. 'T'HE moft natural Way of difohing 
■* an Agreement, is to per form the Thmgs 
agreed on. 

2. M^hat if one pays a Debt for one who knows 

not of it i 

3. To whom we mtifl pay. 

4. What mufl be paid. 

f To whom, and by whom Compenfation may 
be made. 

6. Where it may he ufed. 

7. A Debt is paid by a Releafe. 

8. How an Obligation is made void by a Dip- 

9. The Knavery of one Party frees the other 
from his Obligation. 

10. As alfo a Change of that Condition on 
which the Obligation was founded. 

1 1 . How an Obligation ceafes by Time^ 

1 2. And how by Death, 
1.3. Of Delegation. 
14. Of Confufion. 
If. Of Novation. 

CHAP. xir. 

Of the Interpretation of Com,' 
pads and Laivs. 

Seft. I. ""pHE Reajon of the Order. 

z. ■*■ The Neceffty of a ri^,Jt Interpret a' 

The Words are ordinarily to be under flood 
according to the common Ufige. jind 
4. JVords of Art according to the Art. 
f. ConjeSlure is fufficient, when Words are 

6. Or feem to contradiSi one another. 

7. Conjecture mufl be taken from the Matter 

treated on, 

8. From 


8. From the EfeEl^ or 

p. From the Coherence, Origiml, and Place. 

10. -How the Senfe may be gathered from the 

Re a foil of them. 

1 1 . Some IVords have both a large andjlri£l 


1 2 . Some 'Things are favourable., others odious. 

13. Rules arc to be made from thofe Diflin- 


14. Jn Example of two who came to the 

Goal together. 
If. How this Order is to be interpreted. No 

Man muft wage War without the 

Corlirnand of another. 
\6. Of thefe Words., Carthage fhall be free. 

1 7. A Conjetturc when a Law mufl be enlarged. 

18. Of Tricks to evade a Law. 

ip. A ConjeSiurc when the Law ou^t to be 
refrained upon the Account of fomc 
DefeSl in the Will of the Law-giver. 

zo. {An Obfervation upon this ConjeElure) 

21. Or upon the Account of fome Accident in- 

confiftent with his Will., as where it 
is either unlawful, 

22. Or too grievous in RefpeH: of the Per- 

23* What if two Laws are contrary one to 


Of the Way of deciding Con- 
troverftes in the JJberty of 

Se6t. I. 1J7 HA T is due to others is willingly to 
'' be performed. 
z. In a State of Nature there is no Judge. 

3. Controverfes which can't be decided by 

Conference are to be referred to Arbi- 

4. There is a Covenant between an Arbitrator 

and the contending Parties. 
J". Arbitrators, in a Doubt, are bound to judge 
by Laws. 

6. Arbitrators are not to judge of the Pojfeffwn. 

7. Of the Mediators of a Peace. 

8. What if Deeds be loft. 
p. Of I'FitncJfes. 

10. Of the Execution of the Sentence. 


Of Matrimony. 

Sea. I . HTHE Coherence. 

2. "* Matrimony the Propagation of Man- 

3 . Whether there be an Obligation to marry. 

4. A wandring Lufi oppofite to the Laws of 


f. Mankind not to be propagated but by Mar- 

6. What Obligation may be laid on Men to 

marry by the Laws of Nations. 

7. What it is by the Law of Nature. 

8. How far the Laws of Nations may order 

concerning Marriage. 
p. The diforderly Marriages of z/:;^ A mazons. 

10. The Laws and Rights of a regular Mar- 


1 1 . Whence arifes the Man's Power over the 

i 1. Whether it be bef owed immediately by God. 
I 3 . Whether it necejjarily implies a Power of 

Life and Death. 
14. Whether Confcnt, not Bedding, makes the 

If. No Woman may marry more than one 

1(5. Polygamy in TJfe among many People, 
I J, 18. Whether it be repugnant to the Law 

of Nature. 
I p. The true Nature of Marriage is for one 

Man and one tVoman to be joined to- 

20. // is not lawful rafloly to part Man and 


21. Adultery and wilful Defer tion make a. 

Marriage void. 

22. Whether an intolerable ill Nature is a 

Reafonfor Divorce. 

23. The Opinion of fome Men about the 

Senfe of the Law of God about Di- 

24. Particularly of Mr. Milton. 

If. Marriage requires fuit able Salifications 

of Natures. 
16. An Error concerning Matrimony. 

27. A married Woman can^t rightly marry 


28. Marriages with Kindred, why forbidden ? 
2p. How it comes to pafs that Men are a- 

ftoamed of their Genitals. 

30. Of Nakednefs. 

3 1 . The Original of natural Shame. 

32. Marriages between Parents and Children 

3 } . The Opinion of the Jews about it. 
34. Of the Marriages of Brothers and Sifters. 
3 f. Of the other Degrees forbidden. 
36. Of the fccondary Wives. 

Of Taternal Tower. 

Se£t. I. ^T^HE common Opinion of the Original 
■* of paternal Authority. 

* c 2. Ac 


a. According to Hobbes, the Original Pow- 
er over Children is in the Mother^ 

5 . And from her is derived to others. 

4. On what Reafon paternal Authority is 

y. How far the Father has more Right than 

the Mother. 

6. How great the Poiver of the Father is, as 

fuch, over his Children., 

7. Both in their Infancy and Childhood. 

8. How far Children are capable of being go- 

verned at this 'Time. 
i). Whether a Father may fell his Son. 

10. Of the Obligation of Children made 

1 1 . What Power Fathers have over their 

Children., out of civil Societies. 
I z. What Power in civil Societies. 
1 3. Ho%v this Power is loft. 
14. Whether Children ought to have their 

Parents Confent to their Marriages. 


Of a Majlefs Tower. 

Se<5i:. r. Jf^HA T is the Relation of Mafter and 
^ Servants. 
z. Servitude was not ordained by Nature, 

3. Nor by God immediately. 

4. The Original of Servitude feems to have 

been from Contrast. 
f. War iriade the Number of Servants 

6. What is the Duty of Captives to their 


7. They are almofl of the fame Nature with 

thetr Goods. 

8. Tet an Injury may be done them. 
p. Of the Children of Servants. 

10. The Inconveniences of Servitude. 

1 1 . How many Ways a Servant may become 



Of the Caufes and Mothes in- 
ducing Men to ejtahlifj civil 

Sect. I . T Ntroduclion. 

1. ■*• Man naturally loves himfelf more than 

3. Tet the Love of Company does not im- 
mediately infer the Love of civil So- 

4. Many Fices in Man prejudicial to civil 

J-. Whether civil States arofe in the World 

by natural Confequencc. 

6. Whether Indigence was the Caufe of civil 


7. The true Origin of civil Government. 

8. The bare Reverence of the Law of Nature 

not fufficient to fecure the Peace of 
p. Nor the file Force of Arbitrators ; or Co- 

10. Difference in Opinion greatly prejudicial 

to the Peace of the M^orld. 

1 1 . Men need a much more fevere Reflraint 

than the Law of Nature only. 


Of the inward Stru6ttire 
and Confiitution of civil 

Seft. I . yTf E N only are a fufficient Defence a- 
^^^ gainft 'the Wtckednefs of Men. 
z. To this End it is necejfary that many fljould. 
join together. 

3. Thofe who joined in this Manner ought to 

agree in their Refolutions. 

4. Tlie Difference between the Polities of Bees 

and Men. 
f. An Union of Wills and of Strength nc 
ceffary to a civil State. 

6. This Union produced by intervening Co- 


7. The Jirft Covenant, with the Decree fol- 

lowing upon it. 

8. The fecond Covenant, giving the final Per- 

fe5lion to a civil Eftablifloment . 
p. The Reafon for ivhichHohbeszvill acknow- 
ledge but one Covenant. 

10. This Reafon fufficient. 

11, 12. Vlohhes's Arguments anfwered. 

13. A civil State how defined. 

14. In a Monarchy, the Will of the Prince 

is the Will of the State. 

If. Under other Forms of Government, ac- 
cording to the regular Courfie, the 
Community is concluded by the Fotei 
of the major Part. 

\6. This Rule admits of a Limitation. 

17. Of Equality of Votes. 

18. Of joining, or dividing Suffrages. 

1 9- Hoiv many Per fins at leaft are requiftte 
to a ruling Council. 

20. Civis, 

The C O N T E N T S. 




Civis, or a Member of a civil State., 
"who may p-operly be fo termed. 
Subordinate Bodies., of how many Kinds. 
Invefled 'with -what Rights and Privik' 

Of unlawful Bodies^ and Faciions. 
'the peculiar Duties incumbent oTi the 

Members of civil States. 

14. Grotius among the reft ; -wkofe Opinion 
is particularly dijcujfed. 


Of the Forms of Common- 


Of the TroduUion of chil So- 
vereignty, or Majefiy. 


Sea. I 

sovereignty., the Refult of thofe Cove- 
^ nants by which the publick Body was 
firji united. 
1. ^is done by the divine Will and Appro- 

5. Whether the Majefty of Princes is imme- 

diately derived from GOD. 
4. Ithe Arguments which fome make ufe of to 

prove the Affirmative. 
f. Civil Authority not the EffeB of War. 

6. Whether a Father of a Family may., with- 

out any new y/S, commence a Prince. 

7. How a Vajfal., or Feudatory., may become 

a Sovereign Lord. 

8. Whether a Free State., or a Monarch., re- 

figning their Power into other Hands, 
are the Efficient Caufe of the Sovereignty 
if. WIoo has properly the Power of confer- 
ring the regal T'itle. 


Of the Tarts of Sovereignty 
and their natural Connexion. 


JN what Senfe the fupream Power may 
befaid to confift of Parts. 
"The Icgiflative Power. 
The vindicative Power. 
The judiciary Power. 
The Power of War and Peace^ and of 

making Leagues. 
The Right of appointing Magiftrates. 
The Right of levying Taxes. 
'8. The Right of examining Do£lrines. 
p. Government a more firiSl Obligation than 
bare compact. 

Who may properly befaid to hold a Part 
in the Government. 

The Connexion of Parts in the fupream 
Authority demonftrated, 
IZ. And illuftrated. 
1 3. Many are for dividing thofe Parts. 









I. 'T^HE Accidents of civil States cannot 

■* conflitute a new Species. 
z. Irregular Forms and Syftems of Govern- 

3. The three Forms of regular Govern- 


4. Democracy fccms to be the mofl antient 

f. Democracy no kfs invefted with fupream 
Power., than Monarchy. 

6. Democracy how conftituted. 

7. The ordinary Requiftles of Democracy. 

8. How Ariflocracy is eftahlifloed., 

9. And how Monarchy. 

10. In Bodies politick there may be Vices of 
Men., and Vices of State. 

Yet thef'e compofe not a peculiar Species of 

As neither do the various Accidents of 

Democracies and Ariftocracies. 
Of the mixt Governments propofed by 

modern Authors. 
14. The Nature of irregular States. 




This- irregularity be ft illuftrated by Ex' 

States which admit of Provinces do not 

hence become neceffarily fyftematical. 
Of Syftems., occafioned by a common 

18. Of Syftems., compofed by League and 

Of the Communication of Councils and 

Bufmefs in thefe united Bodies. 
Whether the greater Part ought here to 

conclude the lefs. 
How thefe Syftems are diffolved. 
The fever al Forms of Government com- 


Of the AffeBions., or Troper- 
ties helongtng to Sovereignty. 







Sea. I. 



HO W the ruling Power in a State 
comes to be filed fupream. 
He that is invefled with this Povjer is unac- 
And above human Laws. 
Of the DifiinStion befween real andperfo- 
nal Majefty. 
* c z f. That 


«". j'hat a King may be fiiperior to a whole 

People demonjlrated. 
6. The Arguments to the contrary refuted. 
J. Abfoliite Governments.^ ivhat. 
8. Not occurring alike in all Forms of civil 

5). Limited Governments, hotv occaftoned. 
\o. Founded on 'ivhat 'Covenants. 

11. In isobat 'Refpett the different Parts of 

the Government may be limited. 

1 2. Of the Power of Efiates, Senates, and 


13. Hobbes anfwered. 

14. The various IFays of holding the Sove- 

reign Power. 
If. A temporary Sovereignty, "whether pof~ 

16. Of patrimonial Kingdoms. 

17. Of Kings ajfitmed by the free Act and 

Grant of the People. 


Of the Ways of acquiring So- 
'vereign/f, ejpe daily Monar- 

Se£t. I. nnFIE IFay of acquiring Sovereignty in 
■*• Democratical States is unifortH. 
2. In Ariftocracies and Monarchies, vari' 

5 . Hovj far Government may be feized on by 
jufi Force. 

4. Hoiy far by unjnfi Force. 
f. How a Perfon may be rckafed from the 
Governtnent of another. 

6. Ele&ion of hoiv many Kinds. 

7. Jnter-regnum, ivhat. 

8. And Inrer-rcges. 
p. Hobbes examined. 

10. The Caje of Pollhumous Iffue, in the 

hereditary Line. 

11. Of SucceJJion in a patrimonial King- 


1 2 . Of the fame in Kingdoms ejlablified by 

the free Act of the People ; and this 
either fimply or Hereditary, 

15. Or lineal, ; 

1 4. Or tranfvetfe. 

If. Of the Judge of Controverjies arijing in 
the Cafe vf Succgffon. 


That the fupream Tower is to he 
held [acred in civil States. 

Seft. I. ^T~^H E fupream Power net to be reft fed 
■'■ in laivfnl Commands. 

2. Whether a private Member canfuffer Lu 

jury from the State. 

3. Subjedls very prone to unjuft Complaints 

againfi their Govermurs. 

4. Hoia many Ways a Sovereign may injure 

his Subject. 
f. Whether, in the Cafe of grievous Injury 
and Opprefjlon, a lawful Prince may be 

6. The Name of a Tyrant does not jufiify the 

Ufe vf Violefice in the Subject. 

7. GrotiusV Opinion. 

8. No Princes are to be held facred, but fucb 

as are truly invefitd with Royal Authe- 
p. In "What Cafe an Ufurper may be acknow- 
ledged for a lawful Prince. 
10. Hozv far the Commands of an Ufurper 
oblige the Subjects while their lawful 
Sovereign is alive, though in an Ex- 
iPd Condition. 


Of the 'Duty of Sovereigns. 

Sea. I 





^H E Office and Duty of Sovereigns, 

-*• whence to be difcover'ed. 

The Obligation that Princes have to be well 

inflru&edm it. 
The Peoples Safety is the fupreme Law. 
The SubjeSls Ore to be trained up in good 

Fit Laws ^e tb be enaSled, 
And put in Eaecktion. 
Penalties are to be inflidied with Jujlice 
and Moderation. 
8. T/je Subjetls h^e tbbe veflrained from mu- 
tual Injuries. 
p. An able andhoncJIMinjfiryJs to be -em- 
ptoyed in State Ajff'Aifs.- , "^^'^ 0-* 
Thies are to. he )equally ^ik,\ aSH^htly 

The Wealth of the State is to. be advaxr 
ced. ■ . ■ . ^ 

FaSliofis to be prohibited. 
A fufficient Force to be kept up for the 
oppofing of Foreign Invaders. 





Of the Tower to diredt the A- 
Bions of the SuhjeCt. 

OF the Nature vf divil Laws in gene- 
ral. ' . 
2. Whether a civil Law may eontradi£l the 
natural. . .rj 

I 3. Whc- 


The C O N T E N T S. 

*. IVhethef the Definition of Cmnes is left 
arbitrarily to the Detertnination of the 
civil Law. 

4. Ilje Precepts of the Decalogue whether ci- 
•vil Laws. 

f. Pf^hether any 'Thing jujl antecedently to the 
civil Laws. 

6. Whether a fmful Command of a Supe- 
rior may at any Time be obeyed without 

J. No Sin lawfully committed upon the Com- 
mand of a Superior. 

8. Whether a SubjeSl may lawfully bear 
Arms in an unjuft War^ at the Command 
of his Prince. 


Of the Tower of the So^vereign 
over the Lives of the Suh- 
jeCt for the Defence of the 

Se£t. I. T^HE Sovereign may hazard the Lives 
^ of his Subjects in TFar. 

2. Wloether lawful to refufe bearing Arms 

upon a Compa£l with an Enemy. 

3. No Man to make himfelf unfit to bear 


4. "fhe Obligation of a Soldier^ what. 

f. U^oether the Commonwealth may give up 
an innocent SubjeS. 

6. The Commonwealth may deliver up a Sub- 
ject for an Hojiage. 


Of the Tower of the Sove- 
reign over the Lives and 
Fortunes of the Suhje6i in 
criminal Cafes. 

Seft. I. rr*HE Power of Life and Death whe- 

■^ thcr and how transferred frovn par- 
ticular Men to the Commonwealth. 
z. In a Liberty of Nature no human Pu- 
nifhment : 

3. But only in a Commonwealth . 

4. Punifloment^ what. 

f. Punijlnng^ to wImI Species of Jujlice re- 

6. That one Man jliould puniflo another^ not 


7. The Power of punijliing where lodged. 

8. Human Punifment ought to have fome 


9. The firfl End of Punifment the Amend- 

ment of the Offender. 

10. Whether lawful for any Man to correal 


1 1 . The fecond End of Punifjment^ Cauti- 

on for the injured. 
I z. The third, the general Security. 

13. How far private Men are allowed to in- 

fliSl Punifhmcnt. 

14. What Offences it is needlefs for human 

J u (lice to punifJj. 
If. Wl] ether lawful at any Time to par- 

1 6. How far this is lawful antecedently to 

the penal Law. 

17. How far after It. 

1 8. The ^allty of a Crime to be eflimated 

from the Object of it. 
I p. And from the Paffion that gave the Im- 
pulfe \ 

20. And from the Force of the Inclination 

and Intention ; 

21. And from the Objlinacy and Refolutlon 

of the Criminal j 

22. And laflly from Cuftom and Habit . 

23. What to be regarded in determining the 

^antlty of the Punlfloment. 

24. The Meafure of Punif.oments.^ what. 
zy. In Punlfljmeut the Perfon of the Sufferer 

to be regarded. 

26. The Jewifli Law whether an univerfal 

adequate Meafure of Punifliment. 

27. Of Retaliation. 

28. A Corporation or Community.^ how pu- 

25?. Tloe Crimes of Corporations wear out in 
Courfe of Time. 

30. Every fatal Evil not an human Punifh- 


31. Difference between Damage fuffered di- 

reSlly and by Confequcnce. 

32. Difference between the Occafton and the 

Caufe of Evil. 
3 3 . No Man to be puniflied for another'' s 


Cf the Tower of the Sovereign 
in determining the lvalue of 
the Subjects. 

Sect. 1 . 17 Steem defined and divided. 



Simple Efieem natural. 

3 . Which may be either entire , 

4. Or impaired.^ 
f. Or utterly loft. 

6. Simple Efieem civil leffened, or lofi, either 
from a certain State, 

7. Or 


■jf. O/" upon a criminal Jccoiint. 

8. No Dijloonour to rcfttfe to engage in a Du- 
el when the Laws forbid it. 

p. Simple Efteem not dependent upon the Plea- 
fure of the Government^ 

10. Nor to be facrificed for it. 

1 1 . Intenffve EJleem : 

I z. 'the Foundations of it. 

13. Whether Power the file Foundation of 


14. uin Aptitude only for Honour the Refult 

of thofe Foundations. 
If. What Perfons have a Right of Prece- 
dence to others. 

1 6. Arguments upon which Precedence is pre- 

tended to. 

17. That of Antiquity examined. 

18. I p. That of Power, of its Quality ^ and 

of Titles. 
io. One Sovereign Prince not obliged to yield 

the Precedence io another. 
11. How f tech Princes might meet, without 

any Difpute for Places. 
7.1. Of Order between Equals. 

23. The Poiver of appointing the Order of 

the Subjetts lodged in the Sovereign. 

24. StibjeSis of different Commonwealths, 

how compared. 
Zf. Nobility of Birth not from Nature : 
z6. But from the Inflitution of Common- 
wealths i 

27. Ufually is, and ought to be founded upon 


28. T'he Nature of the Roman Nobility in 

the carliefl of Times. 
19- Offices born in the State, the Meafure 
of it afterwards. 

30. What the Nature of the modern Nobili- 

ty in the greatefl Part of Europe. 

3 1 . Nobility of Blood little regarded infome 


32. How far civil Honours depend upon the 



Of the Tower of the Sovereign, 
both over the publick Tatrimo- 
ny, and the Eflates of private 

Seft. I. TT/'HJT Power the Prince hath over 
the Goods of the Commonwealth, 
where the Kingdom is his Patri- 
Z. The SubjeEls do not every where owe the 
Propriety of their Eflates to the Common- 

3. The Sovereign may make Laws to Jire& 

the Subjects in the Ufe of their Goods and 

4. And alfo impofe Taxes upon them. 

f. What to be obferved in the Impofttion of 

6. And other "Taxes. 

7. Of the Sovereign or tranfcendental Pro- 


8. H'loat Power the Prince hath over the 

Goods that belong to the Commonwealth 
as fuch. 

p. Of the Alienation of the Kingdom, or any 
Part of it. 

10. A Prince cannot make his Kingdom a 

Fief, or mortgage it, without the Con- 
fent of his People : 

1 1 . Nor alienate any Thing incorporated in 

the Crown. 


Of the Right of War. 

Seft. I. 'T^HE t>ivifton of what follows in the 


z. Peace the ordinary proper State of Man; 

War extraordinarily induked by Nat 

fare. ^ 

3. War either offenfive or defenfive. 

4. "The Catifes of War ought to be mamfeli 
f . The unjuji Caiifes of War recounted. 

6. Fraud lawful againfl an Enemy. 

7. How far Violence may be lawfully ufed «- 

gamfl an Enemy. 

8. In a Commonwealth particular private 

Men lofe their Right of War. 
p. War either folemn, or lefs filem'n. 

10. AMagiflrate as fuch hath no Right to 

make War. 

1 1 . Whether he may make War upon a Pre-, 

fiimption of his Prince's Confent. 

12. How far an Injury, done by a SubjeSI, 

may give Reafon for a War a^ainff 

the Commonwealth. 
II- Of the Equity of Reprizals. 
14. For whom we mayjuflly make War. 
If. Of the Declaration of War. 

16. Of the Liberties commonly ufed in War. 

17. Of the Liberties ufed upon the Per fin of 

an Enemy. 

1 8. Whether lawful to kill an Enemy by AC- 

faffinesi ■> J J 

ip. Things facred not exempt from the Liber- 

ties of War. 
%0. Things how acquired in War. 
Zi. To whom the Acquifitions of War he- 

ZZ. Thingt 

The C O N T E N T S. 

2i. Things incorporeal, hoiu far acquired in 

ij. A Loan, whether acquirable in W^ar. 
24. Dominion over the Conquered, how ma- 

tiy Ways acquired. 
Zf. Things loft in IVar, how recovered. 
z6. JVhole Nations, how reftored to Liber- 

4. The Term limited for the Performance of 
the Condition of Peace, to h ft nelly 

f. How if Peace be referred to the Decifton 
of the Sword. 

6. Jn Hojlage fucceeding his Prince can be no 

longer detained. 

7. Of the Mediators of Peace. 


Of Compacts that relate to 

Se£b. I . 'T' H E Divifion of CompaSis that pre- 
-* fuppofe War. 
2. Compa£ls that have no Tendency to remove 

the War, whether valid. 
^. A Truce, what. 
4. Of the Duration of Truces. 
f. A Truce leaves the Difpute the M'^ar be- 
gan upon undecided. 

6. No Need of a new Declaration of U^ar 

when the Truce expires. 

7. Truces contracted and made by exprefs Com- 


8. Of the Beginning and End of Truces. 
S>. The Subje£l when obliged by Truces. 

10. What Liberties aT'ruce allows, and what 


11. Whether a Man taken in an Enemfs 

Country, and forcibly detained, may 
be kept Prifoner after the Truce is ex- 
iz. What enfues upon Fiolation of the 

13. Of Compacts that relate to fafe Con- 


14. Of the Redemption of Captives. 
If. Of the Compafls of Generals. 

16. Of the CompaSis of private Perfons in 

C H A p. VIII. 

Of Compacts that reflore 

Se£l:. I . T/7 Hcther CompaSls of Peace are inva- 
'^ lidated by an Exception of Fear, 
z. Whether a Peace made with Rebels is 

3. How far, upon a Pacification, the Goods 
of p-ivate Subjects may be excufed. 


Of Leagues. 

Se£l. I. ^HE Divifton of Leagues. 

2. ■* Leagues that eftablifto nothing but 

what was due by the Laws of Na- 

3. Equal Leagues which, and what Sorts of 


4. Of unequal Leagues. 

J. Of two Confederates which a third ought 
to afjift. 

6. Leagues real, or perfonal, 

7. Which may be diftinguiftjed either by par- 


8. Or general Marks. 

p. Whether exiled and depofed Princes can 
have the Benefit of their Leagues. 

10. Future Allies, whether comprehended un- 

der the Name of Allies in general. 

1 1 . Leagues not to befuppofed to be tacitly re- 


12. What Obligations lie upon the Engagers, 

when their Engagements are not own- 
ed and confirmed. 
1 1. An Engagement whether ratified by the 
Silence of the Sovereign. 


Tromifcuous Compacts of Sove- 
reign Trinces. 

Sea. I. nnHE Divifton of the Chapter. 

2. ■* How far a Prince may reft ore him- 

felf to his Right, when injured in 
Compa£l by a Foreigner. 

3. How far, when by his own SubJeSIs. 

4. The Contra&s of Princes, how far exemp- 

ted from the Civil Laws. 
f . A Prince cannot difpenfe with any valid 

Oath he hath taken. 
6. How far a SubjeSl may have an A6tion 

againft his Prince upon Matter of 


7. The 



. The ContrclBs of the SubjeSl liable to be 
over-ruled by the tranfcendental Pro- 

. How far Succejfors are obliged by the Con- 
tr.z5ls of their Predecejfors. 

. The Grants and Donations of Princes 
ivhether revocable. 


How Subjection ceafes. 

■ . A Man ceafes to be a Subject ivhen his 

-^ Prince dies without a Succeffor : 
z. Or, if he removes out of the Common- 

3. What to be ohferved infmh a Remove. 

4. Whether lawful to remove in great Com- 

J". Whether lawful to counterfeit a Refuge. 

6. Whether the Common-wealth may ejeH a 

SubjeEl when over-powered by an E- 

7. Of Punifhment. 

8. A Man is dep-ived of the Privileges of a 

Subject when over-powered by an E- 

9. Whether a SubjSl furrendered to an Ene- 
my, and not accepted, continues a 
Member of the Common-wealth. 


Of the Changes and "DiJJolution 
of a Common-wealth. 

Se£t. I . 'T>H E People continue the fame, though 
* the Form of the Common-wealth be 


2. The Debts of the Common-wealth not dif- 

charged by a Change in the Form 
of it. 

3. The jas of an Ufurper how far valid af- 

ter his Government is expired. 

4. What Place a Common-wealth may chal- 

lenge after a Change in it. 
f. One Common-wealth may divide into more: 

6. More may unite into one. 

7. The People how eternal f 

8. How the Materiale of the People may be 


9. How the Formule. 

O F 

An Hiftorical and Critical 




And the Progress it has made in the World, from the 
earlieft Times down to the PubHcation of 


O F T H E 

Law of Nature and Nations: 

In a Prefatory Discourse to the faid Work, by 

Mr. BARBEVRAC, Profeffor in Law, &c: 

Now done into Enghfli from the French of the Author; 
Together with the Authorities and Notes in the Margin, 

By Mr. CAREW of Lincolns-Inn. 


Triiited for J. Walthoe, R. Wilkin, J. and J. Bonvvicke, S. Birt, 
T. Ward, and T. Osborn. Mdccxxix. 

The Reader is dejir'd to make the CorreffioJis follo'-Ji.'hg. 

PAG. 5, Col.z, Lin. 31, Precepts of Morality, r. the 
Precepts of Sec. 
P. 6, col. 1,1. I, difficult to be rightly conftituted ; r. hard 
to fettle, 

liJd. col. 2, /. 52, 53, fometimes interfere ; and Charity 
and Juftice be often found &c. r. often interfere; and Charity 
and Juftice be found &c. 

P. 7, col. 2, I. 4, a fine, or great Inconvenience, r. or In- 

Ibid. col. 2. I. 46, permitted, r. allowable 
P. 8, col. I , /. 2 1 , do not proceed, r. proceed not 
Ibid. col. I, /. 47, Services, not hurtful to himfelf, that he 
can do him, r. Ser\'ice5, that he can without prejudice do him. 
Ibid. col. 2, I. 8, are not yet born, r. are yet unborn ? 
Ibid. I. J 6, not perhaps be very difficult, r. perhaps be not 
very S;c. 

P. 10, ccl. I, /.45.,44, purpofeto anfwer &c. r. propos'd to 
anfwer briefly. 
Ibid. col. 2, /. 1 4, <2 fine, Reafon. r. Reafon ? 
P.w, col. I , /. 13, them. r. thenj ? 
Ibid. col. \, l.\j, carry 'don beyond, r. carry'd far beyond 
Ibid. col. 2, /. 5, philofophifing, r. philofophizing j 

Ibid. col. 2, /. 1 2, isfc. Reafons which he alledges, a 

little cannot refufe to ■ them. r. Reafons he al- 

ledgef, —• the leaft cannot but their cogency. 

Ibid. col. 2, /. 19, to confirm themfelves, r. to be confirm'd 
Ibid. /. 9, 10, a fine, chiefly maintain &c. r. pcrtinacioufly 
infift upon &c. 
P. 1 2, col. 2, /. 4, Profit, r. Benefit 
i'. 1 3, col. I , /. 44, ^^ hereas, r. nay 
Ibid. col. 2, I. 41, conufs'd, r. confus'd, 
P. 14, col. I, /. I, writing, r. writings 
Ibid. col. I, A 9, 10, a fine, as well as &c. r. both 

- and &c. 

Ibid. col. 2, /. 10, a fine, r. Obligation, and Right, 
P. 15, col. 2, I. 8, a fine, abufe ; r. abufe, &c. 
P. 16, col. I, /. 6, worfliip; r. worfliip, 
P. 17, Not. k, Idolatry, r. Idolatry, c. 10, 5. i-, 2'. 
P. 19, col. 2, /. 30, guilty; ''■ guilty: 
P. 20, /. 16, a fine, conie fhort r. fail 
P. 25, «/. 2, /. 44, fome time, r. fometimes 
P. 26, <■»/. I, A 3, r. Accounts, cou'd /i.V. col. 2, /. 10, 
r. Opinion 

P. 27, «/. I, AS, it fclf In vain, r. it felf: in vain 
Ibia. An, Refleftions. In vain r. Refledions : in vain 
Ibid. A 29, to fuch, as have no better to make ufe of; ha- 
ving &c. r. to fuch, as have no better; having iVc. 

P. 39, col. 2, 1. 37, 38, to do with a Whore, r. Commerce 
with a Courtezan, 

P. 46, col. I , S(V7. 1 7, A 7, I.acedremon, r. Lacederaon. 

P. 50, col. 2,1. 3, which proceeded no farther than, r. whigh 
pr ocecded not beyond 

Ibid. col. 2, A 7, 8, a Spirit of Diffidence, r. a Spirit of Scepti- 
cilm and Sufpence 

Ibid. col. 2, A 1 1, 12, was good, r. was a real Good, a/ij 
dele, or. 

P. 52, col. I, A 13, does, I may fay, r. does, as I may fay, 

P. 53, col.z, I. 15, always fhunn'd it, r. ever fhunn'd it, ' 

P. 55, col. 1, A 25, Right; r. Law, 

P. 57, <-«A I, /. 1, Scholar, r. Difciple 

Ibid. I. 13, r. a fpice of &c. 

P 58, col. I, A 9, ^ fine. Cafes always r. Cafeswou'd always 

P. 66, col. 2, A 30, incertainty, r. uncertaintv, 

P. 68, <-(!A 2, A 8, 9, 10, will ftill nevcrthelefs be Src. r. will 
ftill be never a jot the lefs an Atheill for all that ; as long as it 
appears, that &c. 

Ibid. col. 2, A 27, Charafter, r. Name 

P. 69, col. 2, I. 27, 28, his Reafon he us'd; r. the Reafon 
he us'd, 

Ibid. col. 2, A3;, dele too 

P. 72, col. I, A 13. defac'd ; r. disfigur'd 

Ibid. col. 2, I. a fine ^, Profit, r. Intcreft 

P. 74, col. I , A 1 , devefted of r. ftripp'd of 

Ibid. col. 2, A 34, examine, r. examine at prefent, 

P. 75, col. I , A 9, concife and rough Stile ; )•. concifeand 
difficult Stile, 

Ibid. col. I, I. from the bottom 5, form'd; r. cull'd 

Ibid col. 2, A ult. We there .alfo find fome Dccifions ; r. Wc 
find alfo fome of his Decifions &c. 

/». 76, col. I, A 15, the Ufefulnefs of Religion in Civil 
Societies ; t. the Importance of Religion to Civil Society. 
Ibid. A 24, approve of them ; r. concur with him: 
Ibid. I. 47 , thit are moft ufeful to my defign ; r. that fceil 
fit my turn. 

Ibid. col. 2, A 13, begin firft v/ith that; r. begin with that 

Ibid. I. 20, Argumentation, r. Argumentations 
Ibid. A 22, Heait of doubt; r. Heart of the Doubt; 

Ibid. I 24,25, Schools the Bir, or the Pulpit; r. Schools 
and the Bar ; or for the Pulpit, where ilc. 

Ibid. col. 2, /. 27, It is ; r. It may be 
P 86, ccl. I, A 7, 8, afiuiSi. Attention, that we ought 
to have for, r. Attention, vc ?rc tc bellow &c. 

P.8j, ccl. I, A 12, faculty of &c. r. Faculty too of &-c. 
Ibid. I. 8, a fine. Habits and Cuftoms &c. V. Habit and 

m^j^^/s^^^/ ii#® iii^f^® i| 

i*m^ ^n 




H E Science of Morality is 3dly, Of thofe Falfe Teachers who fprung 
'with'm the Reach of the inofl »p even in the Days of Jesus Christ, 
ordhiary Ca^acn'ies. Pag. i and his Apoftles. 17 


If capable cf Demon ftration. 



2 4thly, Of the Fathers of the Church, and 
other Chr'ijiiafi Do£fon,fro?n the Death of 
thofe who were the immediate Succefprs of 
the JpofileSj down to the Reformation. 1 S 


The j4t2/wer to an Ohje^iioVy drawn from the 
Difficulties that arife in deciding certain 
'§lueJlions of Morality y and reconciling fomc 
cf its Principles. i fVhether a jufi Cenfure oj the Fathcrs,fli9f i any 

■way affSthe Chrijilan Religion itftlf. a j 


S E C T. XL 

The 'Examination of another Objection, drawn 
from the great Dtverfity of Opinions a- ithly, Of the Proteftant Ecclefiafticfcs and 
mongft Men, upon the SubjeB cf Virtue and Divines. 35 

Vice. "10 


General Reafonsy why Morality is bat little 
known and cultivated among the Genera- 
lity of Mankind. 1 3 


The extreme Negligence of the Publick Mi- 
nifters of Religion in ft tidying, and teach- 
ing, in due manner, a Science fo important 
in itfelf andfo agreeable to their FunBion. 
^roof thereof, from the ConduB, ift, Of 
the Priefts of Paganilin. 1 4 


Jn JccoHHt of the '^rogrefs Morality has 
made in the Hands of the Laity ; from 
whom it appears to have receiv d much *" 
greater Improvements, than from the -Pub-^ 
lirk Minifiers of Religion. The Morals of 
the E^^eia Nations j and ift, Of the Chal- 
deans. 3^ 


adly, Of the Egyptians. 



adly, Of the Jewifli Dodors. 


Of the Perfians. 59 




3dly, Of the Indians, and Chinefe. 


44 Of the Academicks of the New or Middle 
Academy^ and of theVynhom^s. 66 



The Morality of the moji ancient Greeks ; 

efpec'ially their Poets. 4i Of Epicurus. 




Of Thales, one of their Seven Wife Men ; Of the Stoicks. 
and Founder of the lonick Sed. 4^ 


A fhort V'le'W of the Moral 'T'rinciples of the 

mofi celebrated '^hilofjphers. The Sent'i- 

" ments of Pythagoras, Founder of the Ita- 

lick Sed. 47 



j4 'Judgment on the Moral Tra&s of Cicero, 
Plutarch, Seneca, Epidetus, and Marcus 
Antoninus. Hozv Morality has been treat- 
ed by the Roman Civilians, Schoolmen, 
and modern Cafuifts. 75 


O/Anaxagoras, ^;?^ Archelaiis. 


Of Socrates. 


45> Of the moJi celebrated Moral Writers of the 

Seventeenth Century^ ( when Morality was 

much improv'd beyond what it had ever 

heen before^ and reduc'd into a Syftetn \ ) 

ftich as Melanchthon, Winckler, Grotius, 

50 Selden. 7^ 


0/ Plato, Founder of the Old Academy. 52 0/Pufendoif. 




Of the CynkkSjwho/e ill-grounded, hut fubtle Jn Idea of the jufl Value of the Work of 

KeaJbningSyfor their Contempt of the com- Pufendorf, here tranjlated. A Comparifon 

nwn Rules of Decency and Modejly, are of his Syjlem with that of Gxoims. 83 
examined. sy 



Of the Cyrena'icks, or Cyrenians. S9 ^^ what fort of ^^erfons more particularly the 

Tranjlation of Vufendox^ tnay be uj'eful. The 
NcceJJity ofjoyning the reading of Works of 
this Naturey with the Study of the GoJ- 
fel. S<:^ 

0/'Ariftotle,F!5««</^/'o/^?^fPeripateticks. <^o 



An Hiftorical and Critical 



Science of Morality^ <Scc 







E E I N G ^ the fpeculative Sci" 
enceSy if confider''d in^ and for 
themfdvcs only^ are all of ''em ufe- 
lefs j and feeing the Purfuit of fuch 
Objefts cou'd never be the End, 
for which Man was created •■, it 
ought not to fccm ftrange to any, if the Genera- 
lity of Mankind iTiou'd be found incapable of ap- 
plying themfclvcs to this fort of Science with any 
tolerable Succefs j and a very great Part not able 
even to comprehend its firll Rudiments : But it 
wou'd be juft Caufe of Wonder, fhou'd the Practi- 
cal Science of *" Moral Aftions not be attainable, 
to a competent Degree at Icaft, by all who will 
make ufe of their Reafon, in whatfoever State 
and Condition they are found to be. 

And really, none can rcafonably doubt, but that 
' ev^ery Man, who will be happy, muit needs, in 
order to make himfelf fo, regulate his Condu6l 
after fomc certain manner •■, and that God, as 
Author and Parent of all human Race, does pre- 

fcribe to all Men, without exception, the Duties, 
which tend to procure them that Happinefs, which 
they fo paflionately feek after. Now from hence 
it neceffarily follows, that the natural Principles 
of this Science, are fuch as may be eafily dilco- 
ver'd } and fuch too, as are proportionate to the 
Capacities of all fort of Perfons : So that to be 
inftrufted in this Science, there will be no oc- 
cafion to mount up to Heaven •■, or to have from 
thence any extraordinary Revelation for that piir- 
pofe. An antient Doftor of the Church has made 
ufe ^ of this Reafon, to iliew the Injuftice and 
Vanity of the greatell Part of the Heathen Phi- 
lofophersj who pretended that Philofophy, with- 
out excepting the nobleft Part of it, even that 
which concerns Morality j was not but for the 
fmall Number of thofc, who were the ini- 
tiated, and profefs'd Difciples thereof: And it 
mult be own'd, to the Eternal Glory of the Su- 
pretne Legidator of Mankind > as well as to the 
Utter Contufion of themfclvesj that none can com- 

» See The Art of Thinking, Difcouru; I, p. 2-. Edit. Amfterd. 16S5, and 1697. 

'' I mean hy this, and the Term Morality, not only what is commonly io calPd ; but alfo The Lam ofNnturf, and Politicks: 
In a word, .ill that it is necclTary for the Conduft of a Man's Self, according to his Eftate and Condition. 
■^ Hoc opus, hoc fliuiium parz'i propcrcmui £5' ampli. 
Si patriae vohtmus, ft nobis vivere cari. Hor. lib. i. Epift. 3, 28, 29. 

Id, quod aquc paupcril^us prodcj}, locuphtibus isqu'e ; 

^quc Jicgletlum puCris fenihufque nocchit. Idem ibid. Epift. i, 24, l^ feq. 
' 'Non eft ergo fapicntia, ft ttb hominum ccetu abhorret ; qiioniam, ft fapientia htunini data eft,fir.e ulh difcrim-ne omnibus data- 
ej! ; ut nemo ft prorfus, qui earn capere von pojjit. At illi \?hihfoph'{\ virtutem humano generi data:nfic amplexantur, ut foli 
iimnium publico bonofrui velle 'jideantur ; tain 'ini'idi, quatii fi velirtt deligare oculos, aiit effodere cateris, nefolcm -jideant — !^oi 
ft natura hominis fapientia capax eft ; oportait opifices, £3" rufticos, £3' mulicres, (s omnes deniq:tc qui humnnam foimaT. geritnt, 
dcceri, tit Japiiini ; populmnque ex omni lingua, IS conditiorc, ij fexu, l^ ^tate conflari. Maximuri itaque argum.'ntwn eft, 
PhiloJ'jphiam ncque ad fapientlam tendere, neqtie ipfam ef'e fapientiam ; quod 7/iyfterium ejus baria tantum cclebraiur (^ pallia. 

Ladant. Inftit. Divin. Lib. 3, c. 25, Num. a 6. Edit. 

[AJ plai.n. 

2 An Hijiorical and Critical Account 

plain, without Injuftice, that God has given him a JImme for PJjilofophers to doubt of a Truths of 

Laws, either imprafticable j or environ'd with 'which even Peafants make no doubt ? iVitncfi that 

fuch Obfcurity, as cannot be penetrated by one Sayings -which is commonly made ufe of, when we de- 

who really has his Duty at heart, notwithftanding fcribe a Man of Integrity ; That he is a Man, with 

nil his Pains and Application. This the wifell whom one may play * at Mora in the dark : For 

Heathens have acknowledg'd ; nor will it be im- Hwas the Peafants who invented that old Proverb. 
proper here to produce their Teftimonies j to But tho' none had ever yet difcover'd in the 

confound thofe, who, under Chriftianity itfelf, Principles and Rules of Morality, fo high a De- 

feem to call in queftion fo inconteftable a Tmth. gree of Evidence, and that they are fo duly ad- 

The 5'/ozV/('.r, who made Morality their principal jufted to all Capacities > one might ftill appeal 

Study, maintain'd, that their Philofophy was not in this Matter to the very Nature of the Thing 

above the Reach of ^ Women and Slaves ; and itfelf j and in fome meafure to Experience. We 

that, as the way to Virtue lies, open to all Men have here no Bufinefs to dive down into the im- 

without Diftin£tion; "^ fo there is no Eftate or penetrable Secrets of Nature, to difcover thofe 

Condition with peculiar Privileges exclufive of imperceptible Springs, that produce in the World 

others, as to the Faculty of knowing the Princi- fo many Phaenomena, and fuch variety of wonder- 

plcs and Rules, as well of thofe Duties which are ful Events; to meafure the Magnitude and Diltance 

common to all, as of thofe which belong to each of the Stars; to rake up the Entrails of the Earth, 

Particular. Is ^ it fo, (faid anErrtperour and Phi- and dig down to its very Center; t no more have 

lofopher of the fame Seel ) that you cannot recom- we here any occafion to bury ourielves in meta- 

mend your felf, and raife a CharaBer by the Delicacy phyfical Speculations; to turn over a vafl Num- 

of your Wit, and the Finenefs of your Underftand- ber of Volumes; to learn feveral Languages; to 

ing? Fery well. But there are many other 'Things, pierce thro' the Darknefs of remote Antiquity > 

as to any of which you cannot fay, I am not fit for in a word, to be very learned : We fhall fcarce 

it. Put inpraHice them, and fliew forth what does have occafion to cany our Thoughts beyond our- 

entirely depend on your felf; Sincerity, Gravity, Hu- felves||, or coni'ult any other Mafler befides our 

Tnanity, Laborioufnefs and Indnjiry, Contempt of own Heart. The moft common ' Experience of 

Foluptmufnefs. Be content with thy Condition -j Life; and a little Refleftion on ourfelves, and the 

fland in need but of a little ; avoid Luxury, trifling Ob jefts that furround us on every Side; are fuffi- 

jlmufements, and vain Difcourfes. Have a Soul ju- cient to furnifh even the moft ordinary Capaci- 

dicious, free, and great. Don't you fee, that, being ties with general Ideas of the Law of Nature j 

able to raife yourfelf by fo many Firtues, without and the true Grounds of all our moral Duties. 

having any pretence on the Account of natural hica- Who does but ever fo little examine his ownNa- 

pacity ; you ftill continue in the Mire, only becaufe ture ; and contemplate that wonderful Order of 

you will? Ever bear in mind,that all the Happincfs the Univerle, which on all fides prefcnts itfelf to 

of this Life depends on but very few 7'hings. Becaufe the View of every one capable of any Degree 

you defpair of being eminent in Logic, or Natural of Reflcftion ; will immediately be rais'd to the 

Philofophy; will you give over all Thoughts of Knowledge of that Almighty, All-wife, and 

heing free, fociable, and fubmiffive to the Orders of All-good Creator, in wJmn we ^ live, and 

God? Another i?5;7?«7; Philofophcr, moft illuftri- move, and have our Being; to whom too, he 

oufly eminent on account of his Eloquence and will find he owes Homage with all the reft of the 

Employs in the Government, had faid long be- Univerfe. Whence it is eafy to conclude, that 

fore, (being to confirm this Propofition; That a we ought to have the higheft Idea of this Supreme 

good Man will never think thatufeful or profita- Being, that our Minds are capable of receiving j 

ble,that is not honeft; and that he will never do^ and to obey his Laws, as far as we cati attain to the 

or even think of doing any thing, that he dares Knowledge of them. After this, there will be no 

not boldly difcover to all the World : ) "^ Is it not great need of much Penetration, to perceive how 

"= Srnfcrunt hoc adeo Stoici, qui IS fervis, £s? muHertbus fhilofophandum ejfe dixerunt. Idem ibid. Num. 7. 

f l^on omnes curia admit tit : caflra quoque, quos ad laborem Uf periculum recipiunt, fajlidiofe legunt : Bona mens tmnibus patet i ad hoc fumus7uhiles. Nee rejicit qusmquamPhilofophie, tie: digit : omnibus lucet. Senec. Epift. 4.4-. Nulli praclufa vir- 
tus eji; omnibuf patet, omnes admit'it, cn:nes inz'itat, ingenues, libertinos, fervos, regcs, isf exfules. Non eligit domum, nee 
cenfiim; nudo homine contenta eft. Idem, de Benefic. ]. 3, c. 18-. Cicero alfo fays, that there is not any Perfon, of what Na- 
tion foever he be, but may arrive at Virtue, provided he will take Nature for his Guide. Nee eft quijquam gentis ullius, qui, 
ducem nattiram naBus, ad virtutem pervcnire non pofftt. De Leg. 1. i, c. 10.- 

etwip oAa tr; c* aniy -n a.' y.'tQ J iihtv, 70 amih, 70 ^ifiTnivov, -ri tL<piKriJhvov, ti diuy.'l'ifMiefV, tb oA/jucAif, Ti c/juiVi<, t^ 
i'u^C"'' "fo 'et-j'ieicjtt'y -ri dipfii'ct^ti; to ixcyi.f.c7ov. 'Ot/« tt/<5aV«, m<m liiA! aaf e;^<9K/ Jiiva./^©-, ip uv ouj^f/ia^ ti(pvia.( 
^ jtVeOTw/ttOTOT©- •sre/paOTf, ofiui %v yJ.Tt» f^uaf }x^V, Marc. Antonin. I.5, c. 5." K«i '4v 'iKtjyis (ixi^vnm cCfi),^ on If 
cA/;<5T'f y.ciitti 7B ivJii,ifMvci!( ^tuav.1' i^ /m! 077 ttTi'ihmcuf A/«A€X77x3f 1^ ^v^x-oi 'ioiStai, tho. tdCto ttTwyptof x^ SAoStf®", 
;C) eiiJ'-.i/M/ii', £i yxivmixify Jti ivjei^f 0ia. Idem, Lib. 7, Seft. 67,- Edit. Gataker. 

, •> Ha-c nonne eft turfe dubiiare Philofophos, qua ne rtiftici quidem dubitcnt ? A quibus natum f/? id, quod jam tritum eft ve- 
tuftate proz'crbium . cum enim fidcm alicujus bonitatemque laudant ; dignum ejfte dicunt, qu'icum in tepebris mices. Hoc quam 
habet vim, nifi iUani, nihil expedire, quod non deceat ; etiam ft id poftis, nullo refellente, obtinere? Cicer. de Offic. /. 3, c. 19.- 
See alfo Grotius, De J. B. ac Pads, Prolegom. §. 39." 

. * Digit is Micare ; to play at Mora ; i.e. to guefs on a fuddtn, how many Fingers the Perfon againft wham one pi lys, holds 
up or down ; by which Play the Antients bought and fold many Things ; as we may by drawing Cuts ; and Crofs or Pile. 
-f- Sec LaBant. Inft. 1. 3, c. 25, Num. 9," 4^ ftq. 

II Eft profeBo animi medicina, Philofophia ; cujus auxilium non, ut in cor forts morbis, petendtm eft firis. Cicer. Tufcul. 
Qiixft. /. 3, c. 3-- 

'In ilia priori parte \_Philofophia natura/i] ut periculi minus, {ft quid fuerit erratumi ita plus difticultatis eft ; quod obftura 
rerum ratio cogit di-jcrfa, (sf varia ftntire; hic {in philofophia moralil ut periculi plus, ita minus diffieuhatis ; quod ipfe uj'us re- 
rum, is quotidiana experimenta pojfunt docere, quid ftt verius, Q melius. Laftant. Inftit. Divin. I. 3, e. 7, Num. 4. 
Edit. Cellar. 
I' y^'7rxvii, 28. 

4 ^°^ 

of the Science of Morality. o 

God has, by a natural Refult from the Conftitu- Actions, that they look on fuch Prafticcs to be 
tion of Human Affairs, put us under a Neceflity evil * ; and that they underftand veiy well, that 
of praftifing, one towards another, certain Du- they are forbid them, not purely thro' Caprice 
ties, without which Society cou'd not be main- ora miftaken Notion of Juftice and publickGood' 
tain'd; and how he has thereby laid upon us an but for moll: ftrong and equitable Reafons. Every 

one will complain, if he is flandcr'd, or rnbh'rl 

indifpcnfable Obligation to obferve thofe Duties j 
every one according to his State and Vocation. 
This is certain at Icail, that no fooner are thofe 
Principles propos'd, but that eveiy one becomes 
fenfible of their Goodnefs, and finds himfclf clearly 
convinc'd of their Truth; provided he be not the 
Slave of fomc violent Paffion, that darkens and 
clouds his Judgment; or that there be not fome 
other Obftacle to hinder and divert his Attention. 
Let us here add theTeftimony of a Heathen Phi- 
lofopher ; 'tis the celebrated Confucius of China '. 
The Rule of Re a [on ^ lays he, ivhich comprehends the 
reciprooal Duties of a King and his SuhjeEls ; a Fa- 
ther and Mother^ and their Children ; of Husband 

plam. It ne is ilandcr'd, or robb'd' 
or ill treated in his own, or in the Peifon of thofe 
who are dear to him; or in any other manner what- 
foever: The moft ftupid have thenunderftanding 
enough to reprefent livelily in their way, the Great- 
nefs of the InjulHce; and the Punifhment due to 
the Offender. Therefore, when they themfelves 
commit any thing of the like Nature againll 
others, it is doing them no wrong to condemn 
them by their own Judgment ; and to look on 
their Ignorance, in which they may pretend to 
have been on that Head, as altogether inexcufi- 
ble. But what is much more confiderable, they 
can, not only comprehend and difcoverwith little 

and Wife; of the young Folks, and the Aged-, of trouble the Fundamental Principles of Morality} 

Friends, and all ivhn have any Correfpondence or 
hnercourfc '■xith one another, is not above the reach 
of the Vulgar. IVhereas the Maxims "dihich cer- 
tain People have themfelves invented, or vuhich they 
ivoii'd have pafs for fublinie, and above our Compre- 
henfion; fuch as are certain firange and abfirufe Prin- 
ciples, and ivhich have no Relation to thofe five forts 
of Perfons before-mentiond; cannot beat all reckon' d 
among the Rules of Reafon. Thus this wife Chi- 
ncCe exprcffes himfclf, being to explain a Maxim, 
which he is endeavouring to fct in its full Light, 
in order to prove, that 'tis eafy for all the World 
to be virtuous ; 'tis the fime Maxim which the 
Gofpel fo much inculcates : Do not that to others^ 
•which you wou'd not have done to yourfelf. And in 
vcrv deed, there needs no more, to be convinc'd 

but bcfidcs, wou'd they but ufe their utmoft En- 
deavours to augment their fmall Stock of Know- 
ledge; they might, without much Difficulty, draw 
from thence certain Confequences, and extend 
their Knowledge to a Competency confiderable 
enough; at leallfufficient for their Condition. In- 
ftances too of this kind we often meet with in 
fome of this foit of People ; who plainlv fhew, 
both by their Difcourfe and by their Conduft j 
that they are neither fhort, nor 


in their 

Ideas concerning Morahty ; altho' they may not 
be always able to explain full)'^,ortoexprefs clearly 
the Whole of what they think. The Conduct and 
Intentions of Peafants, ''' (tl^s Montagne, I have ge- 
nerally obferv''d to be more agreeable to the Prefcrip- 
tion of true Philofophy, than thofe of our Philofo- 

th It the moll: ignorant are by Reafon perfuaded of phers themfelves. Vulgus interdum ° plus flipitj 

the Neceflity of the general Duties of the Law 
of Nature; than" either to ask 'em if they wou'd 
be willing any one lliou'd do themfelves the 
Hurt which they do others ; or to a6tually do it : 
For they will then immediately make it appear, ei- 
ther by their Anfwer; or by their Complaints and 

quia tantum, quantum opus eft, fapit. ' This was 
probably the Sentiment of an antientPhilofopher, 
P when he faid; That many People without having 
their Reafon improv'd by Study, live neverthelefs 
in a manner conformable to the Diftates of right 

' Biilioth. Unhcrf. Tom. VII, ^.426., 427." In the Extraft of Father Couptet^Confutiiis. 

"' See the Parrhaftnr.a, Tom. II, p. 89, i^ feq. 

* In the Euthyfhro of Plato, Socrates hys. That no one fo much as queflions whether he, who has kill'd another wrong- 
fully, or committed any other Injuftice, defervcs to be puniih'd for it ; but what they difpute upon, is the particular Circum- 
ftancc?; when the Qiieftion is, for example, to know who it is that has committed the Injuftice, and what he has done, and 
when he became guilty of it, is^c. 'Ai-flf »'^of — »/f) uvli nKouaai df^.tpiaCnH-T©- o( liv dJ'iyjco; ATmy.Tiiva.v-ay n al^o eH i- 
Ko>f TTtiovv-ra oTiiv, cv S'ii <f)J^vau Slr.^v — a>A' sxeTi'O ioay <»(U?/!rfi)7Bt/£7, li tU iTIv a dSiKCov, x^ 77 /ft)"!', i^ 7757!, p- 8. 
B-, C,- D," Tom. I, Edit. Serran. JnJ p. 50. F," G," Edit. Lsmar. 

" Eflays, Lib. 2, c. 17, tozuards the End, p. I15-, Ed. 1727. 

" Laciant. Inft. Divin. Lib. 3, c. 5, Kum. 4. Edit. Cellar. 

•■ Ti.n.'A Kiy>\' fj.i f4a.^v7i(, ^an y^Tzt Koyiv, Democrates, in Opufc. Mytholog. &c. Amft. 1688. p. (>i'Jf 


IF Perfons of the loweft Rank can arrive at 
llich a Pitch of Knowledge in Morality ; it is 
much more to be expefted that thofe, who 
have greater Talents, and more Penetration, with 
greater cxtcrr;al Helps, and more efpecially Men 
of L'jr.niing ; fhould be able to acquire to them- 
felves ia this Science, and that too in a much more 
diilincl manner, all the Light and Knov/ledge 
any way requifite for the Condu6t of Life: Nay 
I dare even venture to affirm, were the natural 

Principles of Morality, with due Application, 
clofelv purfu'd. Step by Step as far as they 
wou'd carry us; that all the moral Duties of 
Man, in eveiy Station of I>ife, might from 
thence be eafily deduc'd, by a Train of Con- 
fequences connected one with the other, in a 
Method ftriclly demonftrative : It appears to me 
very improbable, * that our Creator, having given 
us Faculties fufficient to difcover and dcmonftrate 
with entire Certainty abundance of fpeculative 

* ^ist\i<: Elements ofjurifprud. Univerf. of Mr. Pu/endorf, p. 3 J4. and thePrc/^/r^of thefameBoofcj/.Z. Edit. Franc. 1680. 

[A 2 J Things, 

An Hiftorical and Critical Account 

Things, of which we may without a Fault be 
ignorant j principally, that vaft Number of ma- 
thematical Truths, which have been aclcnow- 
ledg'd to be inconteftable, by all who have been 
able to comprehend their Proofs and Principles : 
It is I fay improbable and incongruous to fup- 
pofe, that the fime Creator has not alio made us 
capable of knowing, and eftablilTiing with the 
fame Evidence, the Maxims of Morality j in 
which are contain'd thofe Duties he indiipenfa- 
bly requires of us > and on the Pra6tice whereof 
all our Happinefs depends. But, befides this 
Reafon, which the Goodnefs of God will not 
permit us to doubt of; there is ftill another drawn 
from the Nature of the Thing itfelfj and which 
alone wou'd be of Force enough to convince any 
reafonablc Perfon, of the Poflibility of reducing 
the Science of Morality to a Syftem,as well con- 
nefled, as thofe oi Geometry, for example, or Me- 
chanicks; and founded on as certain Principles. It 
is no Part of the Bufinefs in Morality to know 
the real E£'ence of Subftances; which is what has 
been hitherto attempted without Succefs, and in all 
probability will never be brought about j as a great 
•\ Philofopher of this Age has made appear : All 
that is requir'd here, is only to examine and com- 
pare with Care and Diligence certain Relations, 
which we conceive between human Anions and a 
certain Rule. Let us hear what Mr. Locke him- 
felf fays onthisOccafion% " I doubt not, fays he, 
" but from felf-evident Propofitions,by neceflliry 
" Confequences, as inconteilable as thofe in Ma- 
" thematicks, thcMeafurcs of Right and Wrong 
'• might be made out, to any one who will ap- 
^^ ply himfelf with the fime Indifferency and At- 
" tciition to the one, as he does to the other, of 
'• thefe Sciences. The Relation of other Motks 
*' may certainly be perceived, as well as thofe of 
*' Number and Extenfion : And I cannot fee j 
*' why they fliou'd not alfo be capable of De- 
*' monftration, if due Methods were thought on 
" to examine, or purfue their Agreement or Dif- 
*' agreement. Where there is no ^ Property, there 
*' is no Injujiice, is a Propofition as certain as any 
*' Demonftration in Euclid: for the Idea oi Pro- 
*' perty being a Right to any thing ; and the Idea 
*' to which the Name Injurtice is given, being 
" the Invafion or Violation of that Right j it is 
« evident, that thefe Ideas being thus ellablifh'd, 
" and thefe Names annex'd to them, I can as 
*' certainly know this Propofition to be tme, as 
*' that a Triangle has three Angles equal to two 
*' right ones. Again, No Government allows ab- 
*' folute Liberty : The Idea of Government being 
" the Eftablifhment of Society upon certain 
" Rules or Laws, which require Conformity to 
" them J and the Idea of abfolute Liberty being 
" for any one to do whatever he pleafes > I am as 
" capable of being certain of :hc Truth of this 
*' Propofition, as of any in Mathematicks. — The 
*' precifc real Eflcnce of the Things, moral Words 

*' ftandfor,may (fays the fame A uthor"'elfe where) 
*' be perfectly known j and fo the Congruity, or 
" Incongruity of the Things themfelves, be cer- 
" tainly difcover'd, in which confifts perfeft 
" Knowledge. Nor let any one objeft, that the 
*' Names of Subltances are often to be made ufe 
*' of in Morality, as well as thofe of Modes, fi-om 
" which will arife Obfcurity. For as to Sub- 
*' ftances, when concerned in moral Difcourfes, 
" their divers Natures are not fo much enquired 
*' into, as fuppofed > v. g. When we fay, 'that 
" Man is fubjeil to Law : we mean nothing by 
'' Man, but a corporeal rational Creature : what 
" the realEfience or other Qualities of thatCrea- 
*' ture are in this Cafe, is no way confider'd. And 
" therefore, whether a Child or a Changeling be 
" a Man in a phyfical Saile, may amongft the 
" Naturalifts be as difputable as it will, it con- 
" cerns not at all the moral Man, as I may call 
" him, which is this immoveable unchangeable 
" Idea, of a corporeal rational Being : For were 
" there a Monkey, or any other Creature to be 
" found, that had the Uie of Reafon, to fuch a 
" degree, as to be able to underiland general 
" Signs, and to deduce Confequences about ge- 
" ncral Ideas, he wou'd, no doubt, be fubjed to 
" Law, and, in that Senfe, be a Man, how much 
" focver he diflfcr'd in lliape from others of that 
*' Name. The Names of Subftances, if they be 
" ufcd in them, as they ihould, can no more di- 
" fturb moral, than they do mathematical Dif- 
*' courfes : where, if the Mathematician fpeaks 
" of a Cube or Globe of Gold, or any other Bodv, 
*' he has his clenr fettled Idea, which varies not, 
" altho' it may, by miftake, be apply'd to a par- 
" ticular Body, to which it belongs not. || The 
" Negligence or Perverfenefs of Mankind, can- 
" not be cxcufed, if their Difcourfes in Morality 
" be not much more clear, than thofe in natural 
" Philofophy : fincc they are about Ideas in the 
" Mind, which are none of them flilfc or difpro- 
" portionatej they having no external ^w/^^ for 
*' Archetypes which they are referr'd to, and mull 
" coiTcfpond with. It is fir cafier for Men to 
" frame in their Minds an Idea, which fhall be 
*' the Standard to which they will give the Name 
" Juflice, with which Pattern fo made, all Aftions 
" that agree fhall pafs under that Denomination, 
" than, having fcen Ariflides, to frame an Idea, that 
*' fhall in all things be exaftly like him, who is as 
" he is, let Men make what Idea they pleafe of him . 
*' For the one, they need but know the Combi- 
" nation oi Ideas, that are put together within 
" their own Minds; for the other, they muft en- 
" quire into the whole Nature, and abftrufe hid- 
" den Conftitution, and various Qualities of a 
" Thing exifting without them.— ''The Truth 
" and Certainty of ?«o;v?/Difcour(es abftra6ls from 
" the Lives of Men, and the Exillcncc of thofe 
" Virtues in the World, whereof they treat : 
" Nor are ST^/Zy's Offices lefs true, becaufe there 

f Mr. Loch. 

» Eflay on Human Underftanding, by Mr. Locke, Booh IV, Chap. 3, Sen. 18, p. 477., 47S." Edit. Lend. 1706. 

*• Mr. Locke means by the word Property, not only the Right which one has to his Goods and Pofleffions, but even wit}^ 
refpeft to his Aftions, his Liberty, his Lite, his Body ; and, in a word, all forts of Right. See his Latin Letter on Tolera- 
fion, f.\i. In Englifh, p.t-. i^to. Lond. i68g. and p. 8-. izvei. Lond. 1690. 

<^ BookUl. Chap, u, Sefl. 16, 17, p. 434., 435.- Edit. 1706. 

il P^S- 435- „ „ „ . . 

" Lib. 4, Chap. 4, Sea. 8, 9, lo, p. 490, 491 . . 



of the Science of M o r a l i t r.' 

*' is no body in the World that exaftly pradlifes 
*' his Rules, and lives up to that Pattern of a 
*' virtuous Man, which he has given us, and 
" which exifled no where, when he writ, but in 
" Idea. If it be true in Speculation, i.e. m Idea, 
*' That Murther deferies Deatb^ it will alfo be 
" true in reality of any Aftion that exifts con- 
" formabld to that Idea of Murther. As for 
** other Aftions, the Truth of that Propofition 

*' concerns them not. * But it will be here 

" faid, that if moral Knoivledgc be placed in the 
" Contelnplation of our own moral Ideas, and 
" thofe, as other Modes, be of our own making, 
** what ftrange Notions will there be of Jiifiice 
*' and 'temperance? What Confufion of Virtues 
and Vices, if every one may make what Ideas 












but ftrip the Idea, of that Name, or take it 
luch as it is in the Speaker's Mind, and the 
lame Things will agree to it, as if you call'd it 
Injufiice. — || Where God, or any other Law- 
■' maker, hath defined any moral Names, there 
" they have made the Eflence of that Species to 
" which that Name belongs ; and there it is not 
" fafe to apply or ufe them otherwife : but iu 
" other Cafes 'tis bare Impropriety of Speech 
" to apply them contrary to the common Ufage 
" of the Country. But yet even this too dilhirbs 
" not the Certainty of that Knowledge, which 
" is ftill to be had by a due Contemplation and 
" comparing of thole even nick-nam'd Ideas."' 
See how this great Philosopher reafons. Let us 
add here, that the Demonftrations of fpeculative 
of them he pleafes ? ( To this Mr. Locke anfvvers,) Truths are much more compounded, and depend 
'"' " ' " ' i^- -r r _ T^ r i ^^ ^ inuch greater Number of Principles, than 

the Demonftrations of the Rules of Morality. To 
be convinc'd of this, we need only compare the 
Elements of Geometry, with a "^ little methodical 
Syftem of the Duties, which the Law of Nature 
prefcribcs to Men j and, at the flmie time, that 
we fhall find what I have juft now faid, to be 
true ; we fhall alfo, in my opinion, be forc'd to 
acknowledge ; that it is incomparably more eafy 
to comprehend the Principles and Realbnings of 
the lail; mention'd Book J than the Theorems, Pro- 
blems, and Demonftrations of the former. In 
fii6t,as an antient Philofopher very juftly remarks > 
' It is falfe to fay, that Precepts of Morality are of 
fo vail an Extent, as to make us defpair of ever fee- 
ing the end of them ; thofe that concern the mo(l ne- 
ceffary and confiderable Things, may be reduced to a. 
certain Number : It is true, that the Circumftances 
of Time, Place, and Perfons, create therein fame 
Diver fity ; but that fignifes hut little, for isoe have 
even in thofe Cafes general Maxims ivhich are fujf- 
cient to direSl our Judgments therein. 

There will be no Confufion nor Diforder m 
the Things themfelves, nor the Reafonings a- 
bout them ; no more than (in Mathematicks) 
there wou'd be a Difturbance in the Demon- 
ftration, or a Change in the Properties of Fi- 
gures, and their Relations one to another, if a 
Man fhould make a Triangle with four Cor- 
ners, or a.Trapezium-f with four Right Angles: 
that is, in plain Englifi, change the Names of 
the Figures, and call that by one Name, which 
Mathematicians call ordinarily by another. — I 
confefs, the Change of the Name by the Im- 
propriety of Speech, will at firft difturb him, 
who knows not what Idea it ftands for : But 
as foon as the Figure is drawn, the Confe- 
quences, and Demonftrations are plain and clear. 
Juft the lame it is in moral Knowledge, let a 
Man hzvcthe Idea of taking from others, with- 
out their Confcnt, what their honeft Induftry 
has pofiefs'd them of, and call this Juflice, if 
he pleafe. — He that takes the Name here with- 
out the Idea put to it, will be miftaken, by 
joining another Idea of his own to that Name : 

» Sen. IX.- 

f Trapezium, or TmpezoUes rather, is a Quadrilateral Figure, whofe Sides and Angles both are unequal. See Euclid. 
Element. Grare. is" Lat. Edit. Paris 1573, Definit. 34, /. i, *. 43." iff Diaion. Acad. Franc. 

II Sea. X.- 

' Such as is ( for example ) the little Treatife of Vufendorf, entitled, The Duty of a Man, and of a SubjeB ; which is an 
Abridgment of the Work here tranflated. 

f Infinita, inquit, fracefta fiint. Falfum eft. Nam de maximis ac neceffariis rebus non fitnt infinita: tenues antem different ias 
babent, quasexigunt tempora, loca,perfonie. Sed his quoque dantur priecepta generalia. Seneca, Epift. 94,/. 335.- ^i^/V.Amft. i6jS. 


NOtwithftanding all thefe Reflexions, 
which it is very obvious to makej fome 
have "for a long time believ'd, and even 
at this day many do maintain, that Morality is a 
Science very uncertain ; and wherein fcarce any 
thing beyond Probabilities is to be found or ex- 
pcfted : But it is not altogether for want of due 
Examination into the Nature of Things, that this 
talfe Notion has prevail'd. There has ever been an 
uninterrupted Succeffion of Men, who, feduc'd by 
a fecret Defire to ftiake off the troublefome and im- 
portunate Yoke of Duty ; and to indulge them- 
felves fecurely in the Gratification, if not of their 
fcnfual and grofs Dcfircs, yet at lealt of their more 
delicate and rcfin'd Inclinations} have employ 'd all 

» See Mr. PuferJorf, Lib. i, Cup. 2, SeB. i. 
b MontagneVt Effays, Book III, p. 398, in Englifi. 
/. 478.. 479.' Tom. IV. 

the Faculties of their Souls in extinguiftiing the 
Evidence of thofe Truths, which were the mod: 
clear, and the moft generally acknowledg'd ; in 
order to involve in their Ruin all certainty of the 
Rules of Virtue. My Defign is not to difpute with 
thefe Men in form •, and to refute Step by Step 
all their vain Subtilties. I fhall content myfelf with 
flying here, in a few words, fomething to two 
Objeftions} on which they chiefly rely, and which 
feem moft apt to amnfe and deceive. 

The firft Objeftion is drawn from the Diffi- 
culty there is to decide fome certain Queftions in 
Morality i and reconcile tooeven fome of its Prin- 
ciples. Since the tnoral Laws (liiys '' a ce';;i;rated 
Author) that concern the particular Dutii.. of each 

Jnd p. 797. in the Paris Edit, in Fol. Aod Edit. 1727, lib. 3, c. 13, 
2 Perfon 

jin Hijioricd and Critical Account 

Vivfonfingly-, an fo difficult to he rightly conftituted^ 
as ive fee they are-y 'tis no wonder^if thofe^-which are 
to direSi fo many Particulars^ are much more fo. Do 
but confider the Form of that Jufiice -which governs 
us, 'tis the very Emblem of human Infirmity ; fo full 
is it of Errour and ContradiElion. 

But i/, Whofoeverwill but bcftow fomefmall 
Attention upon this Matter, will, I am confident, 
readily agree, that theThing which generally canfes 
thefe Perplexities, is Interelt ; which join'd with the 
Prejudices of Infancy, Education, or Cuftom, ob- 
fcure the cleareft Diftates of right Reafon : of 
this we every day fee numberlefs Inftances. The 
greateft Part of Mankind are fo much blinded with 
an exceffive and miftaken Self-love, that all their 
Penetration and Difcernment of Mind, feem en- 
tirely to forfake 'em, as foon as ever any one Mat- 
ter comes in debate, the Decifion whereof is at- 
tended with Lofs or Gain. And yet they fhall 
with eale, and without one falfe Step, go thro' 
with many other Things, a thouiand times more 
difficult, which they examine cooly, and with a 
Mind wholly difinterefted. This is vei-y well ex- 
prcfs'd by the Philofopher Elicrocles. One fare 
Mark,* fays he, that right Reafon is natural to Men, 
is, that the unjufi Man, when he is aSling in an Af- 
fair, that does no way touch his own Intereft, judges 
exaSlly according to the Rules of Jufiice ■■, and the 
Intemperate, according to thofe of Moderation and T'eni- 
ferance. In a ivord, vicious Perfons of every fort, 
havejufl Ideas in Things, where they don't fuffer them- 
felves to he prcfoffcfs'd hyPaffon. And here we have 
the true Reafon, why it is in the Power of a wicked 
Man to reform, and become virtuous ; for he has no 
mora to do, but to open his Eyes, and to condemn the 
Irregularity of his paJlConduH; which he can't but 
be fenftble of, if he aits with any Degree of Attention. 
Thus this Grff/^ Commentator on the Golden Ferfes 
of Pythagoras judiciouHy obferves the Cafe to be. 
But yet it but too often happens, that, when there 
is even no violent Paffion, or perfonal Intereft, able 
to mifguide the Judgment ; Precipitation and Pre- 
pofleffion fail not to produce the veiy fame EfFcfts. 
A Man oftentimes becomes tenaciouliy fond of falib 
or doubtful Principles, taken up without Exami- 
nation or Refleftion j and then 'tis no wonder, if 
he finds himfdf unable to reconcile thcfe with the 
true } or to draw from 'em juft and regular Confe- 
quences. How few do we find, who fo much as 
think of ever calling in qucftion certain Principles 
which they have early imbib'd; cfpecially if they 
fee 'em authoriz'd by the Opinions in vogue ; or 
eftablifh'd by the Law and Cuftom of theCountiy 
they live in ? You will find feveral Authors, who 
pufti'd on either openly and avowedly, or unawares 
and infenfibly, by meer Party- Animofityj have 
made it their fole Aim, while they were compofing 
Treatifes on certain Queftions in "Morality or Po- 
liticks ; to endeavour to find out, not what was moft 
conformable to the mvariable Rules of right Rea- 
fon and Equity j but only what to them feem'd 

moft proper to juftify the receiv'd Party-Notions; 
or the Pretenfions and Maxims of the Sovereign, 
under whofe Dominion they liv'd. 

idly, Thofe who make fuch Objeftions as thele, 
I am nov\^ exainining j are generally fuch Peribns, as, 
whatever Abilities and Penetration they may other- 
wife have, feem not to have ftudy'd thefe Matters 
with fufficientCare,orwitha fincereAffeftionfor 
Truth J orelfefuch, asmalicioufly take Advantage 
of even the fmalleft Errours or Miilakes,which they 
can find out in the Difcourfes or Works of fuch 
Authors,as have not, with juft Attention and Care 
follow'd the natural Principles of this Science of 
Morality. And, in tmth, 'tis but too often feen, 
that Authors build on Foundations not altogether 
folid enough; and produce weak and pitiful Argu- 
ments, to eftablifti the moft clear and incontefta- 
bleTiTJths. Whoever fhall examme the vain Sub- 
tilties, impertinent Queftions, ridiculous Decifions, 
and deteitable Maxims, with which the Books of 
many Cafuifts arc fiU'd; will, no doubt, find ample 
Matter, to furnilliouta prodigious Parade of Con- 
tradictions and Abiurdities ; but when all's done, 
this can no way afFeft the Certaintv of the Prin- 
ciples and Rules of true Morality; but wholly re- 
dounds to the Confufion of thofe blind, fhall I fiy, 
or ftiam Doctors ; certainly moft wretched Subti- 
lizers and Refiners, in whofe Hands the purei't Gold 
turns to muck and drofs. Wherefore, before they 
triumph too much, on pretence of fome Incon- 
fiftency, which they mav imagine to haveobferv'd 
between fome certain Duties ; or on account of 
fome weak Proofs, that fuch and fuch Writers have 
made ufe of; they ought firft feriouflyto confider, 
whether they have not unhappily miis'd the right 
way; and whether,if they wou'd but trace Things 
back to their true Sources ; they might not from 
thence furnifh thcmfclvcs fufficiently, for the Re- 
folution of thofe Difficulties, with which they have 
beenhitherto perplex'd. C/:7^rro«,forexample,main- 
tains, that '' very often the Precepts of a fingle Firtue 
cannot be put in PraElice, without prejudice either to 
that fame Virtue, or to fome other ; by reafon of their 
clafliing and interfering one with the other : fo that 
you cannot an fiver the Demands of the one, but at the 
Expence of the other. This is at leaf, adds he, unco- 
vering one Altar to cover another ; fo defcSfive and 
weak is all human Sufficiency, that it is neither able 
to give or receive one certain, univerfal, and confftent 
Plan of Duty, fufficient for the for^.-iJrg a good Man 
by; nor can it fo well advife and pr'ovide,but that the 
means of doing good pall fome times interfere ; and 
Charity and jufiice he often found repugnant to each 
other : If in IVar, I light on my Relation or Friend 
cnga£d on the Enemfs fide, Jufiice requires me to kill 
him; but Charity to fave andfpare him: If a Man 
be mortally wounded, fo that, it being impofjible for 
him to recover, he can only linger on in the Extremity 
of Pain ; 'tis then a H'ork of Charity to difpatch hi-m : 
but yet 'tis what ^ Jufiice will punifi]. Nay, to be 
found near fuch an one in a By-place, where it is 

?.--.. . . ... 

^ See MwBuildei's, in hlsHiff. of Natural Right, which is the firll Differtation among the SehBa, J.N. Sc Gf/il. Sr^.^o. Is ieq. 

<• OfWifdom, Bookl, Chap. 4, h'um. 5, of the firft Edit'on. And Chap. 37, Num. 5, f. 187-. of the Editions form'd 
upon that wh'r-h he revis'd. As the Difpnfition of thefe two Editions is different, cfpcciaUy in the firft Booic, I have a]w.iys 
irark'd the Difference of the Chapters in citine this Book, whether it be my own, or mv Author's Citation. 

" As he who difp^tch'd SauJ at liis earneft Rcqucft : This Charron adds in his new Edition of his Book, where he endeavours 
to foften fomeThincs, to appeafe thofe who had been fcandaliz'd at his free manner of writing on fome very nice Subjefls. 

f As he who ! il!V'( F^aul, was by David, and juftly too ; David being the Minifter of publick Jullice, and not of private Cha- 
«ity. Another Addition of the fecond Edition of Cbarrnti. 


of the Science of Moral 


doiihiful ivho is the Murtherer •■, altho' it was with 
defign to do him OJJices of Humanity^ is fxtremely 
dangerous ; and can end in nothing lefs to the Perfon 
fo founu\zvith all his Innocency^than the undergoing a 
criminal Pro fecut ion on account of this Accident : But 
thcreWords,ifwellcon{ider'd,prove only this ; that 
there are fome Cafes, where feveral Virtues cannot 
be put inpraftice at the fame time, and with re- 
gard to the fameObjeftj not that there isany In- 
confiilency between the Virtues themfelves, their 
Functions, or Effcfts. It is no more than a feem- 
ing Conflict between certain Duties, of which 
fome for the time being arc to take place of others j 
fo that what, out of fuch Circumllances, wou'd 
have been an indifpcn fable Aft of Virtue, does then 
become unlawful, or at leail indifferent. Thus the 
Virtue, which at that Juntlure is, if I may fo fay, 
oblig'd to give place j receives no Prejudice, nor 
lofcs any of its Rights or Privileges. Charron feems 
to have been willing to foften and rectify his No- 
tions in the fccond Edition of his Book ; where he 
adds the following Words : Nor ottght Virtue to he 
efieeni'd anfver able for all this^or the feveral Virtues 
chared zvith repugnancy to one another j for they are 
in perfect Concord; but the TVeakncfs of the human 
Condition ; fmcc with all its Sufficiency and Paduftry^ 
it is ftillfo defective and feeble^ that it is not able to 
find out a certain Plan, &c. That is to fay, (if I 
miitakenotj and to give thefe Words the moft 
reafonable Conilru6tion they are capable of: ) that 
the feveral V^irtues confider'd as they are in them- 
felves, and in the Idea of the Divine Underftand- 
ing, or of fome celeftial Intelligent Being, agree 
perfectly well one with the other} but that our 
Ideas and Faculties arc not fufficient to reconcile 
them in fuch manner, as to fatisfy our Minds, and 
to determine our Judgments with certainty in thofe 
Cafes where theyfeem to interfere} which in effect 
is the fame thing to us, as to fuppofeareal and ab- 
folutc Inconfiftency in the Virtues themfelvcs. This 
calls to my Mind another Author, whom Charron 
very often copies, and who fays on the Subject of 
natural Laws J ^That it is credible^that there are na- 
tural Laws, as isfecn in other Animals : but they are 
loji in US; this fame fine human Reafon of ours every 
where taking upon itfelf to domineer and bear fway j 
fbufflingand confounding the Pace of Things, according 
to its own Vanity and Jnconflancy. But what we 
have faid before, does not allow us to admit of a 
Suppofition fo injurious to the Divine Goodnefs } 
no)- are the Examples, produc'd by Charron, fuffi- 
cient to make it out. It is very rare, that a Soldier 
is oblig'd to kill with his own Hands, knowing 
and feeing him, his Relation or Friend, who may 
happen to be in the oppofitc Party. There are few 
Princes or Generals of an Army, who wou'd re- 
quire this of a Soldier, or fubaltern Officer} or who 
wou'd not, out of regard to the Tyes of Con- 
Hinguinity or Friendlliip, eafily forgive his having 
fpar'd the Life of a Perfon fo dear to him. But fup- 
pofe it fliou'd happen, that in a juft War, (for that 
mull be fuppos'd in the prefentCafe) Ifhou'd,by 
the precife Order of my General, or of my Sove- 
reign himfelf, having fufficient Reafons for giving 
me fuch Orders } be reduc'd to the fatal Neceffity 

of kilhng, with my own Hands, mv Relation or 
Friend} I don't fee, in this Cafe, how Charity cati 
any ways interpore in Eivour of that Relation or 
Friend of mine, who is fuppos'd to have born 
Arms in a bad Caufc} efpecially, if my refufal to 
obey be capital. I muft own, this wou'd be a very 
fiid and moil ungrateful Office} but after all, 'tis in 
me no other than the Performance of what I am 
indifpenfably obhg'd to do : And my Relation or 
Friend ought to look onmeasadting nootherwife 
than as the fimplc Inltmment, and that too with 
great Regret,of thofe juft A6ts of Hoftility,to which 
he has voluntarily expos'd himfelf. The other Cafe 
that Charron mentions, is as eafy to decide } nor j> 
there in it any Oppofition hctv^hitPublick Jufice 
and Private Charity, as this Author himfelf has 
made appear in the fecond Edition of his Work*". 
Suppofel think a Man mortally wounded, beyond 
all Hope orPoffibilityof aCurc, (in which I, who 
am neither Phyfician or Surgeon, may veiy ealily be 
miftakcn } fince we very often fee People recover 
after they have been given over, even by Men of 
thofe Profeffions}) altho' Compaflion may feem 
to move and folicit all who pafs by, to abridge the 
Sufferings of one, who is thought in a Condition 
altogether defperate j yet Charity cannot require 
me to difpatch for him thofe miferable Remains of 
Life} unlefs his Cafe be attended with fuch Cir- 
cumftances, as makes it lawful for himfelf to doit : 
Nor are there wanting in this Cafe 'Principles fuf- 
ficient to determine us. But fhou'd it prove to be 
fo in this Cafe, that the Man had, according to the 
Principles of the Law of Nature, full Liberty to 
difpofeof his own Life} and that he fhou'd intreat 
me to haften the inevitable Moment of a Term, 
which wou'd otherwife foon expire, and the Pro- 
longation whereof cou'd ferve to no other Purpofe, 
but to continue him in needlefs Pain and Mifery } 
yet, if the Laws of my Country abfolutely forbid mc 
to contribute in any manner towards haftening the 
Death of another, under any pretence whatfoevcr; 
as is the Cafe almoft every where, and that upon 
very good Grounds ; the Laws of Charity in fuch 
Cafe cou'd in no wife oblige or authorize me, to 
render to this unfortunate Man the Service he de- 
mands J and it is no more permitted to grant him this 
Requelt, than to force a Criminal our of the Hands 
of Juftice, with an Intent to fave his Life. As for 
the Danger he is expos'd to, of being taken for the 
Murtherer, or put to the Rack, who ftays by the 
wounded Perfon, in order to fuccour and relie\-e 
him } there is not always Reafon to fear fuch Eital 
Confequences fi'om a good Office on this prelTing 
Occafion: But fuppofe there was all the Reafon in 
the World to apprehend them } the Care of our 
own Prefervation, which is ftrongly '^ recommend- 
ed to every particular Man, by the fame Law of 
Nature} wou'd, no doubt in this Cafe, be found to 
outweigh the Laws of Humanity} which ai'ethen 
only obligator}', when wc can put them in Piafticc, 
without bringing on ourfelves any confidcrablc Da- 
mage, or great Inconvenience} to which we arc 
not otherwife oblig'd tocxpofe ourfelves in favour 
of him, who has needof our Affillancc. The Infe- 
rence therefore, which Charron draws from thefe 

* MontagneV Effiys, Booill, Chap. 12, p. 381. And p. i^if, in the'Ptrh Edition. AndEd. 1727, T^m If, /. 544^, 545". 

^ See above in the Margin, Letter (f). 

' See ?ufendorf,_ Book II, Chap. 4, Sea. 19. 

'' See what is iiid_on B'jokW, o<i Pufendorf, Chap. 3, Sell. 15, Note 5. 



An Hiflorical and Critical Account 

Examples, that Juflke not only offends againfi Cha- 
mtv, but that it is a Clog and Impediment to itfelf; is 
altogether wrong and unjuft. And wou'd we but 
examine, as we ought, the other Reafons produc'd 
by this Author; or thofe who, before and after him, 
have been defirous to fignalizethemfelves by their 
Endeavours to eftablifli a Pyrrhonifm, which fpares 
not the moft nccedlu-y Truths ; wefhou'd,Iam fa- 
tisfy'd, find that none of their other Reafons, do a 
Xvhit better make out thofe pretended Contradifti- 
ons,they flmcy to themfelves, between the Princi- 
ples of Morality ; and that the Weaknefs of all thofe 
Objeflions, which they have hitherto been able to 
invent, will only ferve on the contrary to prcpof- 
fefs us in fivour of that entire Certainty, and per- 
fect Confiftency, to be found in all Decifions and 
Determinations, grounded on the true Principles 
of our moral Duties. 

7,dly^ The Difficulties that fometimes caufe Per- 
plexity in Matters of Morality, or natural Right, 
do not proceed fo much from the Obfcurity we 
•find in the Rule itfelf; as from certain particular 
Circumftancesjwhich render theApplication there- 
of difficult, but not impoffible; and 'confequently 
nre no more Proofs of the Uncertainty of the Rule, 
than the Trouble we are at, to apply a Demonftra- 
tion in Mathematicks, diminifhes the Evidence or 
InfaUibility thereof Befides, thefe Difficulties do 
hot cortcern the general Principles, nor the Maxims 
which mediately or immediately flow from them, 
even to a confiderable Diitance ; but only certain 
1-emote Confcquences, * and of little Importance, in 
comparifon with the others. If we will but fuffer 
ourfelves to make never fo little Ufe of that Faculty 
of reafoning which Nature has endow'd us all 
with; we cannot in the leaft doubt of the Tmth of 
thcfc following Rules: I'hat ive ought to render to 
the Deity a IForpoip worthy of him ; and to obey his 
Laius^ as far as they arc known tous : that every one 
is obliged to avoid the Exccff'es of Intemperance; which, 
by ruining his Ilcalth^make him incapable of attending 
thcfe T'hings, to which he is caWd by his Condition ; and 
of making himfelf ufeful to humane Society : that he 
is not [ermittcd to injure his Neighbour •■, and that, if 
he has done him any Damage,he ought to repair it as 
foon as may be : that he ought not to deny any one all 
friendly Services, not hurtful to himfelf, that he can 
do him: that he ought inviolably to keep his Word: 
that all Fraud and f ricking is criminal : that Chil- 
dren are under an indifpenfible Obligation to honour 
their Parents : that it is jufl to obey the Orders and 
Laws of a lawful Sovereign, as long as he prefcribes 
iiothing contrary to the invariable Principles of the 
Law of Nature; or to any Divine Law clearly re- 
<vcard. Sec. All thefe Fundamental Truths,and many 
more of the like Nature, are io evident, that it is 
impoHible to bring any Objcftion againft them, 
that is even but plaufible; or whofe Weaknefs will 
not appear at firll Sight. But it may be difputed 
with fome fhew of Reafon, Whether a Man, for 
example, who has committed Adultery with a mar- 
ry' d Woman, is obliged to make SatisfaElion to the le- 
gitimate Children ; for the lofs they fuflain by the Con- 
currence of an illegitimate Sharer in the Succefjion ? 

M'loether that Promife be binding, which I authorize 
another to make in my Name, where the Perj'on to 
whom it was to be made, dies before Notice or Ac- 
ceptance ? Whether when a Thing, fold and not deli- 
ver'' d, happens to periflj by fome Accident, without 
any Fault of the Seller ; he, or the Buyer, ought tofland to 
the lofs of it ? Wjethcr a Prefer ipt ion fljall enure to the 
Prejudice of thofe who are not yet born ? Whether a 
PoJfeJJor, bona fide, ought to make good the Fruits 
which he hath confum'd? Whether PoUgamy or Di- 
vorce are abfolutely contrary to the Law of Nature? 
Whether fuch or fuch degrees of Confanguinity or Af- 
finity are forbid by the fame Law? Whether Sons or 
Daughters may marry without their Parents Confent ? 
Altho' even thefe, and other the like Qiieilioas may 
not perhaps be very difficult to decide, if cxamin'd 
attentively^ and without PrepofTellion ; yet there is 
befides almoft always, as to Parr, ano- 
ther infallible way to determine ourfelves there- 
upon; and that by clear and felf-evident Principles: 
without at all entring into the Foundation of the 
Queftion. You doubt, for example, whether Poli- 
gamy or Divorce are in their Natures abfolutely un- 
lawful ; but, to fiy nothing of the Laws of the GoJ- 
pel, you find thefe Things forbidden by the Civil 
Laws of your Country; and you cannot reaibnably 
doubt, but that it is a Crime to difobcy the Laws 
of the Sovereign Power ; even Avhen they take 
from you the Liberty of doing that, which other- 
wife would be permitted, or indiflcrcnt. Shou'd 
the Queilion be about Things not lettlcd by the 
Civil Laws ; you have then thefe two incontefla- 
ble Principles to regulate yourConduft by : Fir ft, 
"" that in difficult Cafes you ought always to take the 
furefl Side of the ^icflion. Secondly, that the fureft 
Side, is always the oppofite to that your Paffions in- 
cline to. And from hence I draw a Confequence, 
that ferves equally to confound as well thoie who 
feek excufc for their Faults from a pretended in- 
vincible Ignorance, or from the Difficulties of their 
particular Cafes ; as thofe, who allcdge thefe Diffi- 
culties, in order to deftroy the Certainty of all the 
Principles of Morality : The Coni'equcnce, I wou'd 
infer, is this ; that a Man before he can arrive at 
this State of Doubt and Perplexity, lb as to be at a 
lofs which fide of the Qiieflion to take, in Points 
relating to his own Condudl ; mull firft have ne- 
gligently ovcr-look'd Maxims, fb clear, as to be 
felf-evident; and fo eafy,as to be obvious in every 
Cafe of Practical Duty. Thus it is plain, that the 
Fault lies at our own Door, and not at our Crea- 
tor's ; who, as he has given us his Laws, fo has he 
given us Light, fufficient to dire£i:,and keep us from 
tumbling from one unfathomable Difficulty to ano- 
ther, into a perpetual State of Doubtfulnefs and 
Uncertainty. The Cafe is much the fime here 
with that of the Mafter of a Family; who, upon 
taking a long Journey, had left with his Dome- 
llicks Orders iiifficiently clear; and cafyto be cxe- 
. cuted : and in this Cafe fhou'd the Domcflicks, 
for want of having follow'd their Mailer's Orders, 
find themfelves reduc'd to fuch a Nonplus, as not 
to be able, with their utmoft Application, and 
mofl hparty Endeavours, to determine what to do, 

' See Vufendorf, Lib. I, Caf. 2, 5^^. 5, l^ote z. 
' * 'Tis with refpcft to thefe only we can admit what Marriotte fays, ( EJfay upon Logic, p. 1 54, whofe Words .ire cited 
and adopted by the late Mr. Bayle, Anfw. to the Quell, of a Provinc. Tow. I, p. 352. ) That it is often neccffnry to anfider a 
^reat Number of Things, to judge well what u-e ought to folkw or avoid. But they are much in the wrong, both the one and 
the other, to infer from thence the Uncertainty of all Morality in general; and to maintain, that the Conclufiotis thereof arc 
more uncertain than thofe of natural Philofophy. 

" See Pufendorf, Book I, Chaf. 3, SeSl. 7. And Mr. Bernard in his Nouvelles de la Repuli. des Lettres, March 1 705, p. 294. 


of the Science of M o r. 

A H T Y. 

•with refpeft to certain Affairs, that fhould after- 
wards fall out, relating to his Service j they could 
have no Grounds to complain of their Mailer's 
Severity, when at his Return he punifli'd them 
for having taken wrong Meafures, and ill nia- 
nag'd his Concerns. 

4?Z7/y, Unlefs we will doubt mceriyfor the fake 
of doubting, or have the Affurance to deny that 
'tis Light at Mid-day ; we cannot rcfuie to ac- 
knowledge, that there ai-e a great Number of 
Principles and Maxims of Morality, which are 
attended with the higheil degree of Evidence j 
and which are entirely confiftent one with ano- 
ther. There are fome of thefc Truths, the Be- 
lief whereof, we are obhg'd to acknowledge to 
be as ancient as the World j and fo extenilve, as 
to be diffus'd in a manner quite throughout it > 
as fhall be hereafter fhewn. Nov/ if there be any 
certain Proot^ any fure Mark of the^Clearnefs of 
our Ideas and Opinions > fuch an univerlal Con- 
fent as this, muit undeniably be fuch. As for 
thofe Things, whofe Evidence does not fhew it 
fclf without fomc Reflccfion, be it more or leis 
profound j and about which there is likewife great 
diverfity of Opinions; if we take an account of 
411 iuch as really have fome Difficulties at firlf, 
even to thofe who examine them with fome de- 
gree of Attention \ it will be found that their 
Number is but fmall 5 that for the moft part they 
entirely depend upon extraordinary Conjunfturesj 
and that they are often, by Dint of Thought, 
fairly vanquilli'dj fo that the Difficulty, which at 
firft was look'd on as infuperablc, at length va- 
niflies, and turns to tlie moil clear and f^tlsf^6to- 
ry Solution. But however, fuppofing there were 
Cafes, and thofe too not uncommon j where it 
was abfolutely impoffible to come to any fix'd 
Refolution, upon Principles clear and felf-evi- 
dent; God doubtlefs would not, in fuch Cafes, 
make Men " refponfible for thoie Errours, which, 
after their beit Endeavours us'd to find out the 
Truth, they fhou'd unhappily fill into. So that 
this would not at all make either againfttheGood- 
nefs or Juftice of the Creator and fovereign Lord 
of Men ; or againft the Certainty and Evidence 
of thofe Principles, which we have always ready 
at hand, as fure Guides to conduft us fafely in an 
infinite number of Caies: But we ought rather, 
in fuch Cafe, to fay, that even this Degree of 
Light, feeing God has not thought fit to give 
us a greater, is fufficiently adapted to the State 
and Interefts of Mankind: Tho' 'tis my fix'd O- 
pinion, that it cannot without Rafhnels be pofi- 
tively affirm'd j that thofe incontcftable Principles 
of Morahty we have, are not, if duly purili'd 
thro' all their Confequences , fully fufScient to 
furnifh us with infallible Maxims in all imagina- 
ble Cafes, that can be fuppos'd to occur in human 
Life. And my Reafon is this \ That thefe Princi- 
ples have prov'dfo fruitful, that even to this Day, 
they'have not been explain'd entirely ; and drawn 
out into all their Confequences : But on the con- 
trary, during the Space of near fix thoufand 


Years, that is, of the whole Duration of Man- 
kind ; there has hardly been any one Science fo 
much negleded, or lb fupcrficially cultivated, as 
this Science of Morality j as will appear by the 
Sequel of this Difcourfe. 

phly^ After all, fuppofing now that Means 
cannot be found out, entirely to refolve fome 
Difficulties objected to certain remote Confe- 
quences, that follow from fome of the evident 
Principles of Morahty; will this be fufficient, in 
the Judgment of any reafonable Man, to fliake 
the Certainty of all thofe Principles 5 and of that 
vail Number of Confequences, which may be mofl 
manifeftly deduc'd from thence? Permit me, on 
this Occafion, to make a general and veiy im- 
portant Remark J which, tho' made ufe of by fe-, 
veral Authors, it is yet worth while here to re- 
peat, and place in all its feveral Lights; to pre- 
vent the Effeds of thofe dangerous Impreffions, 
which they who endeavour d'lreclly or indireftly 
to introduce into the World an extravagant, and, 
as I may venture to fay, mofl ridiculous Scepti- 
cifm, might othcrwife make. You fhall fee thefe 
Men, with great Earrieflnefs and Application, 
collefting from all Parts, and expofing to the ut- 
mofl, all, even the mofl: minute Difficulties, which 
they think can be urg'd againfl; the mofl certain 
and generally receiv'd Truths ; and then conclu- 
ding, with an Air of Triumph; 'That poor Reafon^ 
alas! knows not where' to fix its * Foot : that it is 
an uncertain^ fluttering, and fupple Tool^ to he turn'd 
about like any M'^eather-cock : that the great Secret 
it has found out to p-event its lofing its zvay^ is not 
toflir onefingle Step forwards ; fo that, wherever it 
finds two PFays, it ft and s flock ftill: with much 
more to the like Effcd. Now all fuch Reafon- 
ings are grounded upon this fingle Principle ; that, 
whatever is a certain Truth, mufl; be adequately- 
known by us ; and remov'd from all manner of 
Difficulty. But this is a Propofition too confi- 
derable to be taken for granted; and ought to 
have been firft: fully prov'd, as the Ground on 
which all their Reafoning flands ; unlefs they mean 
to beg theQueflion, by aflliming for an unqueflri- 
onable Truth, what is really falfe; which does 
but ill become Men, who wou'd feem refolv'd to 
admit of nothing for Truth, but what they com- 
prehend as fully and clearly, as they do, that t%vo 
and two make four. May it not veiy well be fo, 
that our Faculties are precifely adapted to our 
prefent State andOccafions here; and confequent- 
ly circumfcrib'd within their proper Bounds? 
(For bounded they mufl: then be; fince it can ne- 
ver be prov'd, that to this end they ought to be 
commenfurate with the Nature and Properties of 
all thole Things whereof we have Ideas.) This 
then being fuppos'd, which no way implies any 
thing contrary to the Goodnefs or Wifdom of 
the Creator; is not the having clear and direct 
Proofs of any Principle, enough to warrant the 
admitting it as certain; notwithftanding there 
ftill remain fome Difficulties, the Solution where- 
of wc do not yet fee ? To go about to make fuch 

otai Tap* it5 -ravra. ^vhdircov'roe. Tliat is to fay. You fee liow few Things we liave to praftife, in order to lead a happy 
and divine Life ; for the Gods will require nothing more of him, who fhall follow th«fe Rules. Marcus Antmin, lib. 2, fedl. 5 . 
f See .Baj/,?'s Didionary, f. 1565, Cd. i-. 



[An Hijlorical and Critical Account 


Difficulties ferve for Proofs of the Negative of 
that very Principle, would be vain and frivolous > 
'twould be no more than an idle evafive Fallacy, 
that wou'd be ftill bottom'd upon that precarious 
Sappofition I juft now mention'd j and one fingle 
Inltance willbe fufficient to make it out. Let 
the Qiieftion be, fay they, whether Matter is to 
be divided infinitely*, and let the ufual Proofs be 
produc'd on the affirmative fide of the Queftionj 
you will find 'em at firft fight fo clearly demon- 
ftrative, that all the great Difficulties of the Ato- 
mids on the other fide, won't in the lealT: affeft 
your Aflent to the Affirmative: But then take 
the Negative, and let the Objeftions againft the 
Affirmative be fet forth and urg'd as Proofs j and 
they will not fail to make as great an Impreffion 
on your Mind, as the Proofs for the Affirmative 
had done juft before > fo that you will find thefe 
a fufficient bar to the others. For my part, I 
think the Difference, according to the Rules of 
right Reafoning, to be very confiderablcj for 
the Arguments for the infinite Divifibility of 
Matter, flow direftly from the Idea of the very 
Nature of Matter, as an extended folidSubftance ; 
whereof the Parts, tho' never fo fmall, cannot 
be othcvwife conceiv'd than as endu'd with Fi- 
gure, and as having Sides, by which they are 
contiguous} not to fiy any thing of the Demon- 
ftrations Geometry affords us in this Cafe: Where- 
as the Objeftions of the Atomifts, which contain 
their ffrongeft Proofs for the Negative} being 
entirely grounded on the Difficulty of conceiving 
a Number of Parts really infinite, wherein the 
Imagination is at a lofs } are altogether inconclu- 
five : unlefs upon Suppofition that nothing ought 
to be admitted as certain, but what we have an 
Idea of, exempt from all Difficulty } tho' a thing 
otherwife attended with never fo much Credibi- 
lity, grounded on Reafons moll evident 5 and llich 
as are drawn direftly from the Nature of the thing 
it fclf. Now 'till fuch Suppofition fhall be dc- 
monftrated, (and how can that be ever done, efpe- 

cially by one under the Character of a Sceptick?) 
there will not be fo much as a Poffibility of ilir- 
ring the Certainty of many Tmths, as well fpe- 
culative as pradticalj which are manifeftly held 
forth byReafon to all, who conlult her withDif- 
pofitions proper for that purpole. The fincere 
Lovers of Truth will ever find a \iiii Medium, be- 
tween the foolilTi Prefumption of the peremptory 
Dogmatifl; who holds for Demonilrations , all 
his ill-grounded Fancies, concerning even the 
moll doubtful Matters : and the fiilfe A'Jodelly of 
the rigid Pyr/honifi ; who, finking under the 
Weight of the fmallell Difficulties, boldly rejects 
all Certainty } on pretence, that he cannot at- 
tain to a Knowledge entirely perieft, and exempt 
from all Mixture of Obfcurity. In vain do rhcy 
heap Difficulty upon Difficulty concerning the 
Nature ;uid Attributes of God; this will never, 
in the Jodgment of any reafonable Man, either 
overthrow the Exiilencc of that Infinite Being i 
or the certain, tho' imperfeft Knowledge we 
have of fomeof hisPerfeftions} particularly thofe, 
which have relation to our Intereirs and Occa- 
fions. In vain do they feek to exaggerate, v/ith 
all the Cunning of fubtle Philofophcrs, thofe ill- 
grounded Doubts; which, on thcSubjecl of mo- 
ral Obligations, the Mind, cither not attentive 
enough in difcerning Truth ; or clfe ingeniaully 
indultrious in inventing Fallacy} can form to it 
fclf The Idea of a Creator, boundlcfs in Power, 
Wifdom, and Goodnefs} and the Idea of our 
felves, as intelligent, reafonable, and fociable Crea- 
tures : Thefe tv/o Ideas, I iliy, if well look'd in- 
to, and compar'd togetlier in their whole Extent, 
will always furnilh us with Heady Grounds of 
Duty, and lure Rules of Conduct} notwithlland- 
ing it may fometimes fo fall out, that, for want 
of Care or Attention, we may, in feme uncom- 
mon Cafes, not know hov/ to apply thenij or 
cannot methodically demonflrate the necefHiry 
Connexion of fome remote Confequences, with 
the fiifl Principles of Morality. 

Sec Mr. Bay/is Continuation des Penfees diverfes % Toccafion de la Comete, Is'c- />■ 367. 



TH E other Obje£lion, which I purpofe to 
anf\ver in a few Words, is taken from 
the great Diverfity of Opinions there is 
in the World concerning Virtue and Vice} info- 
much that not only fome particular Men, but 
even whole Nations, have openly derided all 
Morality} or at leall fome of its Principles. With 
this View the Pyrrbonijls heretofore * made their 
long Enumeration of the Contrarieties they had 
obfcrv'd thereupon} as well thofe which are found 
between the Cuiloms of particular Nations } as 
between the Notions even of Philofophcrs them- 
felve. But what will all this ferve to prove ? 
That Men do not always make a right Ufe of 

their Reafon*. I readily grant it} and feeing there 
are, even amongll the Men of Wit and Under- 
Itanding, fome who fo llrangely mifufe their Lei- 
fure and PartS} as to employ their utmoll Efforts 
in utterly deltroying, or in rendring at leaft very 
dubious, the moll manifell Truths } on pretence 
that there are Difficulties, beyond the Reach and 
narrow Limits of our bounded UnderllandingSi 
I am not at all furpriz'd, to find fome rude and 
unpohfh'd Nations, who being either extremely 
corrupted } or enflav'd to Opinions, confecrated 
and ellablifh'd by long Ufage and Cullom } to 
have continu'd, either wholly or in part, immers'd 
in the groffeil Ignorance of thofe moral Truths, 

See Sexttis Empiric. Pyrrhon. Hypoth, Lib. 3, Cap. 24, p. i;i. D' 
' See the PalTage in Diog. Laert, cited hereafter, Seil, 27, Letter q. 

& Edit. Fabric, p. 176'. Numb. 198, isff. 


of the Science ofMoRALiTY. ii 

which are indeed in themfelves evident enough 5 fon^ mikes between the Things it has often reviewed 
but not to fuch, as either wilfully fhut their Eyes end confider''d. A celebrated '^ Philolbpher of the 
againlt the Light of Nature ; or who will not laft Age, one to whom the World will be eter- 
givcthemfelves the trouble of explicitly confider- nally oblig'd, for having introduc'd the right 
ing, and purfuing thofe Ideas, which continually, manner of philofophifing > not that he was infal- 
I may lay, every Moment, and from all fides, pre- lible neither > nor did he always follow his own 
fent themlelves openly to their view. Or flrall Rules j Des Cartes^ I %, had made the Opinion 
we hence infer, that thofe fure and inconteftable of innate Ideas very common among his FoUow- 
Principles of Conducl, if any fuch there are, ers. But there arofe another Philolbpher, " not 
ought to have been actually imprefs'd, even from long fince deceas'd, who has re-eftablifh'd, and 
the Cradle, on the Minds of all Men j fo that put in a new Light the antient Opinion. The 
none could be either ignorant of, or under any Reafons which he alledges, feem fo very Itrong, 
niiltaken or different Notions about them. Man- that whoever examines them with a little Atten- 
tagne indeed reafons after this manner j An Au- tion, and without Prejudice, cannot refufe to 
thor, who, amongfi: a vaft 'number of fine ju- fubmit to them. Dr. Sherlock, who has taken 
dicious Thoughts, has but too vifibly difcover'd upon him lately to refute them, has, in my Opi- 
a Spirit of Pyrrhontfin, carry'd on beyond its due nion, with all his Penetration and all his Effoits j 
Bounds ''. They arc picafant, fays he, "jjhen to only given thofe who deny innate Ideas, all the 
give fome Certainty to Laws, they fay, that there reafon in the world to confirm themfelves in an 
are fome of 'em frm, perpetual, and immuta- Opinion, which they fee attack'd with fo little 
hie, which they call natural > and fay, they are efjen- Succefs ^. All the Dodor fays, is either ground- 
tially imprefs'd on the Minds of all Mankind: and ed on abftradted, andfcarce intelligible Principles j 
of thefe fome make the Number to be Tloree, fome or on fuch, as are advanc'd without Proof; or 
Four, fome more, fo-Melefs;whichfiows,thateventhis whofe juft Confequences terminate in the Proof 
Impyeffion is a thing as doubtful as any of the rejl. Now of that, which at the bottom amounts to no more 
tbey are fo unfortunate, (for what can I call it elfe, than the very Opinion he oppofes. But what is 
but Misfortune, that of fo infinite a number of moil of all furprifing, he very premptorily af- 
Laws, there foould not be found one at leaf, that firms, that ^ the DoSlrine of Mr. Locke, about 
Fortune and the temerity of Chance has fuffefd to the Origine of innate Ideas, may nsery much ferve 
be univerfally received by the Confent of all Nati- the Caufe of Atheifm; for, fays he, tf none of our 
ons ?) They are, I fay, fo unhappy, that of thofe Ideas are innate, neither thofe we have of the Dei- 
three or four felecl Laws, there is not fo much as ty, nor thofe we have of Virtue and Vice -y what 
one, but 'is contradiSled and difown'd,not by one Na- fiall hinder the Atheifl from faying, that al' thofe 
tion only, but by many. And yet this fame univer- Ideas aw the Effects of a wrong Education ; and 
fal Approbation is the only probable Mark, from that they ■iverefirfi imprinted on the Minds of Chil- 
which they can argue, or infer, any Laws at all to dren, for the good of Society j and to refrain and 
be natural; for we flwu'd without all doubt unani- keep them in awe? For my part, 1 think on the 
moufly follow, whatfoever Nature had really en- contrary, (nor am I the only one of this Opini- 
joiri'dus; and not only every Nation, but every par- on,) that the Clergy themfelves give great Ad- 
ticular Man would be extremely fenftble of the Force vantage to the Atheift ; when, not fatisfy'd with 
and Violence offefd him, foould any Jittempt to puflj thofe inconteftable Proofs, we have of the great 
him on to a Tranfgreffion of fuch Laws. But this Truths of Religion and Morality ; they chiefly 
is a Suppofition not to be admitted without Proof; maintain and urge, through an imprudent Zeal, 
it being contrary to Experience: and long fince certain Reafons for Proofs ; which are really none, 
own'd to be fitlfe in Fad, by the moft able Phi- or at leaft very doubtful ones; and then cry out, 
lofophers. " Nature alone, (fays one of them), that all's loft, if thefe are not allow'd of as well 
cannot furnifo us with the knowledge of moral as the former. For after all, I would fain know 
Rectitude and Virtue -y fhe has indeed implanted in us how Dr. Sherlock, without entering into meta- 
the Seeds of the Science of Virtue, but not the Sci- phyfical Reafonings, which are generally very 
ence it felf. This is the Refult of thofe Reflexions uncertain, and do not properly belong to a Dif- 
and Comparifons which the 'Mind, by parity of Rea- pute about Matter of Fa£t 5 will be ever able to 

>• Montagne's E%s, Book II, Chap. 12, p. 380, Englifi ; French, 426. And Edit. 1727, f. 542, ^^f,tom. z. 

" Dejideras did : ^omodo ad r.os prima Boni Honcftique notitia per-jenerit. Hoc nos docere Nalura non potuit : femina nobis 
Jcientia dedit, fcientiamnon dedit. -Nobis videtiir obfervatio collegiffc, 13 rernm ftepe faBarum inter fe collatio,^ per analogiam 
jioftro intelhau 13 Honejlum ^ bomm judicante. Senec. Epift. 120-, pag. 457-. Edit. Gronov. See Liplius, Manud. ad 
Philof. Stoic, lib. 2, ctip. II, per totum. 

<• See the Metaphyfical Meditations of Des Cartes, with the Objections and Anfwers which are jomed thereunto ; particularly 
p. IJ-, z\-, lozz , bf Append, p 16-, &c. 

<■ Mr. Locke, in hi? Eflay on Human Underftanding, Book I. 

« This was my Judgment fix Years ago, form'd on the Extraft in Bernard'% Nouv. de la Repiib. des Lett. May \yoy I had 
reafon to believe, that that ingenious Journalift had neither weaken'd, or mifreprefented in the main, the Reafons of this Englijh 
Doaor. I have fmce foundlt to be faft, having read the Book it felf, well tranflated into French in 1708. But^as to my 
Judgment of the Doftor's Reafonings, I am fo far from' altering it, that I find my fdf more and more ^confirm'd in it by 
reading that long Digreffion, where he pretends to eftablifh innate Ideas ; and to confute thofe who deny 'em_. The judici- 
ous and difinterefted will difcern, who are moft likely to clear the Matter ; whether thofe who go upon Experience, the only 
■way we have to know the Truth ; and upon the proper and certain Charafter of Ideas ; which is to make themlelves be per- 
ceiv'd, where ever they happen to be; or whatever at bottom their Nature may be ; or thofe, who being obligd w acknow- 
ledge Experience to be againft them, do yet advance nothing but Reafons of Congruity ; and yet charge others With want ot 
Penetration to fee the Difficulties. 

e Ibid. pag. 545, and in the Book it felf of Dr. Sherlock, pag. 146, 147, in the French Verfion. 

[B z] Pi-ove 


A^ Hijiorkal and Critical Account 


]6rove toanAthcifl, that notwiftanding the mani- 
feft Ignorance in which whole Nations have 
been and ftill are, of fome fundamental Duties of 
the Law of Nature ; and the odnefs and prodi- 
gious diverfity of Opinions, which have at all 
times been in the World on the Subjecb of Mo- 
rality and Religion ; thar, notwithllanding all 
this, I fay, every particular Perfon has mmte 
Ideas of the Deity, and of Virtue ? Nor do I 
fee how this Difficulty can be anfwer'd other- 
wife, than by faying ; that as Men are naturally 
provided with * Faculties fufficient to acquire the 
knowledge, of the Author of their Exiftence, and 
of the Duties he experts from them j and to form 
to themfelves thereupon right Ideas: fo they 
may remain in Ignorance, or even run into 
Miftakes about thefe Points, if they will not 
make good ufe of their Underftanding : and this 
Anfwer hath nothing in it, but what is moft folid. 
God "^ hazing endued Man ivith thofe Faculties of 
knowing which he hath^ was no more obliged by his 
Goodnefs^ to implant thofe innate Notions in his 
Mind, than that having given him Reafon, Hands.^ 
and Materials, hejhould build him Bridges, or Houfes. 
To alledge therefore the Abufe, which Men make 
of the Light of Nature in Matters of Morality, 
as a Proof that there is no Certainty in it j is as 
poor Reafoning as that of the Epicureans : who 
think to fubvert true Religion^ by fetting forth 
all the Evils, Crimes, and Extravagancies that 
falfe Zeal, Bigotry, and Hypocrify, under the 
fpecious Pretence of Piety, have occafion'd in the 
World, ^'tanttim RelUgio potuit fuadere Malorum! 
But let US only confider this Matter in a different 
Light, and we fhall find this Objedion it fclf 
furni{h us with a confiderable Proof, or at leaft a 
Prepofleffion in favour of the natural Evidence of 
the Principles of Morality j and of that Impref- 
iion, which there is reaibn to believe thele 
Truths wou'd make on the Minds of all Men, 
did they but hearken to Reafon. In efFeft, it 
appears by Hiflory, that thofe Nations, which 
feem to have had no fenfe at all of Virtue, are 
very few in Number. By the Confeflion of Mr. 
Bayle, ^ 7'he mojl general Rules of Morality have 
heeti preferv'd almojl every where, and have at leafl 
obtained in all Communities , where Reafon and 
Knowledge have been at all cultivated. Is there any 
Nation, ' ( fays a very great Orator, and hea- 
then Philofopher,) where Civility, good Nature, and 
Gratitude are not thought amiable, and had in c- 
flcem ? And where the proud, the mifchievous, the 
cruel, and ungrateful are not had in Contempt and 
Abhorrence? It has too been very judicioufly ob- 
ferv'd, that " No Legiflator cou'd ever yet procure 
Laws, that were entirely bad, to pafs : The Mana- 
gers concerned in paffing fuch Laws, have either dex- 
teroufly tack'd 'em to others that were good j or elfe 
have had recourfc to violent Meafures, either to e- 

flahlip, or to maintain 'em ; fo that the tery fuh- 
miffion to unjuft Conftitutions, is even a Proof of 
the neceffity of equitable and good ones. Ic will per- 
haps be reply'd, that it is the Profit, which ac- 
crues from the Practice of the Rules of Monility, 
that caufes 'cm to be generally approved and re- 
ceiv'd into the World. But, tho' this cannot be 
deny'd to contribute much towards it ; yet is it 
not the only, nor the principal Reafon thereof. 
For 'tis very hard to conceive, that in fo many 
different places, and in all Ages, fuch Multitudes 
of every Rank, Condition, and Charafter, fhould 
have given their Confent to thefe fort of Maxims, 
merely for the Advantage each Perfon for him- 
fclf found therein} fo as at the fimetimeto think 
themfelves exempt from all Obligation to obfen'c 
them, whenever they cou'd Tranfgrefs with Im- 
punity. Indeed there has been, and ftill are too 
many, without any other Regard foi them, than 
upon that foot} whether it be, bccaufethey have 
accuftom'd themfelves to do fo, in order to fatisfy 
quietly their PalTions > or whether becaufe they 
have fuffer'd themfeh'es to be impos'd upon by 
fome ill-grounded Subtilties: but then we fee, 
that the wifcft and moft fcnfible part of the 
World have, at all times, judg'd of 'em quite o- 
therwife. Nay all, whether learned or unlearn- 
ed, have found in 'em a certain Agreement with, 
and Conformity to right Rcal'on ; and that 
too more or lefs diftinft, as they have been en- 
dow'd with more or lefs good natural Senfc : and 
in proportion to the Progrcfs each Man has made 
in Reafoning and Knowledge, he ftill finds this 
Agreement become more and more fenfible. Men 
have always [diftinguilh'd the Idea of Duty, from 
that of Profit j even in thofe Maxims, where 
thefe two Ideas have been moft infcperably blend- 
ed together: the firft of thefe, even when they 
fcarce, or not at all percciv'd the true Foundations 
thereofi has ftill made an Imprellion, fufficient 
to form in them fuch a Conception of it felf, as 
carries with it a peculiar Force and Efficacy ; plain- 
ly diftinft from, and independent of that of the 
other. Men have fcarce ever been able to for- 
bear fecretly reproaching themfelves, as oft as 
they had facrific'd to their Intereft the prafticeof 
that, which they look'd upon to be their Duty. 
And it has even been obfcrv'd, that * wicked 
Men would choofe, fwere it poffible) to enjoy 
the Fruits of a criminal Aftion, without commit- 
ting the Crime it fclf If we reflect rightly up- 
on the Matter, it muft be own'd, that the grofs 
of Mankind are not fo much as capable of compre- 
hending, or feeing to the end of all thofe profpefts of 
Utility, which a skilful Lawgiver, or profound 
Philofopher, might have had in view : fo that it 
often happens here, that the Notion of Duty a- 
lone makes the Impreflion j and it is likewife 
the Intention of the Law-maker, that it {hould 

* See Silv/t Philologist of Mr. LeClerc, publifh'd in 171 1, at the end of his Efchines ; Cap. 2, towards the end. 
*' Locke's Eflay, /i&. i, cap. 4, §. 12, p. 75, French; and/. 42.- Edit. Lond. 1706. 

' Lucret. Lib. 1, ver. 102. 
•< Continuation of divers Thoughts, fcfr. p. 762. 

' ^a autemNatio non Comitatem, non Benignitatem,non gratum animum l^ Beneficii memorem diligit? ^a fuperlos, qua 
maleficos, qua crudeles, qu<s ingratos non afpernatur, nonodit? Cicero de Legib. lib. 1, cap. 11.- 
■" Biblioth. Uaiverf. Tom. 8, p. 527._ 

* See the Paflages citedini'w^Mi/. //*. 3, chap, i, §. i,Note^; and add there the following Words, which come after that 
of Seaeca : Maximum hoc habemus Natura meritum, qutdFirtus in gmnium animos lumen fuum permit tit : etiam qui non fequun- 
tur Warn, vident, Dc Benefic 4, 1 7., 


of the Science ofMoRALixr. lo 

do fo; for they well know the great power that the eflablidiingtheSohdity ofthe Maxims of Mo- 

chis Notion oFDuty has over the Minds of Men, ralityj and that will at the fame time fliow that 

and that it in many cafes lies level to the Capaci- they are adapted to all Capacities. For,l"iacethc 

tv of Multitudes, who have no Idea of the ex- Creator, who no doubt defigns that all Men 

p'cdicncyof the thing; which often mounts higher fliould be happy, has fo manitelHy and inrepcra- 

than their pitch of thinking can reach. Hence bly connected human Virtue and human Felicity j 

it has fometimcs happen'd, that Religion has been it is clear, that he indefpcnilibly requires of every 

caird in as an Auxiliary > arid the Law-givers have one an exaft Obfervation ofthe Law of Nature-, 

given out, that their Laws were of divme Extra- and confequently, that the Principles and Rules 

dion. After all, this Reply fuppofes that^ which thereof ought to be fuch, as may be eafily known 

will alone furnilh one good Argument, towards and demonllrated, 



Conclude then, with the faying of Strata in 
the Ntul Dialogues of the Dead *, whatever 
the other Party may fay of it j that Reafo 


in all Cafes where human Condaii is concern^ d^ affords 
Refol tit ions moft clearly decifive. But the Misfortune isy 
that 'we don't confult her. And it muft beown'd,to the 
fhame of Mankind, that this very Science, which 
ought to have been the great Bufinefs of Men, and 
the chief Object of all their Search and Enquiry} 
has in all times been treated with the greatefl 
Ncglcd and Indifference. * Socrates was afto- 
nifh'd to fee. That when there was occafion to have 
any one taught the Trade of a Shoemaker^ a Car- 
penter, a Sfnith, or the Art of Riding ; proper Pla- 
ces were never wanting, whither he might he fent, 
to he made a Mafier in thefe forts of Things : and 
that, there was every where plenty of fuch, as knew 
how to hreak, and manage Horfes and Oxen; where- 
as, if any one had a mind to he inftruiied himfelf in 
the Rules of Juflice, or have 'em taught to his 
Children or Slaves i there was no place to he found 
to go to for that Purpofc. A confiderable time after . 
this Philofopher's Days '', we find Cicero making 
the f unc Complaint : fVhat can be the reafon, (fays 
he,) that, fnce we confift of a Soul as well as a Bo- 
dy, the Art of curing, and preferving the Body in 
Health, has been fo early fought out j and found fo 
ufeful, as to have its Invention afcriVd to the Gods 
themfclvcs : IVhereas the Art of curing the Difeafes 
of the Mind, has neither been near fo much fought 
after be fore, or cult ivated and itnprov'd after, it was 
invented -y nor has it been had in Eflecm and Admi- 
ration, but by few ; whereas on the contrary, it has 
been even bated and fufpeUed by many ? It is, how- 
ever, no very difficult Matter to difcover the 
Reafons hcreofj and 'tis withal highly ufeful, to 

give 'cm their due Confideration. It it but too 
certain, that the feveral Neceffities of Life, real 
or imaginary ; the falfc and millaken Interefts > 
the ' Impreflions of Example, and receiv'd Cu- 
ftoms } the Prevalency of Fafhions, and the Tor- 
rent of Opinions in Vogue, with the early Preju- 
dices of Educati&nj but, above all, the predo- 
minant Paffions and Vices) do generally draw off 
the Minds of Men from a ferious Study of Mo- 
rahtyj and won't let them apply their Faculties 
to thofe Things, which really are their moft pro- 
per Objects ; and on which too really depends their 
true Felicity. ^ Philofophy (fiys the Author of the 
Dialogues, a little before cited, veiy pleafintly) 
has no Bufinefs hut with Men, and not at all with the 
reft of the univerfe. The Aftronomer fixes hii 
Thoughts upon the Stars; the Naturalift on Nature; 

and the Philofopher on himfelf. But becaufe 

Men find it trouhlefome, to have her meddling with 
their Affair Sy and perpetually at their Elbows, check- 
ing and regulating their Paffions ; they have there- 
fore fent her away to the Heavens, there to take art 
account of the Order and Motions of the Planets ; 
or elfe they travel her over the terreftrial Globe, and 
make her examine with the utmoft ExaHacfs allth.if 
is there to be feen. In a word, they take care al- 
ways to employ her at as great a difiance from them- 
felves as is pofjtble. The few, who have applv'd 
themfelvcs to the Study of Morality, have done 
it for the moft part in a manner conufs'd, ani 
f iperficial enough ; and often fo, as even to build 
upon Principles either entirely falfe, or obfcure 
and uncertain ; either foreign to its proper Bufi- 
nefs, or mixt up with grcifs Errours and Abfurdi- 
ties. From whence it comes to pafs, that in all 
Languages, the Terms of Morality, both in 

• Dialogues of the dead Ancients viith the dead Moderns, by Mr. Fontenelle, Dialog. 5, p. m. 208. Oeuvr. de Font. to. i, 
p. 102-. "Ed. Lond. 

* Tlx^iyiVijo [0 'Itijiou] "m ^uK^dti f^iy^vli 'agi< Ttvof, ui ^aufjut^v ii» to, h /jS^ t/« fi'ovKoiTO (DU/re* J)Jii^a.^i vva^ 
S riKTuva, S ■)(a,KKti, h iw'tia, fii Sot^hc oTni etV 'rr'iu.-^a.i tkt» Tjy$i' {puffi /» mi< )^ Wnov )y ^xp t&) |(?aAo«V« 
ctiyjiiysf ■Tnilim.S;^, Wi'7* ,a5sa eiviu r^ JiSu^'ov-mv) Sic S^ ti( HisKnrtu J) auTit pca^HV ii JincLiov., ii vio'j n or/Anv -tiJh'- 
{ai3^, //H HCfl/, o-mi iv tK^duv Tvyci rirts- Xenoph. Memorab. /. 4, c. 4, /. J; Ed. Oxon. fa" Ed. Paris, p. 804, B.~ 

'■ ^idnam ejfe, Brute, caufie putem, cur, quum conftemus ex animoij Corpore, Corporis curandi tuendiquecauffd quitpta fit 
Ars ejui, atque utilitas Deorum immortalium iiiventioni confccrata ; Animi autem medic ina, 7iec tarn de/iderata fit, antequam in- 
vent a ; nee tarn cult a, pojiea quam cognita eji ; nee tarn multis grata iff probata ; pluribus etiam fufpcBa iS invifa ? Tufc. Quift. 
lib. 3, cap. I." 

"^ Parvulos nobis dedit [Natura] igniculos, quos celeriter malis moribus, opinionibufque depravati, fie rejlinguimis ; ut nuf- 
^uam Nature lumen appareat : Simul atque editi in lucem, ^ fufcepti fumus, in omni ccntinuo pravitatc, (J in fumma 

epinionum perverfitate verfamar. Accedunt etiam Poeta : qxi, cum magnam fpeciemdoBiinte, fapientiaq; pr.'C fe tulerurJ; 

andiuntur, leguntur, edifcuntur, isf inh^rej'cunt penitus in mentibus. Cum vero eodem-fuaji maximus quidam Magiflcr Populus 
accejjit, atq; omnis undiq; ad vitia confentiens Multitudo ; tunc plane inficimur ofinionum pravitate^, i Naturaq; defcifcirnus. 
^id, qui fccunire cupiditate, qui voluptatum libidine feruntur ? Sex:. Idem ibid, cap- i-'&"2~. 

•• Dial, da Morts Anciens, in tlie firft Part, Dialog. 4, p. 30. Qeuvr. de Fent. Lond. 1707, to. i, p. 19", 18-. 

4 common 


'Jn Hijlorical and Critical Account 

common Difcourfe, and in the Writing of the learn- 
ed ; are fuch, as have the mort obfcure, confus'd, 
indetermin'd , and unfix'd Ideas, of any other 
Terms whatever. And this might make it be 
fufpeftedjthat the Principles too of MoraHtyare 
hkewifeveryabftrufej were it not known by the 
common Experience of all Ages, that Men ge- 
nerally defpife the Things which are plain and ordi- 
nary, to run after fuch as are extraordinary and 
myfteriousj and that they either will not know, 
or will rejeft even Truth it felf, unlefs fhe brings 
fome Charm with her to raife their Curiollty; 
and gratify their Paffion for what is marvelous 
and uncommon. This is what has been judici- 
oufly obfcrv'd, and upon the fame Subjcft too, 
by the famous "" Confucius, the Chinefe Philofo- 
per : / knoiv 'very zvcU, fays he, ijhy the grcatejl 
part of Ma)2kind do not follo'W the great Road of 
Mediocrity, altho' fo eafy to find ; 'tis becaufe the 
learned defpife it j and becaufe, imagining their Pe- 
netration to reach far beyond that Medium, they 
regkfi it as below 'em ; love to advance unheard of 
Principles ; and engage themfehes in Ways more 
difficult atid dangerous. But it mult be acknow- 
ledg'd, that it is not fo much the Prejudices of 
the Undcrftanding 5 as the lUufions of the Heart, 
and the Tyranny eilablifh'd in the World with 
relation to Opinions 5 which form the grand Ob- 
ftacles to the ferious lludy of Morality : and to the 
Attainment of a more exaft Knowledge of our 
Duty. Mr. Locke 'has veiy well cxprefs'd it : It 
is not to be expelled, (viz. that any 'will very 'much apply 
themfelves to make Difcoveries in Matters of Mora- 
lity,) ivhilft the deftre of Efleem, Riches, or Power, 
makes Men efpouje the ivell endowed Opinions in 
Fafhion, and then feek Arguments cither to 'make 
good their Beauty, or varnifio over, and cover their 

Deformity. —JVhilfl the Parties of Men, cram their 
1'enets down all Mens I'hr oats, whom they can get in- 
to their Power, without permitting them to examine 
their Truth or Falfliood > and will not let Truth 
have fair play in the JVorld, nor Men the Liberty 
to fearch after it j What Improvenients can be 
expelled of this kind? What greater Light can be 
hoped for in the moral Sciences? The fubj eel part of 
Mankind, in mofl Places, might, inflead thereof, 
with Egyptian Bondage, expe^ Egyptian Dark- 
nefs, were not the Candle of the Lord fet up by 
himfclf in Mens Minds, which it is impoffible for 
the Breath or Power of Man wholly to cxtinguifh. 
After all this, is it to be wonder'd at, that luch, 
whofe Occupations and Dirtradions of Life, or 
want of Genius and outward Helps, do not al- 
low 'em to engage in long and profound Medita- 
tions ; (that is in a Word, the grcateft part of 
Mankind) : are found to have generally Under- 
ftandings fo fhort and narrow, and Ideas fo 
falfe or fo confus'd in M.atters of Morality ? 
Altho', as we have already faid, every one be 
by Nature capable to inftrulT; himfclf therein, 
as far as his particular Station requires; it has 
no doubt been always God"'-, Will, that they, 
who had the greatell Light, and whom his 
Providence had furnifh'd with the greatell Helps j 
fhould communicate their Knowledge to fuch, 
as were not able of themfelves to acquire it fo 
eafdyj or in fo great a degree. But, in order 
to fet in its full Light, this inexcufablc Neg- 
ligence of Mankind, in a thing of fuch vail 
Importance ; I fhall here prefent the Reader 
with a fhort Hiftory of the Progrefs of Mo- 
rality > and of the manner how it has been cul- 
tivated through all the paft Age? of the World. 

' In the Extraifl from the Book of P. Couplet, Bibl. Unk>, Tom. 7, p. 422.- 

* EiBy of Human Vnderjianding, Book IV, chap. 3, §. 20, /. 479,. &,-c. See the Farrhafiana, Tom. 2, p. 66, £5? feq. 


THERE are two forts of Men, who 
ought to apply themfelves in a more 
particular manner to Morality > {viz.) 
The publick Minifiers of Religion -j and the Men 
of Learning ; or thofe who make it their Pro- 
feffion or Bufinefs, to cultivate and improve their 
Underftandings by the fiudy of the Sciences. Both 
the one and the other are equally oblig'd, as 
much as in them lies, as well to be initrufted 
therein themfelves j as to teach the ignorant : 
but the Obligation of the former, is more ftri6l 
and indifpenfable ; than that of the latter. 

It is certain, that * Morality is the Daughter 
of Religion, tha,t they go hand in hand together ; 
and that the PerfeSlion of the latter, is the Stan- 
dard of Perfe&ion in the former. This has been 
acknowledg'd by a great Emperour and heathen 
Philofopher. Thou wilt never, faid '' he, do any 

thing, tho' purely human, well, if thou art igno- 
rant of the relation it bears to Things divine 5 
nor any thing divine, if thou kncwejl not what 
Jffinity and Connexion it has with Things hu- 
mane. In Fa&, the fundamental Principles of 
Natural Religion, which muft be the Bafis of 
all other Religion ; are alfo the moil firm, or 
rather only, Foundation of this Science of 
Morality. Without a Deity, Duty, Obligation, 
Right, are no more, * to fay the Truth, than 
fine Ideas 5 which may pleafe the Mind, but 
can fcarce touch the Heart ; and which of 
themfelves, cannot impofe an indifpenfable Ne- 
cefTity to aft or not to aft, in fuch or iuch a 
certain manner. The Ideas of Order, Decen- 
cy, and Conformity with Rcafon, have in 'em 
without doubt fomething real ; they are found- 
ed on the Nature of Things •, on certain Re- 

= Preface of Mr. and Madam Ditc'ur to the Moral Reflexions of Marcus Antoninus, p. 2.-. or * A 2, p. z.- 
'' "Out? yii dv^^u-mv'ovv ivdi-^iTrl Ttt. ^eia. avv-ivatio^a,i%v TfcL^eif, tn'iyimihtv ■ Marcui Antonin. lib. "■,,%. \1,_. Edit. 
Cataicr; (sf §. I2_, in the Tranflation of Mr. and Madam Dacifr. 
* See what is faid, Pufend. lib. 2, chtip. 3, §. 19, not. 2. andchap. 4, ^. 3, nr,t. 4. 

2, lations 

tifthe Science ofMoRALirr. 

l.uions mofl tnie: and even thofe who cannot 
explain 'em dillinftly and fully, have IHU a 
Senfe, a FeeHng oF 'em, tho' perhaps not alto- 
gether (o diil:in£t : Our Minds are fo fram'd, 
that they neceflarily rell fatisfy'd with 'em, as 
ibonas propos'dj and thus it is, that raoriXHone- 
fty ox Virtue has thro' alL'Vges influenc'd Mankind, 
in all civiliz'd Nations. But to give thefe Ideas 
their full Force and due Meafure of Efficacy} to 
make 'cm ftrong enough to maintain their Ground 
againft PaiTion andSelf-intereft} they will require 
a lliperjour Being; a Being fuperiour to us in Pow- 
er and Might, who has fubjcctcd us to a flridt 
Conformity therewith in our Conduft; who has 
lo bound us thereto, that it is out of our Power 
to difengage our felves, or at pleafure difpenfe 
with the Obligation ; in a word, who has put us 
under an 0Z'//gi7/.w/, properly fo call'd j to follow 
each of us the Light of his own proper Reafon. 
This Fear of a Deity, who punillies Vice and 
rewards Virtue, has fo great an Efficacy ; that, 
altho' the fundamental Principles of Religion be 
much darken'd, by the Intermixture of Errour and 
Superfrition ; yet if they are not entirely cor- 
rupted and deftroy'd, it will ftill continue to aft- 
uate, and have a confiderable Influence. The 
purer thefe Principles are, and the better they 
are fupported, the more they contribute to the 
llrengrhning the Foundations of Morality ; and 
to the clear fetting forth its Rules in all their 
Confcqucnces. But l"hou'd you make the fineft 
Syftem in the World, if Rehgion has not its part 
in it, it will be little more than ( as I may f ^y) a 
fpeculative Morality; and you will be found to 
build on a findy Foundation. This being fo, it 
was natural to expc6l, that the publick Minillers 
of Religion, fhould have made Morality their 
principal Study ; in order to conform themfelves to 
it in all their Proceedings} and to give the People 
fuch juil Ideas thereof, as might be capable of 
producing folid Virtue. But they have been far 
iTiort, in this refpecl, of afting up to either their 
Duty, or Abilities. In the Times of Paganifm, 
the Ybcologers^ Diviners.^ and Pricjls, who gave 
out the celcftial Oracles, and call'd themfelves 
the Interpreters of the Will of the Gods} took 
little or no Care to teach Men the Rules of Vir- 
tue. And I muft needs confefs, that Lefturcs of 
good found Morality, in their Mouths, woti'd 
have but ill futed the monftrous Ideas they gave 
of the Deity ; or thofe Failings, Imperfe£lions, 
and even Vices, which they, by an unaccoun- 
table Perverfion of all natural Knowledge, af- 
crib'd to the Deity it felf We fee therefore 
the ancient Doftors of Chriftianity, vigorou- 
fly reproaching the Pagans with this illegal 
Divorce between Religion and Morality. They 
who teach and inflruSt others in the Worjlnp of 


the Gods, (fays = La5iantius\ fpeak not a -word 
of any thing that tends to the Regulation of Maji- 
ners, and Conduit of Life: They do mt fo much 
as make Enquiry of any fort after Truth; hut con- 
fine themfelves -wholly to the Knowledge of the Cere' 
monies of Divine Service } which require only the 
Minifiry of the Body, and in which the Sentiments 

of the Mind have really no part. '' The Philofo- 

phy and the Religion of the Heathens, are two 
T'hings entirely feparate one from the other. 
or Philofophy has its peculiar ProfeJJ'ors, who teach 
not the way of approaching the Gods: Jnd Religion 
alfo has its Miniflers, who teach not the Rules of 
IVifdom. Whence this is apparent, that theirs is 
neither true Wifdom, nor true Religion. And in- 
deed, as Mr. Bayle has obferv'd, " It would be 
" very difficult to *= prove, that the Priefts of Pa- 
"«;.'7«//?/^.requir'd any thing, befidcsthe exterior or 
" outward Shew of Piety ; or that they prefs'd 
" Amendment of Life upon the People} and de- 
" nounc'd, that, without a fincere and pcrfeve- 
" ring Repentance and Reformation of all cor- 
" rupt Inclinations } Vows, Offi^rings, Procefll- 
" ons. Sacrifices, Ceremonies, ordinary or extra- 
" ordinary-, could not appeafe the Anger of the 
" Gods. It is much eafier to prove, that they 
" fuffirr'd the World to rell under this commo- 
" dibus Illufion} That it was fufficient to be libc 
" ral towards the Gods ; and to follow the Formu- 
" lary of Church-Ceremonies. The Satyr o? 
*' will ferve to convince its of this } where having 
*' firft thunder'd out againft thofe who make a 
"Bank or Fund of Religion} he immediately 
*' calls upon and challenges the Priefts, to fhcw 
" what Gold has to do with holy Things: ^'■^Tell 
*' me, you who are our Priefs, of what Ufe is Gold 
" in our holy Places? Even jujl as much, as the lit- 
" tie Babies which bridal Virgins offer to Venus. 
" Why do we not offer to the Gods fornething, which 
" neither the Cotta'j-, nor the Mefl-da'j can prefent 
" to them, with all their -magnificent Chargers pil'd 
" up with the FlefJj of their mofl exquifite ViHirns ? 
" Why do we not offer to them ajufl, fincere, and 
" generous Heart, deeply i-mbu'd with the inofi live- 
" ly Sentiments of Jujlice and Honour ? Let me but 
*' have this Prefent to make 'em, and the meanefl 
" Sacrifice flmll not fail to draw down upon me the 
" choicefl Blcffings. Does not this infinuate, tiiat 
" that it v/as the Priefts who chcrifti'd that mer- 
" cenaiy Spirit, that Traffick and Trade of De- 
" votion, that reigning Abufe } which made Men 
*' fo lavifh towards the Gods, as to fpare nothing 
" in Victims and Offerings } imagining that the 
"Gods, being pleas'd as much as Men, with 
" Prefents of Gold and Silver, cou'd not then but 

" grant 'em whatfoever they ask'd ? We can- 

" not tell whether thefe Priefts were learned or 
" not } and whether they had philofophiz'd on the 

•^ Nihil Hi [/« Deorum cultu\ dijjeritur, quod proficidt ad mores excotendos, vitamque formandam ', nee habet inquijitioneri. 
aliquam veritatis, Jed tantiimmodo ritum colendi; quod non officio mentis, fed minifterio corporis conjlat. Iiiftit. divin. lib. 4, 
cap. 3, num. i. Edit. Cellar. 

'^ iluoniam igitur, lit dixi, Philofophia i^ religio deorum difyunSla funt, longeque difcreta; Jiquidem alii funt frofejfores fa- 
fientite, per quos utique ad decs non aditurl alii religionis antifiitcs, per quos fapere non difcitur : apparet, nee ilium effet'eram 
fapientiam, nee banc religioncm. Idem. ibid. mim. 4. See St. Aujlin de Civit. Dei, lib. 2, cap. 4", 6''. 

^ Continuation des Penfees dlverfes, Artie. 49, p. 223. See Mr. Locke's Reafonablenefs of Chriftianity, i^c- p. 267'. Edif. 
Lond. 1696. 

' Dicite, Pontifiees, in fanBo quid facit aurum? Nempe hoc, quod Veneri domtte a virgine piipp<e. ^in damns id fuperis, 
de magna quod dare lance Non pojpa magni Mejala lippa propago i eompofitnm jus, fufque animo, fanBofque rece£iit mentis, (^ 
incoaum generofo peiius honejio? Hac cedo, lit admovcam tcm^lis, f^ farre litabo. Sat. 2, vcrf. 69, & fe(j<j. 

*' Naturs 


An Hiftorical and Critical Account 

" Nature of the Gods : But this we have Reafon 
« to believe ; that they had neither Virtue nor 
" Probity enough, to perluade Men to place a 
" much greater Confidence, in the Purity of the 
" Hearts than in the exterior Practices iof divine 
" Worfhip ; and Disburlements made on account 
" ofReh"-ion." The Profit of the Prieib wou'd 
have been^'too much diminifii'd, if Men had fol- 
low'd the Maxims of the Philoiophers. I Ihall 
add to this a gentle Wipe that Socrates gives 'cm, 
in that Dialogue o? Plato, which bears the Name 
o? Eulhyphro', that is, of him \.nt\\\v\iom Socrates 
is introduc'd difcourfingj (whofe Gra/^ Name an- 
fwers exaftly to another Greek Name more in ufe 
with us, called Orthodox ; /. e. one that is in the 
right). He was a Soothftycr, and Socrates iccms 
to reproach in his Perfon the Prielts in general, 
as well as others of that Stamp > « with being too 
re fervid in comnmnicating themfches ; and that they 
did not willingly impart to others their Wiidomj 
that is to llxy, their Knowledge, or what they 
themfelves had difcover'd. By which in all Like- 
lihood he intends chiefly what relates to Mora- 
lity j as is intimated by the Oppofition he makes 
between their Conduft, and the Condudl himlelf 
obferv'd in his Converllitions 5 which ran gene- 
rally upon that Science : and which tended Iblely 
to correa the Errors of Mankind, and infpirc 'em 
with the Love of Virtue. Befidcs, the very Sub- 
je£t of the Dialogue gives us clearly to under- 

i^lsui yif s'j fih tToxHf airtivitiv (TiMiiv 'TTcLfi^w, )(g.i ///aVkhI' 01/* e94Aw T»y ffiavn ffefirtj-. Tom. i, p. 3, D", 
Ed. Steph. Ed. Lsmar. p. 48, E-. 

b Pufend. lib. 2, chap. 4, Seft. 3, Note 4. 

ftand the falfe Ideas the Pricfts had, upon the 
Subjeft of Morality -, for Ave there fee Enthypbro, 
who thinks he is doing the fineft Action in the 
World, offering himlelf as a voluntary Acculer 
againft his own Father} in a Matter too, where 
he pretends to convict him of no lefs than Mur- 
ther. Some perhaps will objeft to me here, 
what I have elfewhere ihewn in ^ one of my 
Notes } that, amongft the Heathens, even the 
common People were not ignorant, that as Vir- 
tue was well plcafing j fo Vice w;is odious to the 
Deity : From whence one might be apt tjo infer, 
that the People were beholden to the publick 
Minillers of Religion for this Knowledge at lealL 
But it is very probable, that Principles of tliis 
fort were prefcrv'd among the People, either by 
ancient Tradition ; or by fome Remains of the 
Light of natural Religion; or by both thefe to- 
gether: And that, if the Priells did not directly 
teach the contrary, but did fomctimes even re- 
commend Virtue; it was only in general loofe 
Terms, without ever entring into the Particulars 
requifite for Liilruftion 3 which witliout doubt 
they were not very capable of doing. But this is 
fufficient for my Defignj which is to fhe\v,that> 
in the Time of Paganifm, the publick Minillere 
of Religion, who ovight to have made it their 
principal Study, bufied themfelves about nothing 
lefs than this Science of Morality. 


AMongft the Jews, it does not appear that 
the Priclts apply'd themfelves to this Sci- 
ence: And from the Time that Prophets 
ceas'd from among that chofen People of God ^ 
that is to fay, a httle after their Return from the 
Babylonip Captivity j the Doctors and publick 
Interpreters of the Law began infenfibly to cor- 
rupt Morality ; fo ftr were they from unfolding 
the true Principles thereof, and drawing out thofe 
Principles into all their Confequences ; as they 
mi<^ht eafily have done, with the Help and Af- 
fiftance of that Revelation, of which tiiey were 
the Depofitaries: But being entirely bufy'd about 
their Civil Law, or the Study of Ceremonies ; 
and befides fill'dwith carnal Prejudices, and fcru- 
puloufly attach'd to the Letter of the Law; they 
either did not at all penetrate into, or elfe did en- 
tirely frultrate and confound the Spirit and De- 
fign of the Legiilatour. They, on pretence that 
God, to fute himfelf to the Weaknefs of the Jcw- 
iJJ} Nation, had prefcrib'd to 'em a great Num- 
ber of Rites and Ceremonies ; infilled much more 
upon the Performance of the exterior Worfiiip, 
and the praftical Punftilio's of Devotion ; than 
the Purity of the Heart and Inclinations, with an 

exa£t Conformity, and fteady Adherence to the 
Rules of Virtue; and what was Hill worfe, by 
their filfe Glofles, and by their human * Tra- 
ditions, they came at lall to Jdeftroy entirely (e- 
veral of the moil inconteftable Principles of the 
Law of Nature. They invented, for example, 
a thouland ridiculous Subtikies, to furnilh Men 
with Expedients for eluding the Obligation of 
the molt folemn Oaths, and Promifes. IFhofoe- 
ver, ( fay the Scribes and Pharifees, whom Jefus 
for that Reafon treats as Hypocrites and blind Guides) 
JVhofoever ^ jh all five ar by the 7'emplc, it is nothings 
hut who foe-ver pall fivear by the Gold of the Temple^ 
he is a Debter : or, obliged to keep his Oath. JVho~ 
foever fljall fivear by the ''^^ Altar, it is nothing ; but 
•whofoever fweareth by the Gift (or Offering) that 
is upon it, he is guilty : or obligd to keep his Oath. 

IFbiljl they paid f fit be of Mint, and Jnife^ 

and Cummin, they omitted the iveightier Matters of 
the Laiu, || Jnftice, Mercy, and Faith. 'Tis one 
of the cle:irefl Maxims of right Reafon , that 
every Vow " contraiy to any divine Law, is in 
it fcif entirely void. Yet the Priclts, and the 
Doftors who were their Dependants, finding 
their Account in Vows which Men made for 

» See Mj«;&. XV. 3, yr. '' Matth. xxiii. 16, 18, 23. 

* Verf. 18. + Vcrf. 2}. || Sec Gro////^ on the Place. 

<: See Pufend. dc Jur. Nit. & Gent. lib. 3, cap. 6, feil. 1 5. ij lib. 4, cap. 2, fea. 8. 


of the Science of Morality. 

the Benefit of the Church ; had the face to main- 
tain, that if any one had made a Vow to God of 
all that he fTiould be able to give to his Father or 
Mother ; fuch a Vpw was good in Law, and ir- 
i-cvocabie ; fo that after fuch Vow made, this 
unnatural, or rather impious Child was, accord- 
ing to them, not only difcharg'd from giving any 
Succour or Relief to his Parents in their Ncceill- 
tics ; bat even bound in point of Confcience not 
to do it j on account of the Obligation of this 
fame Vow : Their Decifion runs thus : ^ Whofo- 
ever fhall fay to his Father or his Mother^ what I 
could haz-e fuccour'' d you withal^ be it confecrated to 
God ; he nrnjl not fuccour^ that is, honour his Fa- 
ther or his Mother, according to the Commandment. 
And whereas God, for Reafons founded on the 
Conrtitution of the Ifraelitifl) Government j had 
forbidden the Jeivs to have much Commerce 
with other Nations > and had even exprcfly com- 
manded them to exterminate fome of 'em. They 
hereupon cntertain'd Sentiments of implacable 
Hatred and Animofity againfc all the reft of Man- 
kmd : So that the Je-w believ'd himfelf wholly 
difcharg'd from all the common Offices of Hu- 
manity'^ or Civility^, with refpeft to all Foreign- 
ers, unlcfs they embrac'd the JewiJJj Religion} 
he infifted likewife, that he was warranted by 
Law to treat 'em in a hoftile manner j and that 
he was not only permitted, but pofitively com- 
manded to take Vengeance of 'em, whenever it 
could be fafely put in pradlice ; and fo far was he 
from any Poffibility of being undeceiv'd in thefe 
barbarous and inhuman Opinions of his, by any 
Inftruftion he might receive from his Teachers j 
that all their Difcourfes tended to nothing fomuch 


as to confirm him m 'em. The Pharifces, befot- 
ted with the Notions o£ Judas the Gaulanite% 
vainly imagin'd, that there could be no Magi- 
ftrate, unlefs of their own Nation, and eiUblifh'd 
by the immediate Appointment of God, to whom 
Obedience was due for Confcience lake j and up- 
on this they founded their particular Do6brine, 
nhat it was unlawful to pay Tribute to the y^e/Wiiw 
Empcrourj tho' in peaceable Pofiefiion of their 
Country. " Jnd many fuch-like 'f kings did they, as 
ouxhoxd JefusChrift lays to their Charge, in many 
Places of the Gofpcl. As for thofe Do£tors, the 
Jews have had during all the following Ages down 
to the prefent Timej thefe feem to have made it 
their fole Aim to furpafs their Predccefibrs in this 
Particular} witnefs the Extravagancies, detellablc 
Maxims, and impious Notions, with which they 
have ftuff'd their Talmud ; and wherewith the 
Books of their Rabbins do fo abound. You may 
find there, for inftancc, ' that 'tis the moft inno- 
cent Thing in the World, to utter all manner of 
Curfes and Execrations againft Chriftians: that it 
is not fo much as a Thing tolerated, for any one to 
prefume to fave '' an Idolater, that's a drowning ; 
or in danger of periling, by any other Accident : 
or to dotheOfficeof aPhyfician to him, tho' he's 
furetobewell paid for it ; unlefs he have juftCaufe 
to fear fome hurt to himfelf, from the Rcientmcnt 
of the Patient, on account of his refijfal : In this 
particular Cafe, fay they, he may affift him, but 
always upon condition that he be very well paid 
for his Pains } for it is by no means lawful to do 
it gratis. Thus you ^ fee how thefe Falfe-Teachers 
have corrupted the pure Morals of their Legifatour 

^ Matt. XV, 5. See Grotii/s i, 1. 

« See Juvenal, Sat. 14, 103, 104. Tacit. Hijl. lib. 5, cap. 5". And the Parable of the Samaritan, Lukex, 30, tfr. 

r Matt. V, 47. 

E See Matt, xxii, 17. and Jofepb. Antiq. Jud. lib. 18, cap. i~. and Be Bell. Jud. lib. 2, cap. I2~, Ed. Genev. And Ed. 
Havercam. c. S." ^ Markv'n, 13. 

' See Grct!!/s''s Letters, Parti, Epift. 122. 

^ Miiimonides, of Idolatry, tranflated by, and with the Notes of, Dion. Voff. at the end of Tom. V, Oper. Gerh. Jo. Vojf. 
Amfterd. 1700. Note, This Rabbin is one of the mofl: elleem'd, and judicious. See Nouv. de la Rep. des Lett. Jan. 1707, 
Art. 4. and Bafnage, HiJl. of the Jezvs, lib. 4, cap. 15. where thefe Authors relate feveral Maxims of the corrupt Morality 
of the Je:vifr Doftors. 

' Mr. Bernard, in YihNezut of O^. 1702. p. 46 ; wliere he reports thefe loofe Decifions of the Jcmjh Cafuift. 


JESUS Chriji did, thro' the whole Courfe 
of his Miniihy, inceflantly oppofe, and ut- 
terly dellroy the erroneous Maxims, and per- 
nicious Glofles of theie JewifJj Doftors. He 
re-eftablifii'd Morality in its utmoft Purity } he 
fully laid open the true Sources thereof} and he 
gave forth Rules touching the whole Duty both 
of Mankind in general, and of each Perfon in par- 
ticular ; they were general indeed, but perfect } en- 
tirely conformable to right Reafon, and the true 
Intereits of Mankind. His Difciples every where 
preach'd up this moft holyDoftiine; by the Light 
of which, if well underftood and unfolded, a Man 
may fecurely direft his Judgment in the Decifion 
of<vll imaginable Cafes. Neveithclefs, even in the 
Timeof the Apoifles themfelves, certain falfeDo- 
ftors,not a few, had crept into the Church} who 
began to corrupt the Chriftian Morality, by pre- 

tending " it was necefiary to add thereunto, the Ob- 
fervation of the Mo/i/V Ceremonies} altho' the Son 
of God had manifeftly difcharg'd Men from the 
Obligation of fubmitting themfelves to that Yoke } 
a Thing in its own Nature much more proper to 
draw Men off from the Praftice of trae Virtue; 
than either to preferve, or promote it. There 
were likewife (omc^,who teaching another Doctrine 
than that of Jefus Chrift, gave heed to Fables, and 
endlefs Genealogies, which caused ^teflicns and Dif- 
putes, rather than godly edifying in that Faith, which 
God demands ; and in that Charity, which is the 
end of the Commandments, both of the Law, and of 
the Gofpel } knaviili and ignorant Doftors, who 
under food neither what they [aid, nor whereof they 
affirmed, and who turned a fide unto vain jangling. 
Others there were, who" dcjfis'' d Government ; who 
being audacious and infolent,w;ere not afraid tofpeak 

=■ Sec the Epiftles of St. Paul to the Romans, and Galatians ; and Colojf. ij, 20, ^ feq, 
^ 1 Timothy i, 3,4,5,6,7. = 2 Beter ii, 10, 18. 



Jn Hiftorkd and Critical Account 


evil of Dignities j "who freaking big Words full of 
Vanity and Folly, allur'd thro' the Lujls oftheFlefJ), 
and thro' much Wantonnefs,^ thofe nuho had truly 
efcafdfrom them ivho liv\l in'Errour; who'^ turn" d 
the Grace of our God into Lafci-vioufnefs : And lalt 

of all, fuch, * as held the DoSlrine of Balaam, who 
f taui^ht Balac to caft a Stumbling-block before 
the Children oUfrael,(o that they ate Things of- 
fer'd to Idols, and committed Fornication. 

^ Jude, ver. 4. 

« Revelations, Chap, ii, ver. 14. 

f See Numbers xxii, Of feq. 



O mangel then, if after the Death of the fpeculative -, or concerning the Difcipline of the 
and their Primitive Dilciples, Church. It was but very rarely, if at all, that 

" they handled Points of Morality ; and that too only 
occafionally ■, and ever in a manner by no means 
accurate, or methodical. The Sermons,^ which 
they fometimes made on this Sub jeft, were fo lluff'd 
with thevainOrnament.'=of aflilleRhctorick •, that 

the Evil grew every day worfe and 
worfe. The extreme Fondnefs and Conceit, which 
the following Ages grew into, of Fables*, and 
Allegories j of a '' flilfe Eloquence, and of the 
groundlcfs Imaginations of the Heathen *Philofo 

%and of the right Me- 

phers; the profound Ignorance they were in, of the Truth did, as it were, Ivfmother'd under heaps 
^- • --I - . . »,. . ,.-•'. • 1 ,^ of Figures, and pompous Declamations. And the 

greateft Part of thoie moral Reficftions, which 
they fcatter'd here and there in their Works, were 
exti-afted, by forc'd and far-fetch'd Allegories, from 
a thouland different Places of Scripture, where the 
true literal Senfe itfelf made nothing to their Pur- 
pofe. To be convinc'd of this, we need only read 
thofe Colleftions, which fome of the moil extra- 
vagant « Admirers of Ecclefiallical Antiquity, have 
given us of the Thoughts, which appear'd to them, 
the moft beautiful in thefe Works of the Fathers. 
Bcfidcs, thefe anticnt Doftory, even in their very 
bcflTrcatifes of Morality, pcrp'ctually •> confound 
the Duties of Mankind in general, with the par- 
ticular Duties of a Chriftian, precifely confider'd 
as fuch} as well as the Principles of Morality purely 
natural, with thofe of Chriilian Morality: on the 
other hand you fhall often find 'cm putting too 
great a Difference between the Man and theChri- 
ilian; and by pufhing thisDiftinftion too for, run 
themfelves into the Abfurdity, of laying down 
Rules that are imprafticablc. To conclude then 
with what is a moil apparent Proof, of the jittlc 

theAitof Reafoning juilly 
thod of expounding the Holy Scripture j the Pre- 
cipitation v.'ith which they afted, in purfuance of 
the rafh Diftates of an over-heated Imagination ; 
the Ambition ^md bad Morals of the greateft Part 
of the Clergy; more jealous of their own Rights, 
and more intent upon difcufling Points of Difci- 
pline, or abftradcd Notions of Metaphyficks ; 
than diligent in ftudying themfelves, or teaching 
the People, the Rules of Morality ; the dreadful 
Diforders, and fcandalous Divifions, which did fo 
often rend the Church •, the grofs Frauds and A- 
bufes which from time to time ftoleintoPraftice ; 
imd which at laft oblig'd them to come to a pub- 
lick Reformation thereof; a Thing always found 
very difficult even but to undertake, tho' much 
more fo in the Execution ; add to thefe the little 
Solidity, which we find in the greateft Part of thofe 
Works, which are the Remains of Ecclefiaftical 
Antiquity : all this, I fay, gives us reafon to be- 
Jicvc, that the Study of Morality, during all this 
Intenal, notwithftanding the Light of the Gol- 
pel ; made but little Progrefs in the World. But, 

io put this Matter clearly beyond all poflibility of Care they had to improve Morality; there isfcarce 
dcfcend to Particulars. oneof them, who has not been guilty ot ver)' grofs 

doubt, we fhall now 

fFho kncws not, (fiys a Minifter ^ of the Re- 
form'd Religion ) that mofl of the Fathers have not 
ivrote at all upon Matters of Confcience ; and that 
thofe 'who have touch'' d thereupon, have /aid nothing 
to the greateft Part of thofe ^.eftions, the Detcrmina- 

Errours thereupon. Let us but run over the moil 
celebrated of them, and they will furnifti us with 
manifcft Examples of what I am faying. 

Athenagoras ' fca7is to eftablifti the ^ IVorfliip of 
Angels ■■, and fays, they ivere created Superintendants 

Hon ivhereof luas of the greateft Fmportance? In taft, over the things here belciv. He extols Celibacy, and 
- - - - - .nfmit- condemns fecond Marriages, vjhich he terms a.fpe- 

ondemns fecond . 
cious fort of Adultery. 

The Work of Clement of Alexandria, entitled 
fhe Pcdagoz^ue, is a Book wherein "" he undertakes 
to form the'Mannersof Touth ; and gives 'cm Rules of 

7, Col. I'. £,///. Hoi. And 

l^ feq. 4th Edit, and /. 386" 

it appears, both by thofe Books we have tranlr 
ted down to us ; and by the Catalogues of thofe 
that are loft 5 that the greateft Part of thofe, wc 
call Fathers of the Church, fcarcc ever took Pen in 
hand on any other Subject, befidcs Matters purely 

» See Bibl. Vnherf. Tom. X, p. 233, l£ feq. and DuTin, Bibl. des Auth. Ecclef Tom. I, p 
Baf'i. Hiff. of the Jews, Lib. 3, cap. 22 throughout. 

■" Sctxht Ars Critica o( Le Clerc, Tom. I, Parti, Seft. 1, Cap. 16, n. 13", £5f/<'?- P-347 
2d Edit, and Bibl. Univ. Tom. XII, p. 144, ^ feq. and 263, (jffeq. 

' See Bib/.Uni'j. Tom. X, «. i8i-. , ., • , j n^ j r^i. „ 

a See La Defenfi dei Sentiments de quelques Theol. &c. Let. 14, p. 360", i^c. and IVotto,, on the Ant.ents and Moderns. Chap.28. 

and the Epiftola Crit. i^ Ecclef of Le Clcrc, Ep. 4. , „ ,, ■ l i_ ,- .. r i 

c Bibl. Univ. Tom. XVIII, /. 57," 92," 1 10,- 119." taken from feveral Places of Gregory Nazianzen, where he lets forth 

the Corruption of the Clergy. 

f iaP/^r^//^ Treatifeof C(!W/?iV»i-<-, Lib. 2, Chap. 16, />. 190, ofthe firllEdition. . r j n -.r;-,- u 

R See the Notes of Mr. De Sacy on the Scripture, which are full of them ; and the Penfees Ingenteufes des Peres a Egltje, by 
T.Bouhoiirs. See Mr. Bernard, in his A'wr?//// of Sc/t/^w^iT 1704, />. 282, 283, 284, 285. <^ .^ , „ ,. 

>> See Mr. Buddeus, in his //;/?. du Natural, Seft. lo, at the beginning of the Sc/eHa J. N. & (gentium. 

■' In his Apology for the Chriftians, p.xi. A' ; and ;. 27, A-, B_, C", Ed. Colon. See Barbeyrac s Morale des Peres, Prcf. 
f. 1 5-, iff lib. p. 6-, tff /I. 25-, isfc. 

" DuPin, Bibl. Dcs Aut. Ecclef Tom. I, p. 65. a - Edit. H-Aland. 

' ^«t/7?cff [>aV©-] iUTTfimK '6b ^i^lcc, p. 298. And /. 37, B', Ed. Colon. 1 683. 

»" Bibl. Univ. Tom.X, /. 218". „, .„. 

■^ Chrifttan 

of the Science of M o r a l i t y. 


Clmpcin Cond^a ; hut fuch as abound with Maxims and that Jefui Chrifi himfelf had neVer any even 

exccfivcly rigid, and far remote from any thing now the Icaft Impulfe of cither Plcafurc or Pain •' Thnr 

in practice. It is iii truth a conFus'd Heap of Pre- '- "°"— '-^ '' ■ ' - 

ccpts without Order, without Connexion, full of 
T-w.„t. — ^,-;^,, ^„,i ,^.,..1- a- .1 All.,- 

Declamation, and dark myftical Allufionj in a 
word, fuch as one would expeft from an Author, 
who " writes almojl always luithout either Method 
or Coherence; and who himfelf, in another Work, 
" pyofejfes to have wrote with defign to hide and to 
confound, as I may fay, fhings; to the intent, that 
none but thofe, who were Men of Ability and Under- 
flanding, and willing to undergo the Fatigue of a la- 
boiious Application, might be ahletocompreheyid them. 
There arc ibmePailages in t\-\\^ Pedagogue, which, 
in the Opinion of Mr. i" Du Pin, ought not to be 
read by every body. And as Clement of Alexandria 
did in the main give Preference to the Philofophy 
of the Stoicks; lb we find, in this Work of his, 
feveral of their Paradoxes: For example'', he main- 
tains, "■ That the Chriflian, and he alone, is a rich 
Man; a Paradox very like that of the6'.'o/r/('3-,who 
laid thefime Thing of their wife Man. ThofePhi- 
lofophers exprefs'd thcmfelvcsthus': That the wife 
Man,and he alonefis rich; fo X\i2.t Clement has only 
chang'd the word//'}/?, for that o^Chriftian. The 
Reafons likewife which he makes ufe of to prove 
his Thefts, are much the {lime with thofe of the 
Stoicks; as any one may fee, by comparing what 
he lays, with the Explication, which Cicero gives 
of that fame Stoick Maxim, in his Paradoxes '. And 
when he explains that * Precept in the Gofpel, 
-j- IVhen they pcrfecute you in this City, flee ye into 
another; he ftill reafons upon the Principles of the 
Stoicks, who deny'd that Pain was an Evil ; The 
Zorrf', fays he, does not enjoin us to fly, as if 'twas an 
Evil to be perfecuted ; nor does he command us to a- 
void Death by flight, as a Thing to be feared. And 
then ourDoftor, proceeding to fhew theReafon, 
on which this Permiffion or Commandment of 
flying from Perfecution is grounded, fuggefts this-, 
that otherwife we fhould give occafion to Perfe- 
cutors to commit Murther : For, fays he, the Will 
of Chrift here is, that we fljould not be any ways 
aiding or affi fling to others in the doing what is evil, &c. 
It was the Chimerical Idea of a wife Man, accord- 

he never had any occafion to Eat; and that, if he 
did Eat, 'twas for fear of pafllng foi- aGhofl. He 
with equal Prudence too juitihes the Idolatry of 
the Pagans, by faying, ^ That God had gi-jeii 
them the Sun, the Moon, and the Stars^ to the in- 
tent, that they flmild adore 'em; and by that IVor- 
fl)ip lift up their Minds to God himfelf. A ProfefTor 
in Divinity, (..f) of the Lutheran Communion, has 
cndeavour'd to vindicate Clement with regard to 
fome of the before-mention'd Errours. But, who- 
ever examines what he has faid, will find, that he 
fucceeds no better here, than when he maintains,; 
that the Pedagogue and Stromata are excellent 
Works, both for their Morality ; as well as for 
their Style and Method. The veiy Analyfis, he 
himfelf gives of them, does well nigh furnifh out 
full Proof of the contrary ; and fliew the little 
Foundation there is, for thofe magnificent Enco- 
miums, he is pleas'd to beflow on the Presbyter 
of Alexandria. 

T'crtulUan, to fay nothing here of the Enthufiafm, 
and ovcrflrain'd Auflerities, of the Montanifts, by 
whom he fufFer'd himfelf to be impos'd upon 5 
'"'fcems onfomeOccaflons to have flr etch' d a little too 
far, this moft true Principle ; (viz.) That all, who 
countenance or aflifl wicked Men in their vicious Pra- 
£lices,or contribute in atiy manner to what is flnful,be- 
come thereby guilty:, and to have put too rigorous anlnter- 
pretation on things, that were inthcmfelves juflifiable ; 
fuch as, for inftance,^^ the bearing Arms in defence of 
the Government ; the illuminating one'sHoufe, and be- 
decking it with Laurels in honour of one's Prince ; the 
making ufe of common Expreffions, which may chance 
to have fome reference to Idolatry. And this feems 
to have been the Cafe, when defending, in his Book of 
theGarland,the AElion of a certain Soldier,who had 
refus'd to put a Garland on his Head% he maintains, 
that Chriflians are abfolutely forbid to wear Gar- 
lands ; as alfo to bear Arms. He goes fo far as to 
call thefe Chaplets or Coronets, which Soldiers 
us'd to put on their Heads, ?/;6^P(?/«/)j of the Devil 5 
and a Sin again fl Nature . When he is declaiming 
againll Plays, he fufFers himfelf to be tranfported 

- *— ><• ^' .1 v% iii^ ivj.iij, act-uiu- agiiiiuL jTia^s, lit luiicis iimiicir lo DC Irani portcu 

mg to the Stoicks,fo be entirely without Pafiions: beyond all Bounds, and gives into falfe Notions 5 

And ihus Clement in another place, makes his tme 
"Chriilian exempt from all Pafllons or Affcftions, 
even the mofl innocent j " Excepting thofe only, 
which regard the Prefervation of the Body, fuch 'as 
Hunger, and Thirft, with others of the like Nature. 
Upon this Principle, he maintains, That Jefiis 
Chrifl and his Apoflles J' had not any PafHons at allj 

" Du Pin, ubi fupra, p. 86, Col. z.~ Ed. Hoi. 

as when he fays. That * 'tis the Devil that mounts 
the Actors on their Buskins, in order to make Jefus 
Chrift a Lyar ; who has faid, that no one can add 
one Cubit to his Stature. He will have it. That a 
Chriftian cannot in Confcience " exercife the Of- 
fice of a Judge ; nor ferve as an Executioner of 
Juftice. He feems ^o maintain, that f one cannot 

Stromata, or Topejlr'j. See lib. 
Tin, ubi fupra, p. 81, Col. 2, 

P Ubi fupra, p. 8i, Col. 2-. 

1 Life of Clement of Alexandria, by Mr. LeClerc, Bibl. Univ. Tom. X, p. 104. 

' Lib. l. Cap. 6, Padag. p. 233-, 13 feq. 

' "Or/ ^'i©- oTBjof 'jzKiii t'^ . Cic. Paradox. 6. 

< Paradox 6. * Stromata, Lib. 4, /. 504, E . 

" Whom he calls Qnoftich, [ v<i.s7M? ] /. e. who perfeftly knows the Chriftian Religion. 

__" Tc/St(9- f- rrtpc.a?, .Jf yhoti TUi S\£ -nv (Mvh tS ml,fJA-i& -^noAvon mSnffi mpiwi-rlw, oioVTnivyi, J't-iei, iu 
TiK ^(JLOioK. Stromal. Lib. 6, p. 649, D.~ ' ' 

y Ibid. p. 649,- 650.- See Mr. Le Clerc\ Lett. Critic, and Ecclef. Epift. i, /. 18, 19, 4th Edit. And 2d Ed. /). 21-, 22.- 

"^^ Y.^)ijcvA [5 &ilj\ ■^iv'')^Ktov, )i^ -nv 2?Am„f, ^ T,i "Argot €/< ^. uJKiia.y — Uhs )S m blUtm Mu^ -mt Uviiriv, MAni-i/ni 
itf'i 0601/ d)a. Ttt< ■mi' ct'Tfat' ■&? n<r)tfH'a<. Stromat. Lib. 6, p. 669, B,~ C.~ 

(^) Mieh.Fortfchius, Comm. in Offic. Ambrof. Dijf.z, Sea. 6, ^ feq. 

" Du Pin, Bibl. des Jut. Ecclef. Tom. I, p. 102, Col. i-, 2". 

^^ De Idololatria. * De Spenaciilis, cap. 23-,/*. 155, H.~ Sic ^Trageedos \piabolus\ cothurnis extulit, 

quia nemopotef} adjicere cubitum unxm ad fiatiiram fuam. Mendacem facere vult Chriflum. 

r ^'.{^o^o^""- "P- I?-. 19-- ^f(1- ^ De Corona Militis, cap. 1 1.~ See DalUus de ufu Patrum, Lib. 2, cap.4, p. 262 ~ 

^ Scdl^ dfares credidifTent fuper Chrif}o,fi i '" ' ' ' • ' ■■ --'-.-'■-••■- 

fares. Apologet.f. ZI-. See J?;j-a//?«j thereupon. 


I, p. 278, B~. lih.i^, p.A^jt,, D'. Lib. -J, p. 767, at the end of the Book. SeetooDaf 
. whofc Words thefe are. 

t Matth. 3C, 23. 

Ar!5™/'"'^^ frfd'/V//5?^^ fuper Chrifio,fi aut Cafares non efent feculo neccffarii, aut ft ^ Chriftiani poiuifftnt effe Cie- 


Jn Bijlorical and Critical Account 


be an Emperour and a Chriftian at the fame time. 
In his Books of Monogamy^ ^'^ and Exhortation to 
Cbaftity ; he abfolutely condemns fecond Marriages, 
as a fort of Adultery. He maintains," in his Book 
of flying from Perfectition 5 that we are abfolutely for- 
bidden to fly in Times of Perfecution 5 or to give Mo- 
ney^ to avoid being torttir''d. After this, it is not to 
be wonder'd at, that he condemns Self-defence a- 
^ gainft any unjuft Aggreflbr, as a Thing contrary 
" to Chriftian Patience. His Reafons for the Pur- 
P pofe are as remarkably weak ; as his Maxim is ri- 
gorous, and overlh-ain'd. He fays, ** that the 
Golpel without referve forbids us, to render Evil 
for Evil: That it is incroaching on the Preroga- 
tive of God, and the Homage due to him ; to ar- 
rogate to ourfelves the Power of Self-Defence, as 
oft as we Ihall judgeitneceflliry : That when 7^y?/y 
Chrifi fays. Judge not, that ye be not judged ; he 
demands and expefts a Patience can-y'd even to this 
Point •, for ivho elfe can be f aid not to judge another, 
but he ivho is fo patient, as not to defend himfelf? 
Behold, in what a manner Tcrtullian explains the 
Scripture ; and on what Principles he founds thofc 
Maxims of Mondity, he is pleas'd to advance. 

ORiGEN,in his Homilies,is full of moral Inftrufti- 
ons : But they are fcarce anything more than mo- 
ral Refleftions, or the Morals of Scripture Stories, 
extrafted out of the Fads by dint of Allegory 5 and 
propos'd in a manner, not very proper to iHrupthe 
AfFedions ; or produce in the Mind any rational 
well grounded Convi£bion. 'Tis known, that this 
famous Doftor, by aMiftake grofs enough, haftily 
giving into the hteral Senfe of thefe Words of our 
Saviour"; There be Eunuchs^ivhich have made them- 
felves Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven's fake ; 
executed on himfelf this miftaken Precept, or Ad- 
vice : and Demetrius, Bilhop of Alexandria, did, be- 
fore he became his Capital Enemy, admire this 
Aftion of his, as an Aft of hcroick Virtue. 

St. Cyprian, " W;is in the Marriage-State when 
*' he was converted 5 ^^ but from that time, even 
" before he was bapti2;'d, he confined himfelf to the 
**y?r/(^ Rule of Continence; as his Deacon Pontius 
" has it: Which Ihews, that it was look'd upon 
" to be a kind of Holincfs to live a fmgleLife. A 
" Notion agreeable enough to the Ideas of Virtue, 
" Men had at that time; which, in many Cafc-s, 
" were as remote from the common Ufage of Life, 
" as w;xs the Rhetorick of the fame Age ; which 
*' was then fo much the more had in efteem ; as 
*' the Turn it gave Things was more ftrangc and 
*' uncommon : The one being as little fitted to 
*' procure the Good of our Neighbour, and of So- 
" ciety ; as the other was to promote Perfpicuity 
" of Difcourfe, and furnifh the Mind with juft 
" Ideas. C>;pr/"««, not content with feparating him- 
" felf from his \^''ife,did moreover give all he had 
" to the Poor. — The great Conflifts and Straggles 
" he had to go thro' with, on account of this ri- 



Du Pin, ubi fupra, p. 103, Col. 2' 

" gid Abftinence fi-om his Wife ; were doubtlefs 
" no fmall Mortification to him. That the Chri- 
*' ftian Religion does not enjoin needlefs or iilelefs 
" Mortifications, is pretty certain : So that the 
*' only Thing that remains to be known is, whe- 
" ther we are in any better Condition to ferve Gody 
" by altogether abftaining from a Thing, the Ufe of 
" which has in irfelf nothing criminal, and which 
" we cannot but be ftill deliring ; than when we 
" continue to enjoy the moderate Ufe of it. But be 
" that as it will; from theTimcof St.C;;/)f7^«,this 
" new fort of Continency began to be look'd upon 
" as a great Virtue; tho' a thing altogether unknown 
" to former Ages.—'''' There is fcarce any thing that 
" St.Cyprian treats of, but in the declamatory Style ; 
" and he often exprelFcsthe moil: common Things 
" in fuch a figurative and aftccted manner ; that, if 
" the Reader be not very much upon his guard, he 
" will be eafilyled to imagine, that everything he 
" Hiys is of the utmoil Importance. And 1 may add, 
" that had not this been the true Bent andCaft of 
" his Genius, he could never have taken fo much 
" pleafure in the reading of Tcrtullian ; who every 
" where makes this his conftant Praclice. — " A- 
" mongft the Arguments he m.akes ufe of, to per- 
" fuade young Women to renounce the Vanities of 
" ''''Drcfs; he lays, 'tis running couiuertothe Will 
" of God, to make ufe of Paint, as alio to black one's 
" Hair ; becaufe our Lord has faid : f f Thou canfl not 
" make one Hair white, or black ; and yet, adds Cy- 
" prian, ye attempt to furmount a Difficulty, which 
" God has judg'd infurmountable." — An Argu- 
ment that either proves nothing ; or elfe proves, 
that 'tis not lawful for us to trim our Hair, or 
Beards : for the whole Reafoning of St. Cyprian 
turns on this Maxim": « That every thing that 
'■'■grows 7iaturally,is the Work of God ; but whatever 
" receives change, is the IVork of the Devils In 
his Notions too with refpeft to Martyrdom, he 
feems to come very little, if at all, lliort of the 
falfe Ideas, Men had in thofedays form'd to them- 
felves about that Matter. For he is careful to 
" comfort """ beforehand fuch, as having confefs'd 
" J<^fu^ Chrifl,imght perhaps come fhort of the Ho- 
" nour of bemg Martyrs ; becaufe it might poffi- 
" bly happen, that before their Turns came to 
" fuffcr, the Perfecution might ceafe. — Which 
" Ihews aDifpofition veiy different from theSen- 
" timents of him, who, when juft upon the Point 
" of fuftering the Pain of theCrofs, || fiid : O my 
" Father, if it be ■poffMe,let this Cup pafs from inc." 
St. Cyprian, in his Tradl of the Ufefuln'efs of Pa- 
tience i^, commends Jbel very much, for fuffcring 
liimfelf to be murther'd by his Brocher, without 
making any Refiftance > as it were on purpofe to 
be a Prelude to the Conftancy of the Martyrs : 
Whereby, as on the one hand, he gucfics at a 
Circumftance, of which there is not the leaftFoot- 
ftep in the Hiftory of Genefls ; fo on the other 

tievseritmndefenfionis? De Patientia, /. 165, Ed.Rigalt. and/. 144, A B-, Ed'.Pamel. capl lo.- 
L ^.".'f- ''"'• '^- - •■' Life of St. Cyprian, by Mr. UCUn. Bibl. Univ. Tom. XII. p. 215., 216, 217. 

•"I" Uid. p.2i2.,2i3.~ '" Hid. p. 232-. 

"" De habitu virginum, p. 99., and ioo,~ Edit. Oxon. 

" ^P'J,',,^i' fft' '"I'le quad nafcitur; i^ Dinboti, qmdcunque mutatur. 

ft Matt. V, 36. 
Ibid. p. 99.- 

m:;;^^ ^'^h/efey s^^'"'- '^ ''^- "'■ v£f- ^^^^'^^^'^^"^ °'^^- '^ '"■'' ^=«^«=- «?- ^^'^ 

., . , ^ ^ II Matt, xxvi, 39. 

I ^M, origmem '''■friyrii & pafionem jtifli homnis initians primus fe" dedicans, adverfus fratrm parricidam mn reMit 
reluaatur; fed humtln l^ r^m patimter occiditur De bono Patientic, p. 24-. Ed. dm. ij Oxon. ■'' 



of the Science of Morality. 

hand, he utterly dcltroys both here, ;is well as in 
other Places, the natural Right, that all Men have 
to a jufl Self-defence . When "" he deligns to re- 
buke thofe who rebel againil Bifhops, he makes 
ule of an Argument, " Which cither proves no- 
" thing at all j or elle that wc ought to pay a bhnd 
" Obedience to all Bifliops, who are but duly e- 
" Iccled according to the common Form." In his 
Anfwer "" to a Letter of Florence Pupian^ an Afri- 
can Billiop, ''P " He equals Blfiops to the Apofiks; 
*' and maintains, that 'tis an infupportabk Piece of 
*' Pride, to pretend to judge of them ; '^bat Pupian 
*' /'// particular was an infolent Fellow, to refufe to 
*' acknozvledge Cyprian for a Lawful Bifoop, until 
*' he f,3ou\l be convir.c'' d thereof in his own Mind; be- 
*' caufe then it wou'd follow, that for the fix lears 
" that he had been a Bifljop, he had been uncapable 
*' of adminiflrlng the Sacraments ; or of gi'ving Abfo- 
*' iutlon to thofe he had abfoWd. Thus the Salva- 
*' tion of the People depended on the Validity of 
*' a Billiop's Elcftion •, and the Validity of that 
" Election depended on his Integrity. — A Arrange 
*' Principle, that render'd the Salvation of Chrilli- 
*' ans fo precarious and uncertain ; and which an- 
" nihilated and deilroy'd theEffedsof allthe Vir- 
" tue and Piety of the People ; notwithilanding 
*' which they were to be damn'd, if the Biiliop 
" prov'd not to be a good Man ; or to have been 
" unduly elected. 

Lactaxtius maintains, that '''' a truly good Man 
can neither bear Arms \ nor have any Dealings or 
Traffick in Foreign Countries. He alfo abfolutely 
"■ condemns the putting out Money to Intereft j 
" and looks on it as a kind of Thievery.^" He car- 
ries beyond all Bounds the Duty of Chriftian Pa- 
tience. And ellablilTies this Rule, that 4- one ought 
never to accule any Perfon whatever, where the 
Crime is capital ; infills too upon its being Homi- 
cide, and that without the Exception of fo much 
as any one fingle Cafe. 

"There are but few Principles " of Morality in 
" the Works of St. Athanafius ; and thofe you there 
" meet with, (excepting what relates to the flying 
*' Perfecution, and theEpifcopal Dignity j and to 
" the Defence of Orthodoxy) are never handled in 
" their full Extent." This is the Opinion of a 
Catholick Writer ; who alfo owns, that the Cate- 
chijlical Difcourfes "" of St. Cyril feem to be a H^ork 
composed in hafte, and without much Preparation. 


St. BASii.,furnam'd the Grc^t,':vin have it,"" T'haf 
whoever gives another a mortal JVound, whether he 
did it as Aggrefl'or, or in his ozvn Defence ; is guilty 
of Murther. He declares, ^^ that it is better tofe- 
parate the Parties, who have committed Fornication, 
than to join them together in Matrimony ; but how- 
ever, if they will wed, he is not for hindring them j 
lejl a greater Evil happen. "In that famous Letter 
" to St. Gregory, where he eilablilhes the Rules of 
" a Monaftick Life ; there is * one for regulating 
" the outward Appearance of the Monks, which 
" feems diredly contrary to ih^it o£ JefusChrif in 
" the Goipcl 5 Matt, vi, i6, 17. For this Father 
" ordains, f that the Humility of the Anchoret be 
" vifible in every part of his external Appearance ; 
" "that he have a fad a-(id down-caft Look, his Head 
" uncomVd, and his Cloaths nafly and flovenly. —''''' 
In his little Traft, entitled, /foicJ to read with Edi- 
fication the Greek Authors, I find two or three ex- 
travagant Maxims. He affirms, ' that Chriftians are 
forbidden ever to have any Law-Suits. He feems 
- to take llriftly in the literal Senfe, thofe Prover- 
bial Words oiJefusChrift; \\Whofoever fiiall fmite 
thee on thy Right Cheek, turn to him the other alfo : 
And it appears to him, that 5'ofr^to did fomething 
veiy like, what is there prefcrib'd to us; when he 
quietly fufFcr'd himfelf to be foundly bang'd by an 
infolent Fellow, who was cnrag'd at him. He 
believes ' it in no cafe lawful to fwearj and gives 
us thereupon the Example of a certain Pythago- 
rean; who chofe rather to pay Three hundred Ta- 
lents, that is, about Four hundred and fifty Pounds I 
than to take an Oath, altho' he cou'd have done 
it with a fafe Confcience. 

Gregoiy Nazianzene ^ is no very methodical Wri' 
ter. ' • His Style is exceffively figurative, not very 
correal, and even fometimes hard and uncouth.' — — 
" He very much '"exaggerates theBoldnefs of the 
" Arians and Macedonians ; who were then as nu- 
" merous at leaft as the Orthodox, and did pre- 
" fume to aflemble themfelves together, and form 
" Churches ; outragious Attempt ! and that too, 
" after the Determination of fo well regulated a 
" Council, ^^^ as had been held but juft before ! " 
Gregory too did not comprehend, how h^Holinefs 
and his Gravity (for this was the Style in which 
they accofted their Bifliops, and he was then ad- 
drefling himfelf to NeSiarius) cou'd tolerate the 
1111 Apollinarian Meetings. • " He conceiv'd, for 

Epift. 66, p. i66_, 167" 

"" Bibl. Univ. Tom. XII, f. 309. ex Epift. 59, p. 129". Ed. Oxon. 

fp Bibl. U?nv. uhi fupra, p. 332,- 333." See alfo what is faid Page 334. 

"!i Nego ttllomodo jieri poffe, ut homini, qui qiiidemvere juftusfit, ejufmcdi cafus euetiiat. — Cur enim naviget, aut quid pet at 
ex aliena terra, ciii fi/fficit fiia ? cur autem belligeret, ac fe alienis furoribus mifceat, in cujus animo fax cum hominibus perpe- 
tua verfetur? Inft. Divin. Lib. 5, cap. 17, Num. 11," 12-. Ed. Cellar. Ita r.eque militare jufto licebit-,l^c. Lib. 6, «p. 20, 
Num. 16," 17. 

" Non accipiat ufuram, ut — abftineat /e prorfus alieno. Ibid. Lib. 6, cap. 18, Num. 7". 

'= See what my Author fays. Lib. 2, Cap. 5, SeB. 14. 

\ Neque vcro accuj'are quemquam [ju/lo /icebit'] crimi/te capila/i, i^c. Lib. 6, cap. 20, Num. 16." 

" Du Piri's Libr.iry of Ecclefiailical Authors, Tom. II, p. 54, Col. z~. "■' Ibid. 143, Ci>/. I-. 

"" Idem, ibid. p. 179, Col. 1-. Ex Epift. 2, ad Amphiloch. Canoni^'^, Tom. II, p. 772, B-. Oper. Bafil. Paris. 1618. 

yy Du Pin, Canon 26, ibid. p. 178, Col. i-. Bafil. Op. Tom. II, p. 769,, D-. Ed. Paris. 161 8. 

* Bibl. Univ. Tom. XXV, p. 412,, 413', in the Extrafl of the third Tome of the EccleftafticalHiftory ofMr.Fleury. 
■\Oper. Bafil. Tom. II, p. 786, A-. Edit. Paris. l6i 8. 

' '^O/f 71 /M,i) J)yJ.(<:£ai, vo/jia 'TT^^TO.yii.iviiv SJj. Homil. de Legend. GrKc. SeB.j, Edit. Oxon. 1694- Oper. Bafil, 
ITom. I, p. 573, C", Paris. 1618. 

* Ibid. Sea. 13. Oper. Tom.I,p.^jj, B~. || Matt.v, 39. 

' 'Ay.i'Taf, iuoi /okhv, n 'ns^^yfjutt©-', -nv opxcv i^tiv a.ra.y){ivovT<Q-. Ibid. & Op. Tom. I, p. 573"". 

" See the Life of Gregory Nazianzene, by Mr. Le Clcrc, Bibl. Univ. Tom. XVIII, p. 23-. 

»" Ibid. p. 1 14_, 1 1 5~, ex Oral. 46, Tom. I, /. 721, A-, &c. Oper. Gregor. 

'"'''' T\c\X.o{ Cotjlantinople, held in 381. 

nil Antient Hereticks, whofe Head was Apollinaris of Laodicea. They pretended that Jefas Chrift had not an humane Soul, 
but that the Word of God, or Logos, animated his Body. That the Flerti of Jcfus Chrift was not form'd out of the Holy 
Virgin, but that it came down from Heaven. They alfo reviv'd the Errour of the Mtllennarians, to which the Simplicity 
ofPapias, a Difciple of St. John the Evangelift, gave Birth. They were in the fourth Century. 

" what 


An Hiflor'ical and Critical Account 

" what reafon I know not 5 that to fuflPer thofe 
" People to have their AfTembUes, was to agree 
" with them, that theirs was the true Doftiine ; 
*' even truer than that of the Council j feeing that 
*' both of them could not be true: as if granting a 
*' Toleration to any one, was in faft an avowing 
" that we believe his Opinion to be true! Infhort, 
" he exhorts Ne^arius to remon (Irate to theEm- 
*' perour, that all he had done in favour of the 
" Church, would fignify juft nothing j if theHe- 
reticks were ftill allow'd the Liberty of aflcm- 




and 'tis plain by the Work itfelf^ that St. Ambrofe 
compoi'd it for the Ufe of bis Clergy. But tbo" he 
addreffes himfelf particularly to them.yyet he treats of 
the Duties of Cbriflims in general; ivbich he lays 
in a more particular manner upon the Clergy. It ap- 
pears both by the Title, and by the Manner in 
which he treats his Subjeft, that his Defign was 
to imitate the Offices of Cicero. But, after all that 
a certain |1 Lutheran Divine, who publifh'd this 
Work m PFirtemburgh in 1698, with fomeDiffer- 
tations of his owncompofing,has faidj if the par- 
ticular Principles of the Goi'pel be but excepted, 
which ^t.Jmbrofe has inferted in this Work of his 5 
with the Examples and Pall^iges of Holy Scrip- 
ture, which he perpetually quotes, tho' for the 
moft part ill enough apply'd ; I fliail not ilick to 
affirm, that the Copy comes infinitely fhort of the 
Original ; both for Purity and Eafineis of Style, the 
Oeconomy of the Whole, and the Dilpofition of 
Particulars : as well as for Solidity of Scnfe, and 
Juftnefs of Reafoning. For inilance, fee here the 
Contents of his firll Book. After fome Prefatory 
Difcourfe upon the Queftion, when, and in what 
manner, it is proper either to fpeak, or be filent j 
he, at Chap, viii, enters upon his Sub jcft- Matter 
with fome Grammatical Remarks ; which are not 
very '" well grounded. In the Tenth Ch.tpter he 
treats of Decency -, the chief Duty whereof he 
makes to confiH in The Art of Governing the I'ongue. 
In the Eleventh Chapter he divides all Duties in 
general into two forts : the Mean ; and the Perfect. 
Amongft the latter, he ranks the Love df our 
Enemies} Prayers for thofe who calumniate, or 
in any other manner injure us j Works of Mercy 
and Companion. The xii/Z/, and following Chap- 
ters., on to the xvii//.', nin wholly upon the Sub- 
jeft of a Providence} which he endeavours to cfta- 
(jliih and defend in the beft manner he canj both 
againft the Murmurs of thofe, who are in this Life 
cxpos'd to great Afflictions} and againft the Ob- 
jeftions of Libertines and Atheifts. In the xviuh, 
and following Chapters., he treats of the Duties of 
Youth. Having at the end of the xxivr/; Chap- 
ter., fpoken occalionally of the four Cardinal Vir- 
tues, fiz. Prudence., Juflice., Fortitude., and Tempe- 
rance; he in the xxv//j begins to treat of tliemj 
but in a manner fuperficial enough ; where he him- 
felf taking notice of the want of Order in hisDiP- 
courfc, endeavours to excufc, or rather juilify it 
in thcfe Words : ||{| So-mc imll perhaps fay., tha\ be- 
caufe from thcfe four Virtues fpring all the fever al 
forts of Duties } we ought therefore to have begun 
with them firji. But this ivou'd have been conform- 
ing myfelf to the Rules of Art j according to which 
Duty ought to have been firft defined ; and afterwards 
divided into its feveral kinds : Noiv "due purpofely a* 
void fubjeSling ourfelvcs to thcfe Rules : It is enough 
for us to propofe Examples drawn from the ConduSi 
of our Ancejiors^whichjare neither obfcure or difficult 

bling. Thus the good St. Gregory., who was not 

in the lead willing, while the Arians were the 
" Ibongeft, having the then Emperour on their 
" fide} that the Orthodox fhou'd attempt to do, 
" what they then cenfur'd in the Arians : was for 
" exhorting his Succeflbr to forget that goodLef- 

« fon.. And" whereas f the Emperour Julian^ 

" adding Infult to Perfecution } was us'd, when 
" he ftripp'd the Chriftians of their Goods, by way 
" of raillery, to Giy} that what he did was m aid 
" of the Gofpel, which commanded 'em to de- 
" fpife all thofe Things} fo Gregory., being to an- 
" fwer this, amongft other Things fays, that Ju- 
*' //^»,a£bing in this manner, muft needs haveima- 
" gin'd,that the PaganGo6s, were well pleas'd to 
*' fee innocent Men defpoil'd of their Goods } and 

confequently that they approv'd of Injuftice. This 

Anfwer might have fuffic'd: but he adds, that as 

there are fome things which Jefus Chriji has ftrift- 
" lyenjoin'd} fotherewereothers,whichhe barely 
" propofesto fuch as lliall be inclin'd to do them} 
" without obliging any Perfon whatever to an 
" indifpenfible Performance. Such, according to 
*' Gregory., is the Commandment to abandon tlie 
"Things of this Life:" Whereby 'tis plain, he 
fuppofes here a pretended Matter of Advice, to 
voluntarily renounce and abandon our Goods} 
and that without any other Motive, but our own 
Free-will and Pleafure : whereas it is a real obhgato- 
ry Command} but fuch as then, and then only takes 
place, when the retaining our Goods is incompati- 
ble with ourDuty } or becomes impradicable, with- 
out the Violation of fome Precept of the Gofpel. 

St. Ambrose '" does fo run himfelf beyond all 
Bounds in his Encomiums on Virginity and Cele- 
bacy} that he feems to make it hisBufinefs to cry 
down Marriage : and rcprefent it as a Thing fcarcc 
reputable. He fays plainly enough, ^"^^ That before 
the Lavj of Mofes, and that of the Gofpel., Adul- 
tery was not forbidden. And loofe as he is upon this 
Article, he appears rigid enough on another } I 
mean, that of putting out Money to Intereft : which 
he abfolutely condemns, in all Cafes whatever, 
* without Diftindion. His Treatife oi Offices., is 
aBook which he compos'd to teach Ecclefiafticks 
their refpcftive Duties. "'^ And tho' the Name of 
Minifters be omitted in the Roman, and following 
Editions; yet it is to be found in all the Manufcripts : 

•}• Biif- Univ. ubi fupra, p. 45-, 46. 

«' De Inftitutionevirginum, (^ ptijjtm alibi. See Dull, de iifu patrum, p. 272". 

"*'*'' Confideremus primiim, quia Abraham ante legem Mayj't, & ante Evangclium fuit, cum nondum interdiBim adulteriiim vide- 
retur. Pcena criminis ex tempore legis eft, ^e. Lib.'i, Dc Patrhrch. Abrah. cap. 4. See Dall. de ufu Patr. ubi fupra, 
p 271 ,272', and Mr. BayleV Did. Tom. 3, /. 2670, in the Notes, C0I.1-. 

» DeTobia, cap 3. & i;. See the TraB of Mr. Noodt, De Ufuris & Fxnore, lib. i, cap. 4, & cap. 10, p. 64, isf fe^. 
As aljo Mr. Du Pin, Tom. II, p. 256, Col. i '. 

'=<■ DuPin, Tom. II, />. 257.,258 . 

II Mich. Fortfchius, Profeffor at Tubingen. 

"f Mr. Du Pin owns it, ubi fupra, p. 258, Cd. 2-. 

Illl H^c for fit an aliquis dicat primo loco poni oportuiffe, quonlam ab his quatiior virlutibus nafcuntur officiorum genera. Sed hoe 
ertis eft, ut primo ojfcium definiatur, poftea certa in genera dii'idatur Njs autem artsm fugimus, exempla ^ majorum fropavi- 
must aua neque objcuritatem adferttnt ad intelligendum; ne^ue ad iraaandu-m vtrfutias. Lib. I, cap. zj, init. 

% to 

of the Science o/'MoRALixr. 


io comprehend J (ind require not the Niceties of a me- 
thodical Writer . In x\\Q%.-^v\\\th Chapter^ he with- 
out all reafon attempts to fhe\v,theFaHityof two 
of the Funftions, which Cicero afcribes to JiifticCi 
nor is this the only Place, where he unjullly cen- 
furcs the Heathen Philoibphersj by either miila- 
king their Meaning > or undertaking to confute 
Things molt apparently true. About the end of 
the firit Book, he returns to the Clergy j whofe 
principal Virtues he there gives a Defcription of: 
and then concludes withaDifcourfe,of the invio- 
lable Fidelity requir'd, in the cafe of Things de- 
pofited in truil. Nor does he come to treat of 
Happincfs, till the beginning of the fecond Book. 
The ftme want of Order and Accuracy reigns 
throughout the whole Work. He there main- 
tains, 'that ^^^ a Chriftian ought not to engage or fight 
the Robber who attacks him ; and lays it down for a 
General Rule: That it can never be lawful to pre- 
ferve one's own Life at the Expence of another's. 
He lays down this General Ma?dm alfoj f'hat we 
cannot lawfully do^ a "Things which we do not find 
in exprcfs 'terms permitted and authoriz'd by Scrip- 
ture : And upon this Principle he abfolutely for- 
bids the Clergy all fort of Rallery. It ought not 
to be wonder'd at, that he condemns {Book I, 
Chap, fo,) fecond Marriages: 'tis but what had 
been done by many before him, as we have already 

St. Chryfoflomc^ with the reft of the Fathers, runs 
into Notions exccffively rigid on the Subjcft of 
Ufury. This fxme Doftor, fpeaking of the Expe- 
dient, that Abraham made ufc of, the ffirlc '''''' time, 
for fear of being put to Death, in cafe he had been 
known to be Sarah's Husband j fticks not thus to 
addrcfs himfelf to his Audience: " Ton"' know., you 
" well know^ that nothing is more infupportahle to a 
" Husband^ than to fee his Wife but fufpcEled of 
" having been in the Power of another Man j and 
" ^-^^ yet this jufl and good AIan.y you fee here, cm- 
" ploys his utmofl Efforts, that the very AEl of Adul- 
" tcry maybe confummated. — —Thereupon, he be- 
" itowsvery great Encomiums on his Courage and 

" Prudence. Then heexcufeshim for having 

" confented tothe Adultery of his Wife, upon this 
*' Confideration ; that Death, not being as yet de- 
" veiled of his Tyranny over Mankind, could not 

" but be very formidable at that time. After 

" this Encomium on the Husband, he proceeds to 
" the Commendation of the Wife 5 and fays, that 
" flie very couragcoufly accepted the Propofil > 
" and that fhe did all that was requifite on her 

" part, to make the Plot of the '" Play fucceed . 
" Whereupon, he exhorts all Wives to follow her 
" Example > and then emphatically cries out : 
" "f Who is he that can forbear admiring this won- 
" derfulReadinefs to obey? Wjo can ever ftffiuently 
" celebrate the Praifes of Sarah, xvho after fo much 
" Continency, and at her 2ears, was willing to ex- 
" pofe herfelf to """"" Adultery j and deliver up her 
*' Body to be enjofd by Barbarians, that fhe might 

^'' fave the Life of her Husband? Nor is the 

" Elogy, St. Ambrofe beitows on the "™ Charity 
" of Sarah on this Occafion, lefs remarkable. 
" St. Auftin too, reafoning upon another Inftance 
" of the fame Nature, °°° feems to have been un- 
" der the Uke Tllufion. Is it not a very ftrange 
" Thing, that fuch bright Ornaments of the 
" Church as thefe,with all their Virtue and Zeal, 
" fhould be ignorant} That it is not lawful either 
" to five one's own, or another's Life, by any 
" any Aftion that is criminal? 

" St. Jerome^^^ every where inveighs againft Ma- 
" trimony in general, and more cfpecially againft 
" fecond Marriages j and his Tnveftives are fo bit- 
" ter and violent, that notwithftanding all the Sa- 
" vingsandSoftnings he has thrown in, quite thro' 
" his Epiftle to Pammachius, wrote for that Pur- 
" pofe J one cannot but difcover, in every Thing 
" he fays ™ on that Subie6l,an entire Conformity 
" with the Opinion o£tertullian: which has been 
" condemn'd by the Church, as injurious to the 
" Honour of Marriage ; and contrarv to Holy 
" Writ. '" He condemns all Oaths "' without 
" Diitin£tion. He forbids '" Chriftians to pay 
" Tribute to Infidel Princes. He ad\'ifcs """ and 
" approves of the Aftion of thofe, who murder 
" themfelves,for fear of having their Chaftityvio- 
" lated. He often talks of Virginity, and the mo- 
" naftick State, in fuch a manner, as to make one 
" almoil; believe it abfolutely necefHiry to Salva- 
" tion. Labours, Faftings, Aufterities, and other 
" Mortifications, with Solitude, and Pilgrimages, 
" are the Subjeft-Matter of almoft all his Coun- 
" fels, and Exhortations." He """ plainly enough 
gives us to underftand, that '*'*' Jefus Chrift has abo- 
lifh'd the Permiflion of eating the Flefh of Ani- 
mals } in the fame manner as he abolifli'd Divorce 
and Circumcifion. Every body knows, with how 
much Fury, and with how little Honefty he in- 
veigh'd againft /^/gi/«»//«^ J who had wrote againfl: 
the WorOiip, which at that time began to be paid 
to the Reliques of Saints and Martyrs •, as alfo againft 
divers other Pra6lices, the dangerous Confequences 

Horn. 33, in Cenefin. Oper. 

??? Du Pin, />. 262, Col. 1-. See the Place: Tamen non videtur, quoi vir Chriftiams, iff jufttis, {if fapiens, quterere fibl 
vitam aliena morte dcbent : utpote qui, etiamfi in latrmem armatum incidat,ferientem referire nonpojjit ; ne, dumfalutem defendit, 
pietatem contaminet. Lib. 3, cap. 4. 

* Lib. I, cap. 23. Sec what I have faid thereupon in my Traft of Play, Lib. \, Chap. 3, SeB. 3. 

•J- Sec Mr. Noodt, De Ufuris is' Fcenore, lib. i , cap. 4. & 6. 

*'*''' Gen.yXx, 11, 12. N. B. .S;jr^i?vr/?ir fays the fecond, by miftake. 

'" I make ufc here of the Words of Mr. Bayle, in his Diftionary, Article Abimelech, l^ote (J). 

'''''' 'O fxiv to; c/>Va/©-, ly a'prvJa^H xj wia Tnta, «'rs «{ 'io-pv nv /xatx^M in-^wcu. Ho 
^om. I, ^.258 , Edit. Eton. 

'" XXiv-n mtH, u^. 75 J'fy.fxa, A*9hi', ibid. Chryfoft. Tom. I, p. 260, lin. 5, Edit. Eton. Fid. p. 258, lin. 35: « 
p. 259, lin, 12. f Ibid. p. 260, lin. 28. 

''""'" Kai eti luaryHov l^t/TM" icfiAiym, )^ nvvs'loi hvl^n ^a^Caeim!. Ibid. p. 260, lin. 30. 

""" De Jbnibam,' L'lh. i, cap. 2. 

'"'' Sec the Article pf Adnd'jnus Septimitis, in Bayle''% DiHionary, and Notes {A), (5), (C). 

f?P Thefe .arc the Terms oiDaill'e, De UfuPatrum, p. 276". 

IT Epifl. adPammach. Hicr.Op. Tom. 11, p. 101, A-,hd. Ed. Bafil, £ff alibi pajpm. 

'" Du Pin, Tom. Ill, p. 136, Col. i-, 2~. , . 

'" Co?rim.ouMM\\. Chnp.v, 34, andZachar. c. 8, Oper. Tom. VI, /. 313, B". 

'" On Matth. Chap, xvii, ver. 25. 

*"" Comm. on Jonah, Chap, i, ver. 12, Tom. VI, /. 150, D-, Oper. Hieron. 

"'"' Dall. detifu Patrum, p. 277". „ --, . 

yy Lib. I, adv. Jovin. Tom. II, p. 30'. This PalTage is cited in the Canon Law, Diff. 35, Canoa i'. 

. whereoG 


An Hijiorical and Critical Account 

whereof, procefs of Time has fince but too plainly 
fhewn us. The little Traft of St. Jerome's againll 
this Presbyter is Ihiff'd quite full of grofs Abufes, 
and falfe Reafonings^^j contrived to raife popular 
Odium againll his AdverCiry, whom he wanted 
good Arguments to confute. 

Sx..Jufthi^ endeavouring to make an ' Apology 
for the Complaifince, which Abraham fliew'd his 
Wife, on account oi Hagar; pretends, that the 
Wife can convey to another Woman, the Property 
which ihe has in the Body of her Husband j and 
that the Husband alfo can transfer to another Man, 
the Power which he has over the Body of his 
Wife: and, what is ftill more furprifing,he founds 
this Paradox on a PafTage of St. Paul,"- the Mean- 
ing of which he for that purpofemoft wretchedly 
miftakes. This Father is fo bold as to maintain, 
that every Thing by Divine Right belongs to the 
Juil, or Faithful '> and that Unbelievers have no 
right to poflefs any thing: abominable Principle, 
that entirely deftroys at once all humane Society ! 
but behold another of 'em, every whit as detefta- 
ble; and which alone '♦is enough to call an eternal 
Bkmif}} on ihe Memory.ofth.eBi{h.opo( Hippo : 'tis 
t\ns^that, after having declared it as his Opinion^ythat 
Lenity and Charity ought to be the Meafure of our 
CondtiSt towards Hereticks ; he became fo heated ivith 
the Contefis he had ijcith the Donatifts, as to change 
at once from white to black j and openly maintain^ 
that Hereticks ought to be perfecuted, and by Force 
compeWd to embrace the Orthodox Faith j or elfe to be 
utterly deflrofd and extirpated: which certainly is, 
as a famous Minijler amongjl the Reformed obferves, 
a moft terrible and inhumane Opinion. There are 
two of this ' Father's Epiftles, that any one may 
read in French ; which were made ufe of to juilify 
the laft Perfecution in France: fo that St. jiuflin 
may juftly be fiid to be, in a manner, the Grand 
Patriarch of Chriflian Perfccutors. This Inftance 
of Perfecution ought to be well taken Notice of; 
for it will be found not to confine itfqlf to the 
Bilhop oi Hippo : and it does alone aiford us a moll 
manifefl Proof of the grofs manner, in which the 
Chriftian Doftors have ncgleded, or rather disfi- 
gur'd and cormpted Morality. If ever there was 
a Pofition contrary to all the Di£lates of right 
Reafon, and natural Equity; to Charity, good 
Polic}^, and the Spirit of the Gofpel; 'tis, with- 
out doubt, this dctellable Doftrine of Compulfion, 
and Perfecution for the fake of Religion. And yet, 
ever fince the Church began to enjoy any Quiet or 
Repofe, this has been the common Opinion ; which 
accordingly has been, for the moll part, all along 
aftually put in Pradlice, ' by the flronger Party 
againd the weaker. The Codes are full of Penal 
Laws againft allSe£ts,but the Predominant; ''and 
they are the Councils.^ Bifhops, and mofl eminent Do- 
Hors-i who have ever been the SolUcitors of thefe 
Laws; and have honour' d with large Encomiums, 

Acclamations, Benedictions, and with the mofl hum- 
ble Thanks and Acknowledgments ; thofe Sovereigns, 
who have either made fuch Laws ; or vigor oujly put 
them in execution. 

St. Leo, in the Opinion of Mr.X)a Pin, ® is not 
very fertile in Points of Morality : handles 'em but 
drily ; and in a manner which diverts, rather than 
affeEls or moves his Readers. 

In the Time of 'theodofius the Younger, the Bifhop 
o'i Sufa, xhz Royal City of Perfia, whofe Name 
was Abdas, (or rather Abdaa) ; ' took the Liberty 
to burn one of the Temples where they worfhip'd 
Fire'°. The King, ('twas Ifdegerde) inform'd 
thereof by the Magi, fent for Abdaa ; and after a 
veiy gentle Reprimand, order'd him to get the 
Temple, he had deftroy'd, rebuilt. But thcBilliop 
could not be brought to do anything in the Mat- 
ter j tho' the King thrcaten'd, by vvay of Repri- 
fals, to ule the Churches of the Chriltians in the 
fame manner; which he accordingly executed af- 
terwards, on the obflinateRefufal oi Abdaa: who 
chofc rather to lofe his Life, and expoie the Chri- 
flians to a furious Perfecution, than to obey an 
Order every way jufl and reafonable. Thcodcret, 
who reports this Story, does * not deny, but that 
the Zeal, which tranfported Abdaa to burn the 
Temple of the Perfians, was unfeafonable and ill 
tim'd ; but he maintains, that his refuial to rebuild 
fuch another Temple, fiiew'd aConftancy worthy 
of all Admiration; and of the Reward of thePa- 
fian Empire : for, adds he, it is as great an Impiety 
to build a Temple to Fire, as to adore it. But 
" "thei'e is no onePerfon whatever, whether Me- 
*' tropohtan, or Patriarch, who can difpenfe with 
*' this Law of natural Religion; "fhat every one is 
" bound to make amends by Rcftitution, or other waySy 
*' for the Damage he has done to his Neighbour. Now 
" Abdas here, a private Man, and Subjeft of the 
*' King o£Perfia,h:id deftroy'd what was the Goods 
" and Property of another ; and in a Cafe, v/here 
" theThing deflroy'dhad the extraordinary Privi- 
" lege of belonging to the Ellabliih'd orPrcdomi- 

" nant Religion. And toi"ay, that the Tem- 

*' pie which he fhould have rebuilt, wou'd have 
" been apply'd to the Service of Idolatry, was but 
" a lame Excufe ; for he himfelf wou'd not have 
" employ'd it to that Purpofe : neither was he to 
" have been anfwerable forthe ill Ufe, which the}', 
" to whom it belong'd, fhould have made of it. 
" Is it avalidReafon, forthe not returning aPurie 
'' one has ftolen, to fay, that the Perfon, from whom 
" he took it, is a Man that employs his Money in 
" Debauchery? But befides all this, what Propor- 
" tion was there betwixt the rebuilding one Tem- 
" pie, without which the Perfians wou'd have re- 
" main'd as great Idolators as before ; and the De- 
" ftru6lion of a great many Chriftian CJhurches? 

" In fhort, was there any thing more capable 

" of rendring the Chriftian Religion odious to all 

^'^ See the Dijfert. of Mr. Le Clerc, entitled, De Argument/) Theolog. ob invidia duSlo, which is jufl .ifter his Latin Ltgich, 
7om. I, Op. Philofoph. p. 25o_, ^V. 

' De Chit. Dei, Lib. 16, Cap. 25", * I Ci^r. vii, 4. 

3 Epijl. 153, Tom.U, Ed. Benedia. b" Co/. 250, D', Ep. 54, Ed. Bafil. See Le Comm. Philofoph. fur, Contrain-les 
Centra-, Part III, p. 130, (J fuiv. 

* John Claud. Epift. how to read the Fathers, i^c. at the end of the firft Edition of his Ouvcrture de PEp. aux Rom. p. 
s See Part III, of the Philofoph. Comment, and Vol. Ill, of Jrs Critica of Mr. Le Clerc, p. 353-, Edit. 2. 
« Scs Bil/lioth.Uniz'. Tom. XXIII, p. 366, t^ feq. and Mr. Bernard, in his News of May 1699, p. 574, 575; 

April 1702, p. 409. And the Comm. Philofoph. in the Supplement, cap. 29, 30, 31. 

7 Comm. Philofoph. ubi fupra, p. 355, 356. See the Book of P. Thomajfiu, De Punite de PEglife. 

* Tom. IV, p. 164, Col. r. » See Bill. Choifie de Mr. Le Clerc, Tom. VIII, p. 321-, is" fej. 
»o Theodorct. Hift. Ecclef Lib. 5, cap. 39" * Ibid. p. 245, B-, C,~ 
" Mr. Bayle, in the Article of Aidas, Rem. (C)", p. 8, in the fecond Edition of his Didlionary, 





of the Science of MoRALixr.! 


'■^ the World 5 than to fee Chriftians, after they 
t' had work'd themfelves in, on the Foot of Peo- 
« pie who dcfir'd nothing elfe, but liberty to 
« propoic their Doftrine ^ have the Confidence to 
« demolilTi the Temples of the National Religion : 

Gregory the Great^ according to Mr. Du Pin^ 
"■ is prolix, andfometimes too tedious in bis Esplica. 
tions of Morality j and too fubtile in his Allegories, 
■llxs Morals, or Commentaries on Job, are 

one of the greateft Repertories '' of Morality extant 
« andthen refufe to rebuild them, tho' enjoin'd But he feldom or never '* infijls on the Explication of 

« fo to do by their Lawful Sovereign?" Butthefe 
Bilbops weiit on Principles equally contraiy both 
to the Gofpel, and to the Law of Nature. In 
which however, they did but imitate the * Maxims 
and Conduct oi St. Ambrofe on a likeOccafion. 

the Letter : 'They are only certain Allegories and moral 
Reflections, which he accommodates to the Text of 
Job j the great efi Part whereof are full as applicable 
to any other Part of Scripture. 

* See the Fadl related with its Circ 
by Mdimbotirg, Tom. II, Lett. 30, p. 27;, bfc. 
»» Tom. V, of his Biblioth. p 

umftances, and neceflary Reflexions, in the Critical Dijfertation on the Hijlory gT Calvin, 

'+ Ibid. p. 133, Csl. 2: 

144, Col. 2-. 

'J Ibid. p. 134, Col. i" 


'W\ "THAT has been faid, is, I think, more 
^ A/ than enough to demonftrate clearly j 
T y that the moft celebrated Doftors of the 
Church, for the fix firfl Centuries, were but bad 
Mailers, and very poor Guides in Matters of Mora- 
lity. As I faw reafon for this Afl'ertion fix Years ago, 
when this Prefitory Difcourfe came firft abroad j 
fonoWjin this new'Edition, after a fecond Review, 
I find noCaufe to alter my Opinion. Concern for 
Truth ; which muft needs over-rule every other 
Confideration, but that of raifing Obftacles to its 
EftablLfliment ; the Readinefs that moft People 
ihew to be milled by great Names, and Prejudice 
in favour of Antiquity, more efpecially Ecclefiafti- 
cal Antiquity-, the inexprefllble Injury, that fuch 
a blind Refpeft does to the Knowledge of true 
Rehgion, and found MoraUty j the Honour, due 
to the Age we live in, which has, above all others, 
fhaken off the Yoke of ill grounded Authority j 
the Candor and Sincerity we profefs : do all re- 
quire, and oblige us frankly to fpeak of Things, 
as they really are ; and to judge of thefe Doftors, 
who have been dead fo many Ages, with the fame 
Difintereftednefs and Freedom, as we wou'd of an 
Author of the laft Age ; whofe Reputation we are 
under no concern about. As good Proteftants, we 
may and ought boldly thus to aft ; without dif- 
quieting ourlelvcs with what thofe Men may fiiy 
or think, who fliall cftcem it their Concern, to 
declare themfelves jealous of the Honour of the 
Fathers ; and fuch profound Admirers of all their 
Produ6tions, as to lacrifice to 'era even the moft 
common Rules of Reafon and good Scnfe: which 
they themfelves wou'd be very loth to have dif- 
pens'd with on other Occafions. So unhappy are 
they as to be reduc'd to this wretched Neceffity, 
of judging diftercntly of the fame Things, accoi'd- 
ing as they happen to proceed either from the Pen 
of a Profane, or an Ecclefiaftical > of an Antient, 
or a Modern Author. Nay, we doubt not, but 
there are many among 'em, who do themielves 
fome Violence on this Account; and tho' they tallc 
like others, yet do not, from the bottom of their 
Hearts, think fo advantageoufly, as one would be 
apt to imagine, of thePcrfonalQuaUties and Wri- 
tings, ofeven the moft renown'd of the antient 
Doftors of the Church. As it would be inhumane 
to infultMen,who live thus under perpetual Con- 
ilraint ; fo we pity them with all our Heart : pro- 
vided they do not voluntarily feek after, and wan- 

tonly embrace all Opportunities, of thus betraying 
their own Confciences. But, it is very hard to 
keep one's Tcinpcr, when one fees Men, who have 
here full Liberty to think and fpeak as they pleafe 3 
and whofe Grand Principle is, or ought to be, that 
the Holy Scripture is the only Rule of our Faith 
and Manners i when one fees fuch Men, I fiy, 
zealou/Iy efpoufing theCaufe of the Fathers 3 and, 
not content with being themfelves furioully en- 
gag'd in Maintenance of this vifibic Rclique of 
Popery 3 endeavouring alfo,at any rate, to impofc 
the fame Servitude on others 3 not being able to 
bear, that any one fhou'd declare his Opinion of 
the Fathers, to be any thing fbort of theirs 3 and 
bitterly inveighing againft the living, in order to 
vindicate the Dead; to whofe Memory no other 
Injury is ofFer'd, but the not paying a blind Ve-= 
ncration to their miftaken Notions 3 and wrong 


Certainly Proteftants, whether fuch by Educa- 
tion or Convcrfion 3 who venture to declare them- 
felves fuch mighty Zealots, and idolizing Partizans 
forEcclefiaftical Antiquity, were flir from confi- 
dering well of the Matter, when they cngag'd in 
the Maintenance of fo bad a Caufe : wou'd they 
but refleft a little, they muft foon fee, that 'tis 
what they can never acquit themfelves of with Ho- 
nour. This is evident enough by the Streights 
which they chufe to be reduced to, rather than 
quit their Hold 3 being forc'd pcrpetuaUy to cliange 
the State of the Qiieftion 3 and contradicT: them- 
felves every Moment : They dare not in fo many 
Words %, that the Fathers were infoUible, or 
that they have not fome time fallen into great Er- 
rors 3 but yet ftill arguing as if they both believ'd 
it themfelves, and expeded that others ftiou'd do 
fo too, they almoft perpetually build upon that 
tacltSuppofition5fo what they deny in one place, 
they grant in another 3 and even fometnnes more 
than is requir'd. In a word, they manage fo as to 
make one believe; that they had, by continually 
reading, and admiring the Fathers, contrafted the 
fame Turn of Thought with them, and entirely 
form'd themfelves upon their Model. By which 
they themfelves furnilli us with a new Argument, 
a viva voce Evidence, for the Judgment I have 
given of thefe antient Authors 3 the Reading where- 
of does ftill continue to produce fuch vifibly ill 
Effbas3 fo that byendeavounng to rcinftate them 
in that too high Efteem, in which Ignorance and 
r J) -\ Superftitio* 


^n Hiftorical and Critical Account 

Superftition had plac'd them j they in the main 
dilcredit 'em more, than thole, who think they 
may be jullly cenfur'd on many Accounts 5 cou'd 
or wou'd do. 

But this is not all ; they imitate thofe Paffions 

feem they arc not willing to allow the Icaft Spark 
of either to any, who do not run into all their 
Notions, or rather Prejudices, PafTions, and Ca- 
bals. And what may very well lead one to ima- 
gine fo, is, to fee fome of 'em fo extremely cu il 

alio; which are but too plainly vihble, both in and modeH:,as to publickly brand with the Name 
the Writings and Lives of^he Fathers; asfar as of downright Impudence, the Liberty we take of 

they are tranfmitted to us. To come fhort of their 
Mailers in nothing ; they do to Declamation, ftlfe 
Reafoning, apparent Ignorance in Criticifm and 
iVIorality, and Contempt of Order and Method j 
add angry Tranfport, and Inveftive. They copy 

thinking and fpeaking otherwife, than they and 
the Fathers do ; on Matters too, where we do no^ 
more than follow the common Opmions of Pro- 
teftants ; as upon the Lawfulnefs of putting out 
Money to Intereft : to fee 'em, I lay,look down from 

after their Originals io well, that they are them- the Heights of their Self- Sufficiency, with an Air 

ielves become great Models: 111 Language is fo of Pity, on all fuch,asihall prefume to declare, tho' 

fluent and natural, that we muft do 'em theJulHce in never ib modeft Terms; that they have not fo 

to own, that in this Particular they perform like high an Opinion of St. ^«/;>/, and St. Jerome^ as 

Men of great Genhis and Abihty. Mortify'd at thcmfelves have; as People who, without the leaft 

the Sight of a conuderable Number of Inftances Tinfture of Learning, fet up for a Charnfter, by 

of falfe Reafonings, and grofs Errours in the Wri- running down almolt all the celebrated Authors of 

tings ol: the Fathers, coUcfted by feveral Authors, Antiquity: and then to ice 'em, at the fime time 

and that too without much Search or Pains; they, tacitly and at the rebound take to themicives the 

inftead of applying themfelves, calmly, and by Charafter of great Autiiors; which the confus'd 

fohd Reafons to make it appear, that the Paflages hafty reading of a great Number of Books, fome 

cited contain nothing but what is agreeable to good, fome bad, mull; needs have juftly entitled 'em 

Truth and good Scnic; which wou'd be a folid to;andwhichweniallncverbein"cha'dtoenvy'em 
fair way of defending thefe antient Doftors, they But, what is the very Height of Blindnefs and 

fo much elpoufe : inllead of this, I fay, they think Paffion ; our zealous Defenders of the Fathcrsnot 

It enough to cry out with difdain ; That it is noiv-a- content with the Charge of Ignorance, proceed 

days the Fajliion to attack the Fathers; that Igtw- to call in queftion, either direfttyor indircftlv the 

ranee thinks to make itfelf confiderable this way ; Probity and Religion of thofe; who freely I'et forth 

Tlmt thofe -mighty Jntagonifls of the Fathers, by both the Good and the Bad in the Lives and Wri- 

Men of 

tings of the Ecclellafticks and Divines of the firil 
Ages : and v.-ho believe that they were no more 
infallible, either in their Morals or their Doftrines, 
than the Ecclefiafticks and Divines of the preient 
Age. One of 'em fcruples not roundly to affirm 5 
That a Man could not fail of halving a Feneration for 
the Fathers, if he had any true Zeal forChriftianity : 
Another of 'em, the very Eccho of the former. 

their Performances, foeixj thcmfches to be 

but little Judgment and Knowledge. By 

They indeed diicover themielves to have but a 
very fmall Portion of the former ; becaufe in 
this Cafe, there is no manner of Occafion 
for that vaft Erudition, which they fo much 
pretend to. There is no Neceflity of knowing 

all the Languages both antient and modern; or .. .„., ,.,, ^,,,, ,, ,„, ^^ 

having read all the Fathers quite through: There fays; Tliat Contempt of the Fathers, if carry' d to 

IS fcarce any thing more requir'd,to judge of their excefs, (thus they term the Liberty of fpeaking 

Merit, than to dip mto the Fathers you have a one's Sentiments of the Fathers without concern 

mmd to examine ; whether it be the Originals, or for their Reputation, other than what Truth and 

any of the vail Number of TranOations, which Equity permit ) that this Contempt, I fay, redounds 

have been pub ilh d There are even entire Works, upon the Chriftian Religion. If the Chr'iliian Reli- 

which are nothing but a perpetual Contexture of gion, adds he, has not had fvr its Propamtors, Men 

Inipertmencicsheap d upon one another; fuch, for of true Piety and Knowledge; whaf Opinion w«/? 

mftance, is theCommentaiy of St.^«7?/«*on the Mankind have of it ? I confcfs, were Reafons 

Pfalms. Beiidcs, there is in Colleftions of Ser- which have no other Tendency, but to render the 

mons, in Books of Devotion, in Commentaiies on Opinion and Perfon of an Adverfaiy odious good 

the Scripture pubhfh'd in the Vulgar Tongues; Arguments; that this wou'd be one of the beft 

an infimte Number ol large Fragments and Paf- that ever was invented. All that cou'd be ftid is 

fages out of the Fathers ; which their mofl zealous that it might eafily be retorted ■ The Fathers 'fay 

Admirers difplay and fet forth, as the very Flower you, whom you regard as Propagators of the Chri- 

and Choice of thole fine and judicious Thoughts, llian Religion, muil neccffiirily ha^^e been Men of 

they have remark d in the reading of their Works, true Piety and Knowledge. But it has been main- 

So that any one now may be fufficiently qualify'd tain'd and prov'd to you, by a great Number of 

to judge, whether the Fathers do juftly merit all 
that Encomium and Zeal, with which' they have 
been cxtoll'd and defended : a.reafonable Share of 
common Reafon and goodSenfe is here fufficient; 
and perhaps the Charge of Ignorance was never 
more impertinent, or worfe apply'd than in the 
prefent Cafe ; to be lure Men, who bring fo loofe 
and nide an Accufation as this ; muft needs think 
themfelves the fole Proprietors of all the good 
Senfe, as well as Learning in the World : It fhould 

Inftances, that the Fathers have not only fallen into 
very grofs Errours, and been moll profoundly irrno- 
rant of many Things, v/hich they ought to have 
known; but further, that moft of 'em'"have,more 
or lefs, fuffcr'd themfelves to be led bv Paffion ; fo 
that their Conduft has been found frequently to be 

fuch, as is neither 


or juftifiable. You 

make no anfwer to all this, you do not attempt to 
refute the Examples and Fafts which are produc'd 
to you, you fairly own the Charge: You dothere- 

Sdfe the Opinion of Air. Du Pin, in his Biblieth. of Ecdeftajlical Authors, &c. Tom. Ill, p.ziS, Cd. zr 


of the Science 0/ M o R a l 1 1 1. 


fore by Implication confefs,that theChriftianRe- 
Ijcrion is of no value: You are at bottom foine dif- 
guis'd Atheill or Dcift, who, under the fallc Ap- 
pearance of maintaining the Intcrcll of Chrillia- 
nity, by vindicating the Honour of thofc, whom 
you regard as the Propagators thereof j are endea- 
vouring fecredy to undermine and dellroy Religion 
itfclf. In vain do you play the Zealot for Ortho- 
doxy, or the Opinions in filliionj which you de- 
fend by nothing but odious Parallels, and malign 
Reflections. In vain do you fearch intotlie hidden 
Secrets of Providence, employ all your Dexterity 
and Paits in the Explication of 'cm ; and flatter 
yourfclf to have found out new Solutions, which 
clear thofe great Difliculties, which have at all 
times been objected, on account of the Origin of 
Evil : All this will never hinder one, if he be al- 
low'd toreafon in the manner you do againil thofe, 
whofc eileem of the Fathers comes not up to your 
Liking j from inferring from this fame Rcafoning 
of yours, fome ill Dcfign on your Part, againlt 
that very Religion, you pretend to engage in this 
Difpute. Heic aliquis latct Error : Equo ue Credite 
Teucri. I leave it to the Judicious and Difinterelled 
to judge, whether the Confequence is not at leaft 
as well drawn on the one fide, as on the other. 
Tho' at the lame time we are fir from intending 
to make ufe of any fuch Weapons : We freely 
leave 'em to fuch, as have no better to make ufe 
of} having Charity enough to believe, that this 
Proceeding of theirs is meer want of Prudence : 
whilll blinded with Prejudice and Pafllon, they 
perceive not the Advantage they give both againlt 
themfelves,and againil the Chriftian Religion, by 
what appear'd to them a thundering decinve Ar- 
gument} proper both to five themfclvcs the Trou- 
ble of examining into the bottom of Things; and 
to throw Duft in the Eyes of the People. But to 
undeceive 'em, if pofllble; at leaft to prevent the 
Honeft and Well-meaning, or fuch as will not take 
the Pains to inform themi'elves, hovv^ to diftinguifh 
between good and bad Reafonings ; from being 
impos'd upon by this ; let us ftop a Moment or 
two, to make its Weaknels more fully appear. 

Firft then I obferve,that theApoftles alone can 
properly be call'd T'he Propagators of the Chrijlian 
Religion ', whom the Holy Spirit did inveft with 
the Gift of working Miracles ; * and guide into all 
Iruth^ concerning Jefus Chriji and his Dofh^ine. 
Thofe holy Men did^ make Di/cipks among all Na- 
tions^ according to the Order they had I'eceiv'd 
from their Mailer. St. Paul, who Jlrove ' not to 
f reach the Go/pel but in thofe Places^ where Jefus 
Chrift had leever been nam'd^ left he Jhould build on 
another Maris Foundation ; declares exprcfly. That 
*" he had fully preached theGofpel ofChrift, from]e- 
nifilem, and round about unto Illyricum ; * that is 
to fay, throughout a great Part of the Roman Em- 
pire. Tradition has preferv'd ^ in /wfyi^, and among 
other barbarous Nations, the Remembrance of the 
Travels and Miracles of St. Thomas^ St. Andrew^ 
and other Apoftlcs. Thus did the immediate Dif- 
ciples of our Saviour, fiU'd with his Spirit and 
ann'd with his Power, plant almoft thro' the 
whole World the Chriftian Faith ; it was they 

who laid the unlhaken Foundations of that great 
Work, either by themfelves inPerfonj or thro' 
the Means of fome Apoftolical Men, to whomi 
they had communicated the Gift of working Mi- 
racles: And the ordinary Minifters of theGofpel, 
who fucceeded them, but without any extraordi- 
nary Power, and with Authority infinitely lefs than 
theirs ; have had nothing elfe to do, but to culti- 
vate thofe deep-rooted Seeds, which the Apoftles 
had fpread abroad in all Parts, for the Propagation 
of Chriftianity ; and which, by their own proper 
Virtue, affifted with the Care of Providence, will 
always bring forth Fruit even to the end of the 
World j notwithftanding all, that the Negligence 
or Malice of Men may, or can do to the con- 

From whence it already appears, that the Argu- 
ment we are now handling, even fuppofing it had 
any Force in it \ will prove nothing in favour of 
the Fathers : for it is plain, that they were not, 
properly fpeaking, the Propagators of the Chri- 
ftian Religion. But let us grant the Fathers, fee- 
ing fome will have it fo, this glorious Title ; is 
what might poflibly in fome Senfe, and in fomo 
Meafure belong to them: it will yet be the eafieil 
Thing in the World, to min at once the Confe- 
quence they wou'd draw from thence, in order to 
fhew what they then ought to have been, with- 
out ever examining what they really were. We 
need but only confider this one inconteftable 
Fadt J that even the Apoftles themfelves were for 
a confiderableTime full of carnal Prejudices ; and 
had their Failings too : nor did they at all diflem- 
ble or conceal 'em j the ingenuous Acknowledg- 
ment whereof ferves very much to confirm the 
Truth of their Teftimony, and the Sincerity of 
their Intentions. Shall we then think it Matter 
of Aftonifhment, that the ordinary Minifters who 
fucceeded 'em, and who were not favour'd with 
any extraordinary Affiftance from Heaven j had 
not all that Exa&nels of Judgment, and all 
that Knowledge} had not all that Uprightnels, 
and all that Purity of Heart, which we cou'd wifh 
to have found in them ? 

lliefe Propagators of the Chrifiian Religi/on mufi 
needs, lay they, have been Men of true Piety and 
Knowledge. But muft all, who have, after the 
Apoftles, contributed any thing to the Propaga- 
tion of Chriftianity, have been fuch j or only fome 
of 'cm ? The firft is what they will not venture 
to fay : and if they betake themfelves to the lat- 
ter •, I ask, by what fhall we be able to know, 
that this Privilege was referv'd to fuch or fuch, 
for inftance 5 rather than to others ? Shall it be 
by the Age in which they liv'd? But why muft 
the Fathers of the three or fix firft Centuries have 
been Men of true Piety and Knowledge \ rather than 
thofe of the tenth or eleventh ? On the contrary, 
to argue on the Principle here laid down, it fhou'd 
feem, that, in proportion, as we become more 
remote from the firft Eftablifhment of Chriftia- 
nity 5 fo its Propagators ought to be Men of grea- 
ter Eminence for Piety and Knowledge j that they 
may be able ftill to augment more and more the 
Progrefs of this Holy Religion 5 and fupply, whac 
the Proofs of Matter of Fad, which are the very 


XVI, 13. 

•> Matth. xxviii, 19. 

Rom. XV, 20. 

' See a Diflertation of the late Mr. Cellarius, entitled, Itlnerarium ApoJiQlicum, &C. 
Saxony 1700. 

f <«./> nr^Lns, Deyer.Rel.ChriJi. Lib. z, SeiLii, Netf ■a, i^- 

LD 1] 

^ Ibid. ver. 19. 
printed a third Time at Hall In 


Ati Hiflorical and Critical Accov.nt 


Bafis of its Truth J lofe of their Force, thro' 
Diftance of Time, in the Judgment of a vaft 
Number of Perfons, who are not capable of exa- 
mining them, as they ought. Will they % that 
thefe Propagators of the Chriil:ian Religion, who 
muft have been Men of true Piety and Knoivkdge, 
are thofe very Doftors, whole Writings have 
been tranfmitted to us ? But why thefe, rather 
than an infinite Number of others ; who have 
dther wrote nothing j or whofe Writings have 
not come to our Hands? Befides, what do they 
mean here by Men of true Piety and Kyio'ujhdgc ? 
Will they f^y, that all the Propagators of the 
Chriftian Religion, fmce the Apoftles, muft ne- 
ceflarily have had as great a Meafure of Piety and 
Knowledge, in Matters of Religion and Mora- 
lity, as cou'd at all poflibly be? What? muft the 
Fathers have been liable to no Failings, no Paf- 
iions, no Errours, no Ignorance at all ? Was it 
necellaiy that God fhould miraculoufly inter- 
pofe, to hinder them from being Men as well as 
others i and fubjeft to the Imperfections of the 
Age i as well as to the Temptations incident to 
the Circumftances they liv'd in? If we have not 
fo exalted an Opinion of them, as their extrava- 
gant Admirers hxve ; do we pretend to fiy, that 
they were all a pack of profligate Wretches > or 
that there were not fome among them, who 
were, in fome meafure. Men of Piety and Know- 
ledge ? If we maintain, that they were not M&n 
of the moft accurate Judgments 5 that they often 
made ufe of bad Arguments-, that they were but 
little vers'd in the true Method of expounding 
the Holy Scriptures, and explaining the Princi- 
ples of Morality, which they contain : Do we 
therefore deny that they retain'd the Fundamen- 
tals of Religion, and Morality ? If we fay, that 
thro' an Effeft of humane Frailty, they have gi- 
ven way, fome more, fome lefs, to Paflions, and 
Aftions, contrary to the Rules of the Gofpcl> 
Do we therefore take upon us to penetrate either 
Into their Hearts > or into the Counfcls of God ? 
Do we deny, that many of them might, not- 
withftanding all this, ha\'e been truly pious and 
good Men; that the Divine Mercy might have 
regarded their good Intentions 5 and the Since- 
rity of a general Repentance ? Certainly, we 
leave it to God to judge of that, which we nei- 
ther can or ought to decide : We refervc to our- 
felves only the Right of charitable Judgments ; 
to which we fhall always rather incline, than to 
rafli Condemnations. But we are not for all that 
oblig'd to call evil, good : and fhall always take 
the liberty of blaming what is blame-worthy ; 
without paying refpeft to the Fault, out of fa- 
vour to the Perfon: and as we praife and heartily 
recommend to the Imitation of every body, the 
good Aftions, and Virtues which appear in the 
Lives of the Fathers of the Church ; fo we fhall 
never go about to diflemble their ill Aftions and 
Vices i which we cannot but fee, when we 
examine them without Prejudice or Prepoflef- 

But to come to the very bottom of the Argu- 
liient in hand ; befides, what I have already inti- 

mated, and fhall hereafter declare, that the Fa- 
thers were neither the only, nor the principal 
Propagators of the ChrilHan Religion, after the 
Aportles J this Argument contains at moft but a 
Reafon of Congruity. Now Rcafons of Con- 
gruity, which are generally very inconfiderable, 
and never amount to more than a flight Probabi- 
lity ; are altogether ridiculous in a Matter of the 
Nature with this we are now upon. Have the 
Fathers argu'd well or ill ? Have they fall'n into 
grofs Errours? Have they run into vicious Acti- 
ons, and Paffions ? Have they handled Morality 
with Accuracy, and in its juft Extent ? Thefe are 
Matters of Faft, and there is nothing more to be 
done, but to fee whether they are tme or not. 
We have at hand the Trafts and Writings of the 
Fathers ; the Hiftory of their Lives : let us read, 
examine, and then judge. The Queftion to be 
difcufs'd, is not, in what manner we conceive 
theThing fhou'd have been ; but .in what manner 
it aftually has been. For, if the Fa& be true, 
inftcad of concluding, as they would have us, 
that the Fathers muft, for the Good of the Chri- 
ftian Religion, have been fuch, as they have te- 
prefcntcd 'em to us j I fhall from thence infer, on 
the contrarv, that there was no Neccflity at all 
for it. To argue otherwife, is to imitate thofe 
of the RomiJJ} Cominunion ; who, to prove that 
1'ranftfbjlmitiation is not a new Tenent, un- 
known to the firft Ages ; tell us gravely, that 
this Doftrine could not poflibly have been ever 
introduc'd into the Church at all, had it not been 
receiv'd from the Beginning. If, with a pro- 
found Study of all the Subtilties of the Mathe- 
maticks, and the Affeftation of being able to 
talk on all forts of Subjefts, they form no bet- 
ter Judgments of Things j I fear they will give 
us but a very mean Opinion of Algebra., and that 
vaft * Encyclopedia^ which they pretend to value 
themfelvcs fo much upon. Is it not true, for ex- 
ample, that, as early, as the fecond Century, 
Fihor, * Bifhop of Romc^ caus'd many Broils, to 
fupport his Opinion on this important Queftion j 
On ivhat day the Pa'ffhver ought to be celebrated? 
And that he excommunited all the Churches of 
Afia, becaufe they celebrated that Feftival on the 
fourteenth Day of the Month of March j and 
not on the Sunday following, as he would have 
had it ? The unfhaken Fidelity, with which he 
adher'd to the Chriftian Religion ; for which he 
fuffer'd, even Martyrdom ; had not made him in- 
capable of being tranfported with PalTion about 
meer Trifles ; and of linning againft that Spirit 
of Peace and Charity, which the Gofpel fo ear- 
neftly recommends. So that St. Irenaus thought 
fit to write to him about it > and fharply cenlure 
his Proceedings. Have you a mind for another 
Example of a Father of the Church, a Martyr 
too ? Read then the fcandalous Conteft, which 
happen'd in the third Century, between St. Cy- 
prian, Bifhop of Carthage, and Stephen, Bifhop 
of Rome. The firft had got it determin'd in a 
CounciJ, that all who had been baptiz'd by He- 
reticks, ought to be re-baptiz'd. ^ " Stephen, on 
" tlie contrary, perhaps inccns'd that they had 

• The whole Circle of Arts and Sciences, or univerfai Knowledge. 

B See Eufeb. Hiji. Ecdef. Lib. 5, Cap. 24, Edit. Fates. 

? See the Life of St. Cyprian, by Mr. Le Clerc, Bikl. Univ, Torn. XII, /• 35 ' "» ^<- 




bfthe Science o/" M o r a l i t t. 


« come to a Decifion therein, without firft con- 
" fulting him 3 was of a quite different Opinion. 
« He wrote a Letter to St. Cyprian^ which is 
« fince loft •, wherein he rejefted and condemn'd 
« the Decilions of the Council oi Carthage; ex- 
*' communicated all thofe who had aiiifted at it j 
" and declar'd, that all, who came over to the 
" Church, ought to be rcceiv'd without being 
« re-baptiz'd, from what Hercfy foever they 
" came: This gave Birth to a fad and grievous 
*' Schifm between the Churches of Africa^ and 
*' that of Rome. At that time Pompey^ BiHiop 
" oi Sabrata^ a City oi Africa, delir'd the BiJ]:up 
*' of Carthage to let him know, what was the 
" Opinion of Stephen ; whereupon St. Cyprian 
*' fent him Stephen's Letter together with his 
" own Refutation j wherein he no more obierves 
*' the Rules of Patience, which he had laid 
*^ down in a Book, wherein he treats of that 
" Virtue, than Stephen -, who, for his part, had 
** violated them in a moft unworthy manner. By 
" which one may fee, that the Praifes which our 
■*' Martyr gives to Chriftians on that Account, 
" in the H beginning of the fame Book j where 
" he fays, that they never at all extol their own 
" Virtues, at the fame time that he is extolling 
" 'em to the Skies ; were Praifes, which rather 
*' inform us what thofe Men, to whom they are 
" given, ought to have been j than what they 
*' really were. He accufes Stephen of having 
*' wrote in a haughty difdainful manner ; and of 
" many other Things, which were nothing to 
*' the Purpofe ; that he had contradifted him- 
" felf; and talk'd like an ignorant Fellow, with- 

<' out Parrs or Learning. -That he took the 

*' Part of Hereticks againft the Church, and be- 
*' tray'd it. All this too, with more than ordi- 
*' nary Heat and Paflion. And thus in truth 
" does he demean himfelf in all his Controver- 
" fies i where he talks of nothing but Difci- 
*' pline and Epifcopal Authority, without much 
*' iTiew of Gentlenefs and Moderation > nor was 
*' it indeed the Cuftom in thofe days, to manage 
" their Difputes with Temper and Calmnefs } 
*' any more than it is now." 

In the beginning o^ the fourth Century, ' " Ele- 
*' ven or twelve Bifhops aflembl'd together at 
*' Cirta, in ^of > where they reproach'd one ano- 
" ther with enormous Crimes. The greateft 
" Part of them had deliver'd up their Bibles to 
*' the Pagans, to avoid Perfecution ; which a 
*' great Number of the honell Lay-Chriftians 
" had born with Conftancy. Others of them 
" had, with their own Hands, thrown them into 
*' the Fire. One Purpurius of Limate, was ac- 
" cus'd, for having murder'd the two Children 
*' of his Sifter ; who, inftead of clearing him- 

*' felf of the Charge, fturdily anfvvcr'd : For my 
" part, I have kiWd, and I do kill thofe who 
" are againfl me. trouble me no more about the 
" Matter : Ton know that I value no Man. ^ As 
" foon as ever there were Chriltian Emperoursj 
" worldly Plcafures began to introduce them- 
" felves a-pace into the Church j and there 
*' was in a little time nothing to be fcen, a» 
" mong the Clergy, but Enmities and Divi- 
*' fions. And becaufe the Bifhops were become 
" rich and in great Efteem, they -f ftuck at no- 
" thing to compafs Bifhopricks j which when 
" they had obtain'd, they aftlim'd to themfelves 
" a Tyrannical Authority. Thefe Diforders daily 
" increas'd, till they came to that Height, they 
" have been fince feen to rife too ; as the Learn- 
" ed Irifi Archbifhop Ufl:er, fhews in the 
*' Book, I have quoted in the Margin ; by a 
" great Number of PaflTiges out of Authors of 
" Note, who have left us moft lively Defcrip- 
" tions of the horrible Corruption of the refpe- 
" dtive Ages they liv'd in. I have already ' quoted 
" Gregory Nazianzene on this Head. Let us join 
" to him Sulpicius Severus, who liv'd in the fame 
" Century. He in the firft Book of his Hi- 
*' ftory, "" fpeaking of the Morals of the Clergy 
" of his Time j and having firft " obferv'd, that 
" the Tribe of Levi had no fliare in the Divi- 
*' fion of the Land of Canaan, as the other Tribes 
" had; that they might be more at hberty to de- 
" vote themfelves to the Service of God : fays, 
*' That he was not willing filently to pafs by that 
*' Example j hut chofe purpofely to mention it, 
*' as a fit Lejfon for the Clergy : For it feems to 
*' me, adds he, that they have not only quite forgot 
" that * Precept, but that they never had any 
" Knowledge at all of it-y fo great is now-a-dayi 
*' their Thirfl after Riches ; a Difeaje which has 
" invaded their Minds, and infected their Spirits^ 
" like a common Peflilence ! tloey gape after Pojfef^ 
" fions; they beautify and adorn their Country- 
" Seats, improve their Lands, and \. fit brood- 
*' ing over their Gold : tJoey buy, they fell, and 
*' in all things feek after Gain. If there are any 
" among them, who feem to have better things 
" in view ; who are not poffefs'd of EJlates, or 
" engaged in traffic k ; Tet they do that, which 
*' is much more floameful and fcandalous : they 
" expe^ Prefents without doing any thing for ''em; 
" and difJoonour themfelves by taking recompencts , 
*' their Holinefs being as it were exposed to fale. 
*' Towards the |||| End of the fecond Book of 
" his Sacred Hiflory, you may alfo fee the im- 
" partial manner, in which Sulpicius Severus 
" relates the Perfecution, ° which was carry'd 
" on againft the Prifcillianifs ; where he fharp- 
" ly reprimands the Pride and Cruelty of fome 

\, Op. Cypr.Trafl. f. Zil-. wT-ir 

' Extraftfrom the Hijl.Ecdef. ofMr.F/eun, Tom.U, p. 580; ^ fiiiv. in t\ie Bibl.Unh. Tom.XXW,p.Z^\-. , 

^ Uflerius, De Ecclej'iarum Chriftianariim, 'in Occident e pr^fcrtlm, continva fuccejf, ^c. In the Extrad of th^Biil. Untv, 

7om. IX, p. 5-, y feq. See alfo Tom. XXIII, p. 366', JS" fcq. 

f See what is related of Damafus, m Jmm. Marcel. Lib. 27, Cap. 6, per tot. 

' In 5ct?. IX, Lett, [e] in the Margin. a a j 'M, f A f* la 

"> The Article added to the Months of March and April 1 701 . In the Journal of Trevoux, Edit. Amfterd. i nac atiiciq 

h&M.x.Le Clerc's,. ^- * ..^ rrf, 

» Cap. 23, Ed. Lipf. 1709. And p. 30-, Ed. Elzev. See alfo Repiib. dn Lettres, of Mr. Bayle,_Mayib^^ p. 244, tsc 
* Leritis enim in facer dotitim a/pimpfs, nulla portio data, quo liberius fervirent Deo. Ibid. p. 30 , Edit, iilzevimni. 
4. Auro Incubant. Perhaps this means, that they love Gold very much, that they feek after it, and guard it with great Ware; 

brooding, if I may fay fo, with their Eyes, over their Treafures. See Virg. Georg. 2, 507. .Mneti. 0, bio. 
1111 P. xx^-,l3 d. £^/>. Elzevir. 
' See Pacatui in his Panegyrick on Theodcfius, cap. 29, Num. 3, p. 404-, Edit. Ceiur. 

« of 


\An Hiflorical and Critical Account 

*' of the II SpaniJIj Bifhops > who then began to 
*' employ the Secular Arm againft thofe Peo- 
*' pie : and at length caus'd many of them to 
*' be put to Death. In his firll Dialogue, '' he 
" gives a clear Account of the Violences, which 
*' Theophilus, Bifhop of Jkxandria^ employ'd a- 
" gainft Hereticks j and alfo of the Pride of the 
*' Clergy of France.'"'' One of the moft fimous 
Doftors of that Century, is St. Jerom^ a Man 
full of Choler and Paflion, if ever Man was fo. 
He had always been a great Extoller of Ori- 
gen, '^ without any the lealt mention of his Er- 
ro'.irs } whether it was that he thought 'em in- 
confiderable > or that he judg'd 'em pardonable, 
on account of the many good and ufeful Things 
he had written. But when once the Ar'ians 
began to take Advantage of Ongeiii, Autho- 
rity 5 more efpecially when John.^ Bifhop of 
Jertifalem, who favour'd the Opinions of the Ca- 
techift of yikxandria, had drawn upon himfelf 
the Indignation of St. Jerom ; he then fell a 
railing moil unmercifully againll On^f« ; whom 
he had formerly cry'd up to the very Skies > 
and fet himfelf * violently to perfecute the Ori- 
genifls. RuffinuSf who had been St. Jerorn's great 
Friend, having declar'd himfelf for Origen-, and 
having alledg'd for his Defence, thePraifes which 
St. Jerom had given him ; what does our hum- 
ble and pacifick Prieffc do, but immediately write 
a Book, full of the bitterell Gall and Paffion a- 
gainft Ruffinus. The fame Spirit reigns in his 
other Works, where he had to do with People 
he did not affeft. St. Cyril^ Patriarch oi Jlesan- 
dria, was, in the |||j Opinion of Mr. the jibbot 
Du Pifiy " a Man ambitious and violent ; who, 
" feeking nothing but to augment his own Au- 
*' thority, no fooner fiw himfelf rais'd to the 
*' Epifcopal Seat, but he expell'd the Novatians^ 
" by his own Authority -, and plunder'd their 
*' Bifhop of all the Goods he was poifefs'd of. 
" He attack'd the Je-MS in their Synagogues, 
*' at the Head of his People > took away their 
*' Synagogues from 'em, drove them out of J- 
" lexandria ; and gave their Goods for plunder 
" to the Chriftians ; grouixling himfelf, no doubt, 
*' upon that pious and holy Maxim of the Bi- 
*' fhop of Hippo ; that every Thing belongs to 
** the Faithful, and that the Wicked can have 
" no jufl Title to polTefs any thing. Another 
*' time St. Cyril fell out with Orejles, Gover- 
" nour of y^lexandria, on whofe Authority he 
*' was perpetually encroaching : five "f hundred 
" Monks, in fupport of their Bifhop, one day 
*' furrounded the Governour, wounded him by 
" a Blow with a Stone, and had kill'd him, if 
" the Guards and People had not put a Stop 
*' to their Fury. This cofl one of the Monks, ■ 

" who was taken, and put to the Rack, his 
*' Life } but St. Cyril llrait canoniz'd him. A 
" famous Heathen Philofophrefs, call'd Bypa- 
" tia^ was the Vi£t:im, which the Partizans of, 
" the Bifhop, immolated to the Manes of their 
" Martyr. She was cruelly tore to pieces, be- 
" caufe fhe was fiid to have irritated the Go- 
" vernour againft the Prelate." Wou'd you 
know what were the Clergy of the fifth, and 
following Centuries ? An Author, who cannot 
be fufpected of defigning any 111 to the Fa- 
thers, ' will inform us. " The Sefts, fays he, 
" (meaning thofe of the Nejlorians and Eiity- 
" cbians) which iprung up, partly thro' the La- 
" zincfs and Superltition } and partly thro' the 
" particular Grudges, Envy, and Malignity of 
*' the Clergy 3 gave the finifhing Stroke to the 
" Spirit of Perfecution on account of Religion. 
" 'Tis ^ true, this fame Spirit of Perfecution had 
" already appear'd in the World ; but had not 
" as yet exercis'd its Tyranny, with ^11 thofe 
" Circumftances of Cruelty, with which it has 
" been attended fince that unhappy Century ; 
" luhen Divifions arofe about Opinions, in which 
" there may have been fomething of reality j 
" but ivhat hcwever might have eafily been a- 
" greed and fettrd, had but the Spirit of Chri- 
*' fiianily preftded in Ecclefiafiical AJfembVies. Af- 
" ter that time nothing was to be feen in the 
*' £^7?, but Profcriptions, Maflacres, Fuiy, and 
" Rage. See what a Bifhop of the fifth Cen- 
*' tury, who was perfccuted for Nejlorian'ifm^ 
" fays thereupon : / pafs by ' in ftlence, fays he, 
" the Chains.^ the Dungeons, the Confi/cations, the 
*' Notes of Infamy, thofe lamentable MaJJ'acres, the 
" Heinoufnefs of ivhich is fuch, that even they 'who 
" have had the Misfortune to be Eye-PFitneJj'es 
" thereof, do with pain believe 'em to be true : All 

*' thefe 'Tragedies too are a^ed by B'lfljops. 

" Amongft 'whom down-right Impudence pafj'es for 
" Courage ; they call their Cruelty Zeal, and 
" thc'ir Knavery is botiour''d with the Name 
" of filfdom. But it flill went on increa- 
" fing, and grew flill worfe and worfe. The 
" Emperour Juflinian wou'd not be thought 
" to have lefs Zeal, than the Prelates of the 
" fifth and fixT:h Centuries : He thought it ho 
" Murther, fays Procop'ius, " to condemn to Death, 
" fuch as made Profeffion of a Religion different 
" from his own. All the World faw the dread- 
" ful Cruelties that were committed in thefe un- 
" happy Centuries. They maintain'd Sieges 'vx- 
" in their Monafteriesj they battled it in theur 
" Councils} They enter'd the Churches Sv/ord 
" in hand ; " They treated with the utmoJl 
" Cruelty, all whom they but fufpeded to fa- 
*' vour Opinions, ivhich too often prov'd to be 

II See Zulpic. p. 1 1 8-, i^c. Edit. Elzev. 

9 Cap. 21, and Ed. Elzev. tap. 3. 

<\ Seethe ^^^Ji. Hieron. of Mr. LeClerc, S>uaft. 8, SeB. 12. 

* He himfelf brags of it in his Apology againft /?//^« .- Imperatorum quoque fcrifta, fays he, ya^ ^/^ Alexandria y .^gypto 
erigenijias pelli ji/ient, me fuggerente, diSlata funt : iit Romans tirbis Pontifex mho eos odio detcjletiir, meum confiliumfuit : tit 
tottis orbis, poft tranjlationem tuam, in Origenis odia exarferit, quern antea ftmpliciter leilitahat; meui cperatus eft ftyius. Hieron 
Oper. Tom. II, p. 201*, lib. i, adv. Ruffin. Edit.Baftl. 

|||| The Report here given of it, is in the Terms of the Extraft thereof, by M. Bernard, Bibl. Univ. Tom. XXI, Part 2, /. 19-. 
•f Socrat. Hift. Lib. 7, f. 14, 15. 

' Tiijfert. Hiftoric. i^c. printed it Rotterdam in 1707, p. 8,9. See, for the fifth Century, thePaflages of Ifidorus of Da~ 
metta, quoted in the Epift. Eiclef. znd Crit. of Mr. LeClerc, p. 167, is" fcq. and p. 203", is" feq. Edit, fecunda. 
» Sttjimm. Marcel. Lib. 22, cap. ^~, />■ 233. And p. 559-, Edit.Gritteri. 

* Eutherius, Tyanortim Epifccpus, inter opera Theoduriti, Tom. V, p. 688_, and 689"' 
f. 292, A-, C, Edit. Colon. 1686. £1 afud Du Pin, BibJ. des Aut. EccleJ. Tom. IV, p. 

* Antcdot. p. 60, Edit. AlcmannJ. * ^i^Eutychii Annates, /. ijj. 

Et inter Opera Athavaf.i, Tom. Ifc 
67, Coi. 2~. Jii. Holland. 

^^ fucb 

of the Science of Moral 



'■<' fuch as no body underftood; not even thofe who Juftin Mai'tyr, in the fifrh + ni i ri • 
« defended tkem with the greatefl Zeal aid Ob- firll %ology, %s/" £, lyrp.'''P''';.f j"' 

Church J thefe are the Holy Fathers, which 
we muft take for Men of true Piety, and Know- 

But however, what we are principally con- 
cern'd about, is the Soundncfs of their Judg- 
ments, the Solidity of their Thoughts, and the 
Extenfivenels of their Knowledge : Give me 
leave then to make a Parody j and apply to 
the Fathers fome Verfes of a Modern * Satyrift, 
whom France has not long fmce lofl. 

^"on vante eneax rhonneur, lafoi, la probitS, 
^"on prife leur Candcur ^ kur ftnchiti; 
^"ihaienteu quelqnefoisune humeur d^bonnaire. 
On le vetit, fy foufris, ^ fuis pret de me taire: 
Mais que comme un rnodele on z-ante leursEcrits, 
^"on Ics fajfe pafj'er pour de fort bons Efpits, 
Comme aux Rois des Juteurs, ^u'on leur donne 

Ma bile alors s'echauffe, ^ je brule d'ecrire. Sec. 

Which may be Englijh'd thus. 

Extol- them, ifyoupleafe, for Probity, 
For Honour, Candor, Faith, Sincerity j 
Let 'em good-natur'd too fometimes appear, 
'Tis granted all, and I am filent here: 
But that their Works, and they lliou'd make 

To be the very Models of good Senfe, 
That they of Writers Ihou'd as Sovereio-ns" 

My Choler rifes, and I can't contain. 
But muft let loofe my Rage in the Satyrick 


The Examples, which I have already pro- 
duc'd, of the grofs Errours, and wrong No- 
tions of the Fathers; what I have faid of Books, 
where may be found an infinite Number of mean 
trifling Thoughts, quoted with great Applaufe, 
by the over-fond Admirers of thofe antient Do- 
ctors of the Church ; the great Number of 
1 aifages of the fame kind, which ^ divers Au- 
thors have occafionally remark'd and criticiz'd : 
All this might very well fervc to excufe me the 
Trouble of producing any more at prefent. I 
fliall neverthelefs here give the Reader a fmall 
Sample, by which he may be able readily to 
judge of the Turn of Spirit, and manner of 
thmlcing, which, in thofe Times, grew moil 

^f^omen, and corrupted Boys, 6cc. And -Iw th^s 
founded folely upon the fixth Chapter of G'- 
nefs, Ver 4. mifunderflood. The moll antient 
Pathers, have alfo one after another, given out 
this Opinion, for certain Truth ; as a Learned 
Editor - of this Father has obferv'd. Ju/iin 
hnds the Sign of the Crofs in Sail- Yards; Mails 
of Ships, Ploughs, Mattocks, 6?f. 
^^ St. Irenaus, in the Judgment of Photius, has 
corrupted, by foreign and weak Arguments, thi 
bmphcity, and exa6l Ferity of the Doctrines of 
the Church. « Can any thing, -^ for example^ 
4£ be more infipid, than the Reafons, he makes 
ufe of to prove that there are four Gofpelsj 
VIZ. becaule there are four principal Regions 
of the World, Eaft, Well, North, and 
Soiith ; or becaufe the Edifice of the Church 
IS founded on the Gofpel, and there mull be 
four Columns to fupport an Edifice ? theo' 
phylaa does not fucceed much better, when 
he lays j that it mull be fo, becaufe the Gof- 
pel teaches us the four Cardinal Virtues; or 
becaufe thefe Gofpels contain Doarines, Pre- 
cepts, Promifes, and Threats. And don't the 
five Books of Mofes contain the fame Things? 
St. Maximus and "Theophanes feem to have fuc- 
ceeded fliU worfe, when they faid, that there 
are but four Gofpels, becaufe there are but 
four Elements. It was jullly obferv'd by 
Mr. Fabricius, that had there been fivej 
threcj or an hundred Gofpels, they cou'd not 
have wanted as good Reafons to prove, why 
they were neither more or le(s. Such wretch- 
ed trifling Stuff as this, is a Difgrace to hu- 
mane Realbn : It might perhaps pafs in Con- 
verfation, where one does not always ma- 
turely weigh and refleft upon every thing 
that is faid ; but when one finds it ferioufly 
wrote; in Works too compos'd for the pub- 
lick View, and to be left to Pollerity ; the 
leafl one can do, in my Opinion, by way of 
refentment, to Authors, who have oblig'd us 
to read fuch Things j is freely to difipprovc 
and cenfure 'em. 

" St. Cyprian " quotes at every turn, when 
he is upon the Matter of Ecclefiaffical Dif- 
cipline ; the PalTages out of the Old as well 
as New Tellament, where-ever there is the 
Latin word Difciplina, without having an/ 
regard to Circumllances, See the Reafoning 
he makes ufe of againfl Lucian, (Presbyter 
and Martyr of Carthagg, who was willing 
that thofe fhou'd be receiv'd into the Peace of 
the Church, who had funk under Peifecu- 

* Boileau, Sat.g, v. zi^. 

4S- ''"''"' ''' """""'' ^^^ ^'''''^""''' °' ^''- ^^^^-' I^- "-^^ '^ /«/# onStAuJlin. in the Ap^J:. 

t ^.5;. D-, Edit. Colon. 

L k' ";= ^'^^- C^^'> of Mr. Le Clerc, Tom. II, p. 335., 335- 
MensTmtt;^^!tR^ -d3S9..36o-. Pe:aviiDosr>.TheoLTm.m,\nrr.a. D. 

r^ly'^^:iLi& 2'llA2.%^Jiff".. %'?f- "^'"f"' ^- III' ^rti.^^ ^' ^ 390". Wh,rco«« find, 
" Cod. 1 20-. ' ' "' ' J '' 












*-Oli. 1 20-. '^ '■> ■^ 

^ui. des Lett of Mr. Bernard, Detemb. 1703, p. 63 r 
^'ft- 27. Bibl. Univ. Tom. XII, />. 264^ ij fe^ ^^ 



An Hijlorical and Critical Account 

*' tiott, wlthotit obliging them to paj thro all 
« the leveral Degrees of Penance:) The * Lord 
« having /aid, that they flmiU baptize all Na- 
« tiom in the Name of the Father^ Son, and Holy 
« Ghoft, and that their paft Sins are forgiven em 
«' in Baptifm •, he ( meaning Lucian) not knonv- 
« ini either the Commandments, or the Laws, or- 
« dains Peace and Pardon of Sins to be given m 
« the Name of Paul. But how eafy is it to 
« fee the infinite Difference, between the 1 ar- 
« don which God grants to Sms committed 
« before Baptifm receiv'd in his Name j and 
" the remitting of fome Ecclefiaftical Purniji- 
« ments by the Authority of a Martyr, who 
« gives order for fo doing ? ■ ' • i" ^^^ 
«' Treatife of the Vnit^ of the Church,'' ^5,?"^'": 
« tains, that the Indivifibility of the Church 
'' was tvpify'd by our Saviour's Gai-ment with- 
« out Seam. He fiys, ^^ that we ought 

<' to be liberal to the Poor, bccaufe as by Bap 
" tifm we obtain Pardon for all the Sins, that 
*' were committed before Baptifm, in virtue 
« of the Blood of Jefus Chrifi j fo by giving 
'' Alms we expiate thofe that are committed 

« after. Endeavouring to deftroy the hi- 

" volous Pretences, which are fometimes al- 
«' Icdg'd by way of excufe, for not giving ot 
« Alms ; he mentions, among others, the Ex- 
*' cufe of thofe, who fay that the Multitude 
*' of their Children will not fuffer them to be 
«' fo liberal, as they cou'd wifh to be : 1 o 
« which he replies thus > that the more Chil- 
« dren we have, the more we ought to give ; 
« becaufe we have the more Sms to purchde 
« Redemption for, more Confciences to purify, 
« and are to deliver the Souls of a greater Num- 
« ber of Perfons. , ^ ... 

St Jerom, '"' " Who recommends Celibacy, 
« as much as he poffibly can j and who, ac- 
« cording to the Cuftom of Orators, wou'd 
« make any thing pafs for a Reafon j makes 
" ufe of this fine Argument againft Jovinian : 
« C^libes, fays he, guod coelo digni fimt, indittm 
" notnen ; They have given 'em that Name, be- 
« caufe they are worthy of Heaven." If you 
wou'd fee an Heap of Sophifms, and poor wretch- 
ed Arguments, which prove nothing, or elfe 
prove that Marriage is in itfelf criminal ; you 
need only read the Remainder of that Book a- 
gainft Jovinian, and that which he wrote againft 
Helvidius ; " where he ftrenuoufly oppoles fe- 
cond Maniages : In this laft Book, he prides 
himfclf, in having play'd the Rhetorician and 
Declaimcr : Rhetoricati fumus, £5? in tnorcm De- 
damatorum pauhdum hifmus. 

In another Place, ^"^ he makes it his Boaft, 
that he wrote with great Precipitation, and 

without giving himfelf the Trouble to beftow 
much thought upon his Commentaries : and is 
accordingly found frequently contradicting him- 
felf. He has the Aflurance to own in plain 
Terms, " tliat in his Polemick Works, he had 
no other Aim, but to get the better of his Ad- 
verfaries j without the leaft Concern, whether 
what he advanced were true, or falfe. He fup- 
ports himfelf by the Examples of Origen, Me- 
thodius, Eufebius, JpoUinaris, and other Apo- 
logifts for the Chrillian Religion ; who, as he 
fays, us'd the liime Method againft the Hea- 
thens i making ufe of very doubtful and pre- 
carious Reafons j and maintaining, not what 
they thought, but what the Intereib of the Dif- 
pute requir'd. Nay further, he pretends, that 
in fo doing, he did but imitate Jefus Chrifi, and 
""" St. Paid, who maintain'd, as he wou'd have 
us believe, the Pro and Con, juft as it fuited their 

The great St. jiuftin alone might afford us 
Matter enough, to furnilh out a large Volume 
of Trifles and Impertinencies : I fhall content 
myfelf with producing only two Inftanccs. In 
explaining that Paffige of Gencfis, Chap, iii, 
Ver. 14, where the Latin Verfion, which he J 
us'd, reads with the Septuagint, Upon thy Breafl, 1 
and upon thy Belly flmlt thou go, and Duft foalt 
thou eat, all the Days of thy Life : By "" the 
Breafi, fays he, is meant Pride j by the Belly, 
the Lufls of the FlefJi ; and by that which fol- 
lows, Dufi flialt thou eat, Curiofity, which ex- 
tends only to Things temporal and terreftrial. 
By Curiofity, he means Avarice : And thus it 
is he draws his moral Refleftions from Scrip- 
ture. His remark on the Title of the Pfalms 
is very pleafant. " The °° Tranfcribers it feems, 
*' did not ufe to put before the firft Pfalm^ 
*' Pfalmus primus, as they do now-a-days, be- 
*' caufe they did not probably think it at all 
" neceffary j fince there cou'd be no Miftakc, 
*' it being at the Head of the Book, and fol- 
*' low'd by the fccond Pfalm : But this wou'd 
" not ferve St. Aujlin's Turn, he was for a 
" Reafon much more myfterious:" -f Js this 
Pfalm, fays he, introduces God himfelf /peaking^ 
fo for this Reafon it has no Title, for fear kfi 
otherwife fomething elfe fhoiCd be preferred before 
the Speech of God; or kfi hefiiould be caWd the firfi^ 
which is not calld the firfi, but one : And therefore 
it neither cou' d nor ought to have aTitle; for fear lefi 
if it had had the Title of the firfi, it might have been 
believ'd to have been the befi, by its numerical 
Order only; and not by its Authority. Or elfcy 
adds he, as has been already faid, for fear, that 
it might have been believ'd, that the Pfalmifl had 
preferred fomething elfe before the Speech of God, 


ff ndl Unv Tom. XII, *. 283', ex libro dt UnUat. Ecckf. p. 109.. , 

K IS Univ. tZ. XII, /. 338-, 339-. ^^ Mro De Opere & Ekemofyms, p. .97-, 205 . 

•>" Repub. des Lett. May 1702, p. 502. 

-.1 See the 8th Weronym. ^laft. of Mr. Le Clerc. , ,7 i, r 

r S':;":i; kt4:;^;/ti"un^ar^^^ i: K.SK ,./.«.. t.«/.,. de mi. ,. 368-, 369-. e. nm.,. 

Gttr Tom II t 10C-, 106", Ed.Biifil. ,. 

^^^ Nonne nobis loquitur cum fervatore, aliUr foris, aliter domi loquimur? JJ"^- P- '"g • 
"" Lib. 2, De Geneft contra Manich. c. i-j_, if. Sec Ui Qbfervat. Hall. Tm.lY, Obfrvat. J, 
<"> Sentimem de quelques Thiol, de Holl. p. 362". 
t Aupjtin. Opcr. Tim. VIII, Col, \0, CT, Ed. Baf. 

of the Science of Morality* 

had he put a Title before this Pfalm j for if it 
had been calVd the firft^ that might have been 
underflood to meariy preferable to the reji. And 
therefore^ concludes he, to the end that ive may 
niamfejily fee^ hoiv much this Pfalm is dijiingt!ifl}\i 
above the refl^ it is the only one that has no Title. 

its Propagators Men of true Piety and Learning.^ 
'■ijuhat opinion mufi ive have of it ? As we are under 
no Obligation to account for theCondua: olGod^ 
either for what he does, or what he does not do • for 
what he permits, or what he dircfts, according 
to the fecret Methods of his Providence : fo, *^ 


*' Reconcile, if you pleafe, the Conclufion with Head of faying; fiich or fiich a Thing is contrary to 

" the Premiies. 

As I am quite tired with copying fo much of 
this tedious, and injudicious Stuff; fo there is 
more than enough of it, to fet in their true 
Light the Charafters of the Authors in quellion, 
and to let the Reader fee ex ungue Lconem. I 
have defignedly pitch'd upon Examples, which 

the Defigns of God, or to his Attributes; therefore 
God could not have done or permitted it ; I think 
(and I have all theReafon in the World to think 
lb ) that we fhou'd rather argue thus : God has 
done or permitted fuch or fuch a Thing ; therefore 
there is nothing in it contrary to his Defigns^or to his 
Attributes : altho' it may not always, in our weak 

had been already remark'd and produc'd by others > and narrow Underftand'ings, be clearly reconcik' 

and are extant in Books molt common and eafy ble with the Views, and infinite Perfcftions of that 

to be had. By this we may fee, with what an 

ill Grace it is, that our zealous Defenders of the 

Fathers^ require us to take it upon their Word, 

that they wcvcMen of true Piety., and Knowledge; 

againll fo many and fo notorious Proofs, which 

demonftrate, even to Eye- fight, that their Vir- 
tues were for the Generality, fir from being any 
way confiderable j and at the fame time accom- 
pany'd with very great Imperfeftions ; and fome 
of 'em much to be llifpefted of Hypocrify : and 
for their Knowledge, that it was commonly falfe 
and confus'd ; tliat they had a much greater fhare 
of Imagination, than of good Senfc ; that they 
were dellitute of many Helps, which were necef- 
fary to the augmenting and perfecting that Know- 
ledge, they were Maiters of; and that they even 
neglected * thofe Helps, which they actually 
had, or might have piocur'd ; and that confc- 
quencly their '''' Knowledge mull needs have been 
very narrow and confin'd : in a word, that the 
moll able amonglt them, are in nothing compa- 
rable to the good Authors of ours, or the lall 
Age; for either Solidity, Stile, Order, or Me- 
thod. And now, after all that has been fiid of 
their Writings, is it poflible that any one can fe- 
rioufly look upon the Fathers, as Men of great 
Knowledge and Judgment .'' A Man of the great- 
eft Knowledge and Judgment in the World, I 
mult own, may be miltakcn, and may give into 
fome filfe Notion j but then it mult be a Notion, 
that has at leaft fome Plaufibility, and this too is 
what will not often happen: but I flrall vent^trc 
to affirm, that a Man of tolerable good Senfe will 
never be guilty of thofe Extravagancies, which 
we fee the Fathers, almoft all of 'em, have run 
into- None but thofe, who ai-c capable of fay- 
ing as filly Things themfelves,or who are ftrange- 
ly blinded by a Spirit of Party; cou'd fo much 
preach up the Authors of fuch arrant Trifles. But 
to their great Mortification, we do not now live 
in an Age, that will palfively fubmitto fuch Treat- 
ment : The Publick is no longer to be impos'd 
upon by fuch fort ofgrave Aflirmations as theie,void 
of all Proof; and at the fame time contradicted by 
an infinite Number of decifive Reafons, fairly 
expos'd to the publick Vievv^ of the World. 'Tis 




a molt ridiculous fond Conceit, 

to miagme. 


without having fo much as attempted to difprove 

Fafts, Fa6ts fo clear and certain ;is thofe which 

have been alledg'd ; it is enough to falve all, to 

produce fuch a pitiful Reafon of Congruity as 
this - • ^ -- • "• — - 

Sovereign Being. But however, as he has not 
forbidden us to enquire after, and with due Re- 
verence to propofe, the Reafons he might have 
had, not to interpofe in an extraordinary manner, 
to prevent certain Things; fo, if we wou'd a lit- 
tle exert the Faculties of our Souls upon the Sub- 
ject-matter of the Fa6t in queftion ; we might 
eafily difcover enough, both to fatisfy ourfelves, 
and to ftop the Mouths of thofe, who wou'd have 
God always to aft according to their Caprice. If 
" after theApoftles them.felves, we find nothing, 
" but what is very mean and confus'd in that firfl 
" Rife of Chrillianity ; it was probably, as Mr.'*'' 
Le Clerc has very well remark'd, " fo order'd, to 
" the end that it might not be faid in future Ages, 
" that there were in thofe days Men able enough 
" to form fuch a Religion as Chriftianity, and to 
" forge fuppofititious Books for its firft Authors j 
fince there is nothing to be feen after them, 
that comes up to their genuine Writings : Not 
only none of the Heads of the feveral Se6ts, 
which fprung up at that time ; but none even 
of thofe who profefs'd to follow the Apoftles, 
as their fole Guides, have produc'd any thing, 
" that comes near that manner of writing, which 
" isfeeninthe Worksof thofeholyMcn. There is 
" too withal inthatmannerof writing of theirs, fo 
much unaffc£ledPlainnefs,and native Sincerity, 
if I mayfo fay; that we may from thence moft 
clearly difcern, that what they tell us, is not 
of their own Invention; but the real Diftates 
of Jefus Chrifl ; and of that Spirit, which he 
" had conferr'd upon 'em." Certain it is, that, 
confidering the Books of the New Teftament 
with refpeft to the reafoning Part ; not one of the 
Fathers, take 'em as they really were, wou'd ever 
have been able to compofe Works, full of that 
good Senfe, which fo vifibly reigns throughout 
the Gofpels and Epiftles of the Apoftles. It may 
alio be laid, that God, in permitting the Fathers 
of the Church to be fo unacc urate in their Wri- 
tings; and oftentimes fo irregular in their Con- 
du6t; was willing to ftiew,that the Chriltian Re- 
ligion, which was to continue to the end of the 
World ; both can and will maintain itfelf by its 
own Efficacy ; maugre all the Ignorance and 
Wickedncfs of thofe, who ought to have been its 
chief Supporters. And ftrou'd this be deem'd to 
nnplyany thing! that is really contrary to the Wif- 
dom of God, or injurious to the Chriftian Reli- 
it may be prov'd, by the lame Principle, 




(ws.) If the Chrifian Religion had not for that there ought not to have been, under Chri- 

, ijfeq. And the BM. Choifie 

* See Mr. LeClerc'iCrit. and Ecclef. Lett. Epift. 4, p. 107, tf feq. and Edit. 2, p. 
Tom. XI, p. \oz , ^ feq. 

p? The Erudition of even thofe, who pafs'd for the moft learned, was very common, 
Mr. B'er?!ard has very well obferv'd in his Reptib. des Lett. March 1 699, p. 259. 

11 B'M. Choife, Tom. IV, p. 356 , 357". 

[E] [F] 

and coft them little or no Pains ; as 



An Hiftoricd and Critical Account 

flianity. Ages of univerfiil Ignorance and Cor- 
ruption, efpecially amongft the Clergy , and fuch 
too, as in fa6t thofc Ages were, which preceded 
the Reformation : and thus our zealous Defen- 
ders of the Fathers will have every whit as good 
a Foundation to maintain, contrary to the Faith 
of all Hiftoryj that thofeAges were not fuch, as 
they are generally belicv'd to have been. But en- 
tirely to put to filence fuch, as are not afliam'd to 
urge this wretched Argument} which, whatever which we do not know; the others having made 

is not to be doubted, but that there were, both 
amongil the People, and Clergy too, Men of 
more Senfe, Knowledge, Moderation, Juftice and 
Piety j than thcfe, whoic Names and Writings 
have been tranlmitted down to us with fo much 
Pomp and Oitentation. Let the Reader judge, 
to which of the two, the Name and Title o't Pro- 
pagators of the Cbrijiian Religion^ does molt pro- 
perly belong; whether to thcfe we do, or to thofe 

Light 'tis view'd in, affords not the leafb Colour 
of Reafon ; 1 fliall take occafion to add in a few 
Words three or four Reflexions. The firft isj 
that neither Jefus Chrijl^ nor his Apoifles have 
any where faid, or in any wife given us to under- 
ftand} that thofe, who next after them might be 
look'd upon as the Propagators of the Chrijiian Re- 
ligiofi^ were to be Men of true Piet)', and Know- 
ledge. So very far from that were thev,as to pre- 
pare us for the Expeftation of juil the contrar\'. 
The Parable of the Tares fow'd by the"'Enemv 5 
and that of the "Net that gather'd of every kind ; 
do plainly enough fhew us, that in the Chriftian 
Church, the Wicked were to be very much in- 
termix'd with the Good; infomuch thatthefe lat- 
ter were not to have the Afcendant, or make a 
better Figure in it than the others. OurLord hath 
foretold the Divifions, which the Ignorance, the 
vain Subtilties, the Temerity, the Prefumption, 
and Pafllons of thefe Propagators of his Religion 
would produce in the Church. And St. Paul a!- 
fures us, " that there mtift be SeSls., to the end that 
thofe whofJiould be worthy of approbation^ might be 
made manifeft-^ (that is to fay) that a Mind free 
from Prejudice, and which judges not of things 
by Appearances ; might be able to dillinguilTi 
who were the Men, that did in good carnell de- 
vote themfelves to Truth and Virtue. When the 
Apoftles are telling us what was to happen in the 
Church, they "" exprefs themfelves in fuch a man- 
ner, as gives us all the Reafon in the World to 
believe, that the Clergy were not for the Genera- 
lity to be Men of the grcateft Piety, and Under- 
llanding: In the very Days of theApolliles, there 
were Men of turbulent Spirits, and falfe Tea- 
chers } againft whofe Temerity and Seduftion 
thofe holy Men were oblig'd to oppofe them- 
felves. There was even at that time to be feen a 
Diotrephcs, "" a Man both vain and ambitious 5 
who prefum'd to prate againfl St.John^\v'\x.h. ma- 
licious Words J who treated as Hereticks, and 
excommunicated, thofe whom the Apollle held 
for Brethren. 

The fecond Oblervation 1 have to make is; 
that, in the firft Ages of Chriftianity, as well as 
in thofe that foUow'd after ; the Men moft ap- 
plauded, and who bore the greateit Charafter in 
the Church, were not always thofe, who had the 
greateit ftiare of good Senfe ; or were the molt cmi- 

It was not for the 

ncnt for Learning and Virtue. 

molt part ''^ then, anv more than it is now. 

it their Bufinefs both to prevent their making any 
Figure while they liv'd; and to hinder their Me- 
mory from being handed down with advantage 
to P'oiterity. Amonglt thefe latter, fome out of 
Fearfulnefs; others thro' Prudence, or the Impof- 
libility which they faw there was of fucceedingj 
declin'd the cntring into Contefts, with Men more 
powerful than themfelves: and if any one prov'd 
fo hardy as to make head againft thofe Doftors, 
who had gain'd the Admiration of the Populace j 
he foon found there was no good to be got by it : 
Witnefs the Affair o{ Figilantius with Sx..Jerom. 

I obfcrve in the third place; that we have no 
other occafion, with rclpeft to the Interelts of 
the Chriltian Religion, for the Writings of Ec- 
clcfiaitical Antiquity; than as theyfurnilh us with 
hiltorical Evidence, of what has«pafs'd ; and been 
' each Writer. This is in 
cda'd, by an Author whom 

believ'd in the time of 
exprefs Terms acknow 
I have already quoted : IThen ""■ the Protcftants, 
fays he, confult the Fathers and the Councils^ they 
make no other nfe of that Study, but to leant the 
Hijlory of tloeir Doiirines, and to fear ch out the fir fl 
Beginnings of Erroiir ; fo far are they from looking 
there for the Foundations of their Faith. Now af- 
ter this to come and cry out, that all is loit, if 
we have not a profound Veneration for the Fa- 
thers; and but venture freely and impartially to 
fpeak our Minds of them ; is plainly ridiculous. 
The very Divifions, which their Ignorance, Paf- 
fions, and vain Subtilties have produc'd in the 
Church ; contribute not a little to affure us, that 
no conildcrable Corruption has crept into the 
Text of the Holy Scriptures; fmce it is plain, 
had it been fo, that the oppofite Party wou'd not 
have fiil'd to have openly reproach'd the other 

My fourth and laft Obfcrvation is; that, not- 
withitanding the great Inaccuracy of the Fathers, 
which has often caus'd 'em to commit confidera- 
ble Errours; notwithltanding that ftrange Fancy 
they had for vain Subtilties, which made 'em fie- 
gle^ Things of much greater Importance; not- 
withftanding all this, I fiy, the Fundamental Do- 
ctrines of Religion and Morality have flill been 
preferv'd amonglt Chrillians; even in ^^^ the moft 


of Darknels and Vice. 

And tho' 
and mix'd 


ieveral Falfities have been added to, 

with thefe Fundamentals ; tho' they have not 

been fully explain'd, and drawn out into all their 

juftConfequcnces; this is no way the fault of the 

rir, which ferv'd to raife Men to the highefi Dig- Gofpel. But Providence has at length highly ju 
" ' '"' " . . - .- ftify'd itfclf, if I may fo fiy, in the Eyes of all 

nities of the Church. Thus, notwithftanding 
that Corruption both of Judgment and Manners, 
which reign'd, more or lefs, thro' every Age ; it 

" Matth. xiii, 24, £5" feq. See the Epi^. Crit. (jf EccL 
And his Treatife of Incredulity, p. 189, £3" feq. Et p. 199" 
« See Mauh.xm, 47. " i Cor. xi, 

" "" I Tim. iv, I, 

laid to 

of Mr. 

who wou'd otherwife have prepofleroufly 

Charge, the Ncglefts and erroneous 

Le Clerc, p. 121, 122. Et p. \^6~, iff feq. Edit. 2. 

See 2 Theff. ii, 3, & feq. i Tim. iv, i, {ff feq. 2 Pet. iii/ 3, i^ feq. Jude 18, l^ feq. " 3 Job. 9, 10. 

yy SeewhatGr^^oryiVijzwsz^w, fays of the Times he liv'd ill, in his Life publifh'd hy'Mi.LeChrc, Bill. Univ. Tom. xviii, 
f. 56", 89', 92-, 1 1 9-. " Dif. Hifloriqun, &c. p,2lj. 

"» See Mr. Le Clerc's Treatife, De eligenda inter Chrifiiams diffentientes fententia, ( which is at the end of the laft Edition 
oiCretius, Defer. Rel.Chrif) Se^.7-. 


of the Science of Morality. 


Judgments of Men. God has rais'd up a Set of in Ignorance and Corruption, augmenting ftill 

Men, who have introduc'd a better manner of more and more, did at length nle to fuch a 

ftudying and reafoning. We improve daily in Pitch, as that there was hardly to be feen, efpe- 

rightly expounding the Holy Scriptures > and in cially among the Clergy, the leafl Spark of good 

folidly handling Morality. A true Rclilh for found Senfe or Vntue left. Not to mention that vaft 

Knowledge and wholefom Literature begins to Number of ridiculous Superftitions, that prodi- 

appcar; and gives us reafon to hope, that they gious and amazing Idolatry, which had entirely 

will both in due time make a conliderable Pro- defac'd Chriflianity 5 there were befides a thou- 

notwithilanding the Efforts of thofc, who fimd dctellable Maxims eftablifh'd, worthy only 


are labouring to bring us back to the Primitive 
Food of Husks and Acorns. And an Age may 
perhaps come, wherein the Fathers of the Church, 
together with their fond Admirers > fhall be ge- 
nerally had in no greater Efteem, than they can 
fairly merit. 

Bat it is time to put an end to this long Di- 
grefiion. I thought it neceflliry once for all, ut- 
terly to defli :>y the only Subterfuge which thefe 
boailed Defenders of tlie Fathers had left. We 

of the grofs Darknefs of thofe unhappy Centu- 
ries. The Bifhop "of Rome made himfelf to be re- 
garded, as one invefted with Power to depofe all 
inch Kings, as he fhou'd iudge to be Hereticks j 
and to abfolve their SubjelSts from their Oaths of 
Allegiance. Every one knows to what excefs /«- 
didgcncies^^ VJtrc carry'd. A.n Italian call'd " John 
Giglis, or Des Lis, ( De Liliis ), who was made 
Bifliop of Worcejicr by the Authority of the Pope > 
receiv'd from him at the fame time the Power to 

fliall now purfue the Thred of our Hiftory of pardon all forts of Crimes j and to permit any one 
Morality. After what has been iliid of the little -i^.-- 

care taken by the Doftors of the Church of the 
lix firll Centimes, to cultivate itj it wou'd be 
fiiperfliious to run over the following Ages ; where- 

to retain the Goods of another, howfoever ac- 
quir'd ; provided part thereof was given to the 
Commiflaries of the Pope, or to their Subfti- 

'S See the 4th Lateran Council held ^tRome in 121;, Canon the third. You may find the Canon tranflated, Tom. IX, of 
the Bibl. Uni-. p. 39 . See alfo Tom. XI, p. 387". And the Treatife by Mr. Dii Pin, De la Puijfance Ecclef. is" Tmporelle, 
printed in 1707. See Camn-zd'i fiimma Concil. p. 603-, printed 1659. 

'* See Seckendorff, Comm. Hift. Ig Apolog. de Lutheranifimo, iSc. Lib. i. 

'7 See Whartoii's Atiglia Sacra, Supplem. ad Hift. Ecclef. Vigorn. 


THE Light of the Reformation^ 'tis true, fuch as believe not in Jcfus Chrifl, cannot be 
did in a great Meafure rellore, amongft look'd upon as lawful PoiTeflbrs of the Goods of 
Proteftants^ Purity both of Doctrine and this World? If we confider how few good Books 
Praftice. But yet it cannot be truly faid, that of Morahty we have, efpecially in our Language j 
even the Reformers themfclves, and their Sue- in companfon of the infinite Number of con- 
ceflbrs, have always exaftly purfu'^thp true Spi- troverfial Writings, with which the Libraries and 
rit of Chriftianity •, and of the Reformation. Was Bookfellers-Shops do every where abound ; we 

may from thence fairly conclude, that Morality 
is a Study very little minded at prefent. Neither 
do the publick " Sermons feem to be very inftru- 
ftive on this Head : And that no one may doubt 
of it, we fliall produce authentick Teftuuonies, 
fully fufficicnt to convince us thereof. Mr. La 
Placette^ Paifor of the French Church at Copen- 
hagen^ in ^ his Treatife of Rejiitution ; introduces 
fome of thofe, who had mifcarry'd for having 
ncgle6ted this important Duty, complaining of 
their Teachers at the Day of Judgment, in the 
Terms following : " We could have very well 
" difpcns'd with thofe many vain Speculations j 
" thofe many frivolous Difquiiitions 5 thofe many 
" metaphyfical Enquiries ; thofe many ufclefs 
" Controverfies about Things, in which we had 
" no real concern : and which have been, alas ! 
" the principal Matter of your Sermons. We 
" fee none here damn'd, for want of knowing 
" thofe Things ^ hundreds of which you have 
" taught us, and with that care and concern too, 
" which might have been very well fpar'd. Bi t 

not that horrible Tenent of Intoleration, or Pcr- 
fecution on account of Religion, maintain'd by 
twoTreatifcs, written for that very purpofe ; the 
one by Calvin •, '■■ and the other by '' Beza ? and 
did not Calvin aftually put thefe his Principles in 
pni(5bicc, in the Cafe of Scrvetus ? arc there not 
rt this dayNmnbcrs, who, after having for many 
Years, and in divers Manners, themfclves felt 
the dire EfFcfts of Intoleration ; cannot yet be 
brought to inake this explicit Declaration j that 
all Pcrfccution, or Vexation whatever, whether 
great or fmall ; direct or indirect ; on account of 
Religion, is in truth no better than downright 
Tyranny? Have we not feen fome of 'em, bold 
enough to afcribe the Pi-ogrefs, Chriftianity has 
made in the World, to this way of converting 
Men ; by exprefly maintaining, that '^ Paganifra 
wond have fiibfjied to this day ; and that three 
Fourths of Europe ivoti'd have been pill Pagans } 
had not Con'ifAntme and his Siicceffors employed their 
Authority to abolifJ} it. Are not '^ others for revi- 
ving that pernicious Maxim of St. Aailin; that 

^ Fide'is expojltio errortim Mich. Serveti, ^ brevis eorumdem refiitatio: ubi docetur, jure gladii eoercendos efle Hsreticos. 

•^ De Hiereticis a magiltrntu puniendis. Note, That the Friends of "Juftus Lipjius, to anfvver fome Protellants, who cry'd 
out againft the Opinion of punifhing Hereticks which he maintains in his Politich, :i.ndim hls'Vri.&.De una Religiojie; re- 
turn'd upon 'em the fime Charge, by alledging the Affair o( Serz'etus ; and citing a Paffage out of Beza, where he fiys in ex- 
prefs Terms, That it is more ahfurd, to fay that one ought not to pmip Hereticks, than it woii'd be to hold, that Men guilty of 
Sacrilege, and Parricides ought to go unpuniffj'd : Hereticks, adds he, being infinitely tvorfe Villains than all thofe. See the Life 
of Lipfius, by Aubert leMire, Tom. I, of the Works of that great Critick, p. i6. Edit. Fefal. Et Edit. Lugd. p. 10, Cd. 2-. 

' Droits de deux fou-L<eraini,isfc. p. 2S6. See Bayle's Dii^. Tt///;. I, />. 424, 425. Edit.z. Lett. [H]. 

' See P. Molin. Anatom. Arminianifmi, cap. 32, Dift. 18. Maco^-. Diftinfl. cap. 3, Se^. 18. Theol. ^ctft. Loc. ■^i, 
^eeft. 19. Voetius, ISc. f '. 

' N.B. What our Author here fays, is by him apply'd to Sermons and Books in Frc/fi:/?'; how f.r 'tis applicable or not 
applicable to thofe in other Modern Languages, he leaves to his Reader to judge ; but ftcms to except x}cx.Englifh and Dutch. 

' ^"1- 5'> 52. See alfo ;*. 147. 

[E] [F] 2. « here 


An Hijlorical and Critical Account 









here we find ourfelves for ever loft and un- 
done, for the negleft of a Duty, which we 
cou'd never hear the leaft Word from you a- 
bout. You have fuffer'd us to approach the 
Holy Table, without forewarning us, that we 
came thither unworthily, and there receiv'd 
our own Damnation j if we did not firft en- 
tirely empty both our Hands and Coffers of 
all our unjuft Gains. You have indeed preach'd 
to us' the Mercy of God : You have alfo 
fs'd us to implore it with the moft affeftio- 
nate Devotion, and the moft lively Hope; but 
of obtaini 
nately continu 

quently in Impenitency ; which all moft cer- 
tainly do, who reftorenot that which they have 
unjuftlyacquir'd. In a word, 'tis you who have 
letus remain ignorant of thefe capital Truths, 
whilft we might have profited by them ; 'tis 
you who are the Caufe, that we learn'd'em not 


fill out with]; one another about unprofitable 
Queftions-, fo that while thePaftor is taken up 
in his Clolet or in the Pulpit in confuting an 
Adverfary, that perhaps he has never feen ; or 
in combating an Errour utterly unknown to his 
Flock ; his Sheep go aftray, his Auditors be- 
come confirm'd,as to their Morals, in the moft 
capital Errours> and deeply engag'd in vicious 
Habits and evil Courfes." Here you have the 
Depofitions of unexceptionable Witnefles. And 
I wifti It cou'd be faid, to the Honour of thofe, 
againil whom thefe Imputations have been but 


'em will for fome time continue ftill prepoflefs'J 
with this Notion, fo contrary to the Engage- 
ments of their Minifterial Funftionj that a fla- 
ming Zeal for ipeculative Doftrines, which coft 
'em not much Pains to acquire ; and in maintain- 
ing of which they find their Account; will ex- 
tilfnow, when they will only feive to render us cufe 'em the Labour of entring deep into the fe- 
inexcufable ; and convince us that we now moft rious Study of Morality ; which will require much 
iuftly are, and for ever ought to be moft mi- profound 'JSIeditationj^and Knowledge, beyond 
■ro,..,UU " A/Ti- nf?rrrj^J^. Miniftpr of N'euf- 

the rate of Common-Place-Book Learning. It 
would be a good Point gain'd, if they would but 
let them alone, who are to the utmoft of their 
Power ftriving to do that, which they themfelves 
But their PredeceiTors have 

were oblig'd to do 

" ferable." Mr. Ofiei"vald, Minifter of Neuf- 
chatd in SiviS'erland, makes the like Declaration: 
take it as r^orted, by a third ^ Minifter, which 
is Mr. Beimrd, the learned and judicious Conti- 
nuator of the Novelles de ^ la Rcpuhlique des Lettres. 

" The Ignorance, fays he, of the Duties of Chri- fet 'em an Example ; and they will by no means 

" ftianity, is both vciy general, and very great, degenerate. Who was it, I pray, that introduc'd 

" There are fome of them which vaft Numbers in the laft Age, the methodical Study of the Law 

" have never thought on. The Author here in- of Nature; that firft attempted to give the World 

" ftances in the Duty of i?f/?//«//07' ; and tells us, a Syftem of this fo vaft, and neceffary a Science? 

" that Mr. La Placette having fome time ago Was it any of theEcclefiafticks, or ProfefTors of 

publifti'd a Treatife on that Subjed, the Book Divinity ? No : 'twas the illuftrious Grotius 5 

was look'd upon as veiy fingular, and for its whofc Memory wou'd on this very Account, be 

Subjeft nev/ and curious > and that fome there for ever blefs'd amongft all finccre Lovers of Truth 

were, who treated thisDocirine of Reflitution, and Virtue ; tho' he had not otherwife gain'd aa 

as a Doftrine entirely novel, and withal too rigid, immorta] Reputation, by the many Pieces he has 




■ There are fome too, who pretend, that 
Points of Morality ought not to be urg'd too 
far; that fome Indulgcncics ought to be made 

wrote of another Nature ; all excellent in their 
kind. — Yet no fooner did that ?dmirable Trea- 
tife, of the Right of War and Peace^ appear in 

" to humane Nature; and at the fame time ri- the World; but the Ecclefiafticks, inftead of re- 

" gidly infiif upon Points of Doftrine ; and on turning thanks to the Author for it ; eveiy where 

" fuch too oftentimes, as are of very httlelmpor- declar'd againft him : And his Book was not 
Some alfo have proceeded fo far 


tance. aome aiio nave piun-xucu lu lai, as to 

f\y, that it is even dangerous to infift fo much 

upon Morality ; and that it is a Mark of Hcrcfy 

fo to do. Divines have likewife had the Affli- 
" ranee to publilli Books, wherein they fecm to 
*' have made it their Bufinefs, to decry good 
" Works. Is it to be wonder'd at then, if the 
" People, who are committed to the Care of fuch 
" Guides, do not give themfelves much Trouble 
" about the Praftice of them? — The Doftors 
" appointed to inftruct the People in Religion, 

8 Mr. Bernard, Pallor of the Walloon Church at Ley Jen, and Profe/Tor of Philofophy and Mathematicks in the Univerfity 

•> Iiovember\(>q(), in the Extraft of the Treatife Des fources de U Corruption, i^c. p. 582, 583, 585. 
i See the Refleftions Mr. 5^r;;/7r^ makes, 'mhi% Repub. des Lettres, April i-jo6. Art i. And which drew upon him an 
infipid Libel by a petty French Minifter. 

' Ann. 1627. See Boeder's Preface to Grotius. 

only put into the Expurgatory Index of the 
^ Roman CatkcUck Inquifitors, ( which is not fb 
mucli to be wonder'd at ; ) but many, even Pro- 
teftant Divines, labour'd to cry it down. And 
thus it far'd too with Mr. Piifendorf's Book of. 
The law of Nature and Nations. The Jefuites 
of Vienna caus'd it to be prohibited ' ; and many 
Proteftant Divine., both of- Siveden and Germany^ 
did their beif, to make this excellent Work ftiare 
every where elfe the fame Fate. 

1 See an Account of all thefe Difturbances in the Eris Scandica, printed at Francfort on the Main 1 686. 


MORALITY, being thus flighted, and Men of Letters ; who gave it a much better Re- 

almofl banifh'd out of the World by ception. Let us now Ice in what manner thefe 

the publick Minifters of Religion j took latter have treated it ; and what has been the Pro- 

Sanftuaiy amongft the Laicks, or undignify'd grcfs it hath made in their Hands. It may very 

2 reaibnably 

of the Science of MoRALixr. qt 

reafonably be Tuppos'd, that, notwithflanding the timents of thefe ancient Eaftern Nations, We have 

Simplicity and Ignorance of the firll Ages of the from the Greeks themfelvesj who have fometimes 

World, as to what concc-rii'd Arts and Sci- mix'd their own Opinions with tho.L t i-.ey re- 

enccs purely fpeculative j thofe Fathers of Fami- ported; and give us at beft but a fiendc; Account 

lies, who were Men of ;:;ood Senie and Pro- of what the Sages of the Eaft taught, on the Sub- 

bity j did not fiil to ^ teach their Children be- jeft of Morality. This more particularly appeal's 

times, together with the Principles of Religion, by the Works of two Learned ^ EngUJlmen; wh-> 

thofe Maxims too, that were the moll important have collefted with great Cart, all that is to be 

inMoraUtyi as far as they had been made known found thereupon, in the Writings of the Arti- 

to them, either by their own proper Meditation j ents. The Syflem, we have piven us ot the 

or by '' Tradition, deriv'd to 'cm from the firft Doftrine of the Chaldeans ; is norhng but a heap 

Parents of Mankind. Thefe Inllruclions, how- of Notions in Phyficks, or Aftrology, Metaphy- 

ever imperfeft, and immethodical they may pof- ficks and Pneumatology ; mix'd up with abun- 

fibly have been j might well enough fuffice for dance of fuperftitious, myftical Allufions 5 and 

thofe Times ; eipecially before Corruption had ridiculous Fancies. I have here fet down All I 

come to that Height, at which it afterwards ar- have been able to remark, which can any way 

riv'd. But when Depravity of Manners had de- be referr'd to the Science of Morality > which is 

fac'd the true Ideas of Religion and MoraUty j as follows : Ton ^ ought to make hajie, ( thefe are 

and the Fathers were become as negligent in in- Maxims, taken from a CoUefticn entituled, fhe 

ftmfting their Families, as their Children prov'd Oracles of //:7e Chaldeans 5 and that they were adtu- 

ftubborn and unreachable ; then had the clearefl: ally couch'd in the Style of Oracles, will in- 

and raoft common Principles of Virtue been in a ftantly appear, by the Sample I am about to 

manner, entirely extinguifh'd in the World j had give,) Ton ought to make hafle to ^ approach the 

there not been a Set of Men, who apply'd them- Light and Rays ' of the Father^ from ivhence your 

felves, in a very particular manner, to the Im- Soul was fent you. Lift up entirely all your 

provement of their natural Reafon, by the Study Eyes on high, and do not abafe yourfelf towards this 

of the Sciences: and it was out of their Schools gloomy World, under which there liesj^ -^hfet ^- 

that " the moft celebrated Legillatours have pro- ver to be trujied, and an ^ Hell, furrounded on all 

ceededj to whom Communities have been be- fides with Mijis and Clouds, ^c. Seek^ Para- 

holden for all the Order and Decency they have dife. 'Seek the Channel ™ of your Soul, and from 

ever had amongfl: them ; and for all the Tranquil- whence, and from what " Rank, you are become a, 

lity they ever enjoy'd : '' Men fnore worthy of Ad- Slave to the Body, that you may be able to return to 

miration, and immortal Praife, than the greatefi that Rank, from whence you are defcendcd, by join- 

Conquerours. ing PraSlice to Hoh' Difcourfe. Do not aggra^ 

As the Eafern Countnts were the firft peo- vateyourDeftiny.— — Preferve your frail Body for 

pledi fo 'tis from thence that the moft general the Pra6lice of Piety. •• Nourifh yourfelf with 

Notions of Morality, and the other Sciences fpread the Hope of that Fire, ° which is in the Country of 

themfelves thro' the World. The Greeks, with Angels. — Do not defile your Soul, do not debafe 

all their Vanity, were forc'd to own themfelves //, do not yourfelf make it depart from you, lefl in 

* Debtors for thefe Notices to thofe, they call'd departing from you, it find nothing : 'The Souls of 

Barbarians > chiei^y to the Chaldeans, Egyptians, thofe who are feparated from the Body ^ by Force., 

and Perfians. But all that we know of the Sen- are the mofi pure. O Man, who art a Creature 

» See the Hift. du Droit Nature!, by Mr. Buddeus, Sell. z. 

•> See Bihi. Univ. Tom. Ill, />. 322". 

« Hi \_Zaleucu!, Charondas'] non in foro, nee in confultorum atrio, fed in Pythagone t actio illo fanBoqiie fecejju dtdicerunt jura, 
quie florenti tunc Siciliie ; i^ per ItaliamGraeire fonerent. Senec. EpiJ{.<)o, p. 301", Edit. Gronov. 

■1 Mr. BayWi Dia. Tom. Ill, /. 2442, Rem. (G~). 

« To T"< e/AoiTOij(t« Vpjjii 'iviQt (paeiv inn Ba^Cd^uv Ap^ou. Diog. Laert. Lii. i, Seil. i~. See thereupon the Commenta- 
tors, Edit.Amjielad. 1692. 

f John Mnrjham, in his Canon Chronicus, .Mgyptiaciis, l^c. printed at London 1672, and at Leipfick 1676. And Thomas 
Stanly, in his Englijh Hi/I. of Philofopky, (which, as I am inform'd, has been lately tranflated and publifh'd at Leipfick 1711,') 
Far/^ 14, ijj 16, 17, 18, 19. Thefe fix bft Parts have long fmce been tranflated by Mr. Z,f C/^rr ; which Tranflation was a 
4th time reprinted in the 2d Tome of his Philofophy in 17 10. 

E See Le C/erc's Philofophy, Ttm. II, p. 338-, &c. Ver. 215, 216, 238, y feq. Ver. 247, l^ feq. Ver. 254, 259, 268, 274, 
i^ feq. Ver. 280, If feq. Xoii <n (Tttiv^hv Tg#\ tz (pi@- >y vmrgjt d..ya.i,^'Ev?nv i7niJ.(p^ au ■\'jy^i Ver. 215, 216. Edit. 
Cleric. "0\x\j.frx. J^' ei^Sw Tniv-nt. in-jri-ntt^v £t'a. Mi'175 jg^Tia vwnn hi Toy uiKAvavyi* Kotr/MV £lj f>i,^U diiv AOTfcc t»Vo- 
rpcTai TE ^^''AcA)} 'A(/9/Kie;)K, Ver. 238, & feq. Zi')TO(7Bi» TTUg^HT^v. Ai{«e m ■i'j')ff( o^TVV, oSt , » VPi -ra^H oafAan 
Tkbiuaaf, i-Ti TU^ii' d}' iti Sppujif ' A.Sn *' ariWw , Ufa Koyeoi^jf/ iveS:n.(, Ver. 247, & feq. Mri av a,i/^xvi tiiv iiua.pfjLiimi'^ 
Ver. 254. 'E^^v 4t' i:jnCin; piu^i )C) jaaa, aawof^i, Ver. 259. "Eawt? TflfiTs. a\ -rrugjio^f dyyi^tKO' ivl y^ofUf Ver. 268. 

nait Ver. 274, & feq. 'O. TcA/tAHyTarm fv'nt^f av^^uTn 'i'/jMixa. ! Mo -m •mhueit [j.tT^a jain; o'thj nf.' tpf'kva, /JaMK. 
'Ow jS a'^D&iiiK ifuTov iA y^^ovi. Mi.Ti luircH /jat^ji >)«/i 1 y.^vivai ci/ta5f'oicTti,''AiSia Cvhn (pifi-mh i'X. iivixg, i^it. 
Mtii'a/ci' jLtsf cTpojaw.Mii} )t,aVt)e;o;' TrgfTofsi/p.ct, Mi'iPiK po/^o!' ia.nv, ah Tf4p^' '^iT'? dvAyy-Vi. "A/Sei®" op^i3oc ■mfni 
TtKaTui K-Jof A>.»'^f- 'Oj SnjTiuv, (TTr^eiyyvai' t' o^iuutt' to. S''' d^fua-TO. Tiaf-ra^ ^BiXTWctKn; dmrnt riic/>^7a. ^-i)}* 
ml ■joH-m, M'W.iaj' '{uj^fiiK is^i'i' Tizi.^.f'H^v dyiiyni', 'Ei/S' a'f'THi <^J(aT5 ly iuvoui^ <n/vd^VTai, ver. 2So,ijf feq. 

'' That is to fay, to do all you can, to return to the Place from whence your Soul is dcfcended down here below; for they 
believ'd the Pre-exiftence of Souls. 

' They meant by that, the Spaces that i^re above the Moonj which they conceiv'd to be all /hining with bright Light. This 
Light was, in their Opinion, an Emanation from the Father, or Sovereign Divinity. See hereupon S/flw/;', and the Notes 
of Mr. LeC/erc, on the Chaldean Oracles. 

■^ 'A/h;. They, as well as the Greeks, believ'd, that the Place to which the Souls of the Wicked went, was underneath 
the Earth. 

' That is to fay, the Place of Blifs, or of that Light above the World, [iai vmfwffuov) which was the Abode, and Re- 
fidence of pure Spirits. See Mr. Le Clerc's Note on that Verfe. 

"' Thro' which it pafs'd, to come dov.-n here below. 

" They conceiv'd, that there were feveral Ranks or Orders of Beings, and feveral Clafles of pure Spirits. 

" That is to jay, of returning into the luminous Space, alre.idy mention'd, 

P That is to fay, by the ^ left of an exterior Force. They thought, as did the Difciples of PlatCy that they ought not to 
depart out of this Life without the Permiffion of Gad, See Mr. Le Clerc, on this \'eife. 


An Hijiorical and Critical Account 

of a moft darhig Nature^ take mt into thy 
Afmd the 'vaft Dimenfions <if the Earth; for the 
Plant of 'Truth is not upon the Earth. Do not mea- 
fure the Sun by the help of colle^ed Rules : He moves 
ly virtue of an eternal Decree^ and not for thy fake. 
'Trouble not thyfelf about the Courfe of the Moon, and 
the Motions of the Stars, nor about the Noife of the 
Moon: She holds her Courfe by an EffeSl of Necef- 

fity. The expanded IVing of Birds that fly in 

the Air, never tells Truth. I do mt trouble myfelf 
at all about Sacrifices, or Entrails ■■, they are all 
Mockeries, and the vain Supports of Fraud and filthy 
Lucre. Fly thefe Things, you ivho are to open the 
/acred Paradife of Piety, where^ Virtue, Wifdom, 
and Equity divell in conjunSlion. The two kft Sen- 
tences do plainly enough condemn judicial Aftro- 
logy, and ''Sacrifices too, if not ablblutely, at leaft 
the PreHiges, which were drawn from the Entrails 
of the Viftim ; as well as thofe from the Flight of 
Birds: and vet thefe Things were highly in vogue 
amongft the Eaftern Nations ; and chiefly amongft 
the Babylonians and Jffyrians. In the other Ora- 
cles, which would have been unintelligible to an 
ordinary Reader, without the fhort marginal 
Notes-, which I have beenoblig'd to add as a Key 
to fome Places ; they condemn Self-Murder ; and 
recommend continual Meditation on the Rewards 

and Punilhrnents of another Life. It remains to 
be coniider'd, wherein they made thofe Duties to 
confift, which were to be practis'd in order to pro- 
pitiate the fovereign Deity ; and toaffureto them- 
ielves a State of Blils after this Life ended. In 
what has been hitherto collefted of the Doftrine 
of the Chaldeans, there is no mention of any thing be- 
fidcs an exa£t Obfervation of certainRites and Cere- 
monies, whereof Sacrifice is the moft confiderable j 
by means whereof they fancied themfelves capable, 
of maintaining Correfpondence vvith the Celeftial 
Beings j of raifing the Soul above the Power of 
the Paflions \ and even healing the Difeafes of the 
Bodyj as well as thofe of the Mind. Thefe Ce- 
remonies they call'd the "■ TVorks of Piety. TJjey, 
'^jjho perform thefe as they ought, fay they, * ceafe to 
be troubled ivith any Evil 'whatever \ they acquire 
thereby all forts of Virtues •, they become ^ood and 
virtuous Men j they are fet free from their Paffions, 
and unruly Inclinations •■, they are purify^d from all 
Pmpiety and Prophanenefs . On the contrary, thofe who 
negle^, or do not rightly perform them ; are delivered 
up as a Prey to their Paffions, dep-riv'd of all Com- 
merce ivith the pure fpiritual Beings, and become like 
to thofe evil Genii, ivith ivhom they converfe ; and 
ivho puJJj 'em on to the PraBice of all manner of 

q Mr. Lc Clerc believes, we ought to read with Pfellus, errheiyyjuv •mt^jie.i ■ So that thefe Words Ihou'd not condemn 
Sacrifices, but only Divinations by the Entrails of Viftims. 

' "£?}« ivnCna.':- See Stanley, Hiji. Phil. Oriental, tranflated by Mr. Le Clerc, Lib. i, SeSi. 2, Cap. 28". 
' Iambiich',de Myfter, Sea. 3, Cap. 31", p. loz, Un. 25, 6? d. Edit. Oxon. 


No R are we much better inform'd as to Breach of Trujl. Nor have I ever committed any 

the Morality of the Egyptians y not tho' other Crime that is inexpiable. Thofe Remains we 

wefhouldeven admit for genuine, thofe have prefen''d to us by antient Writers, of the'' 

vifibly fpurious Writings, which pafs under the Laws of the Egyptians ; the Eftablifhment where- 

Nam'e of their " Hermes, or Mercurius Trifmegiftus. of is afcrib'd to their famous Hermes, or Mcrcurius 

'Tis well known, that the Learned of that Coun- Trifmegiflus, Counfellor of State to Ofiris, one of 

try were S-ery much addicted to Enigma's, Sym- their firfl: Kings-, do likewife give us reafon to 

bols, and Hieroglyphicks i which render'd their conclude, that the Sages of Egypt apply'd thcm- 

Doftrine obfcure'and impenetrable to all, who felvcs as well to Morality and Politkks ; as to the 

were without a particular Key to it. So that it 
was almoit impoiTiblejforiteverto be tranfmitted 
to us; efpecially if we confider, with what care 
they conceal'd their Myileries from all, who had 
not be en initiated therein. However there is a cer 

Study of the fpeculative Sciences. There are not- 
withilanding certainof thofe Laws, which do not 
rightly quadrate with fome of he moll: evident 
Miixims of the Law of Nature. The Daughters 
alone, for example, were obiig'd to nourilTi and 

tain Fragment ftill remaining, by which we may fupport their Parents; whilft the 'Sons were en- 
form fome Judgment of the principal Heads of the tirely cxcus'd. They alfo made a Difference to the 
"'- ..^ ^... pi-ejudice of the Mother, between the rcfpcft due 

to her from the Children, and that which they 
ow'd to their Father-, which they founded on this 

Morality of the Egyptians \ 'tis the Form of a kind 
of Funeral Sermon, pronounc'd by fome Funeral 
Officer; wherein he thus delivers himfelf in the 
Name of the Deceas'd': / have religioufy fervid, 
during my Abode in this IVorld, the Gods which my 
Forefathers had made known unto me. I have ever 
honoured thofe who procreated my Body. I have ne- 
ver committed Murther. I have never been guilty of 

falfe Notion f in natural Philofophy: that the Mo- 
ther contributes nothing to the Production of the 
Child, befides the furnifhing it with a Lodging, 
as I may fav, and Nourifhment during the Time 
of her Pregnancy, ^^'hereupon a vciy ingenious 

» See the BiiliotbecaGr^eeaofMi.Fairiciits, Lib.i, Cap.-], l^ feq. Heeateus of Jidera had wrote the Hiftory of their 
Philofophy; Diog. Laert. Lib 1, Sell. 10-, 11-: But this Book is loft. See Menag. i. 1. 

^ See Mar/ham, p. i%^ Edit. Lipf. ,,.,..„„ > ., ^ 

"^ 'E-\u )S T« 04Kf, if iipvai iMi mfiJ'ei^cif, iv^.Cuv Jii-nhKV, onv ye^yov mtim ituipa aiw,-/ ^jv fioc e^p^r rxf 7? 
70 aiud ua y.nnm.VTa( 'ni/UMV an' twv -n aM<«i' di^uTmv in [771'a] eLTtiKT^va.- ovn^ny.vv ATi^ittnm- ovn 
a'/Xo cV^ec ci<{m^y J'icT£^.^dfu,y. Porphyr. de Abftinentix, Lib. 4, Sed. 10-, ju.xta verfionem Euphanti ex lingua Egyptiaca. 

See Marjham, *. J56. , , , • • 1 • r.-/- /- /• nn-a tt ■ 

■> See Mar/ham, who has collefted them with care ; and Mr. De Meaux, who has copy d him in his Dijcourjejur I Htjt. Um-j, 

p.l()i, isf'feq. Edit.Holl. ^ ^ ^ ^ ,.,,,,,, 

= Tfif «y TKf TBKsaf iHciy-iv miai i-hfj.iii dytLyM, (jm ^vXoyLivoici. Tnfi A^ya7gcf.(n Traaa. avitym, Xj (Mi fits ^Ofxie if <rt. 

Herodot, Lib. 2, c. 35 , p. 64,65, Edit. Steph. Et p. 102-, Ed. Gronov. , ^ , ' ^ ~r' r,- j 

'■ 'TTWAi'isaa-/ -kv im't^^ (Jiiyoif £iT,ay ^vcu Ttif y^ntnui, tw A' miiss^ T£?ip«c -t; X*©"' -^i*/}^' "^V ^f*?"- ■L'wdor. 

Sic. Lib. I, p. 51, A-. 

A (.>ommcii- 

of tie Science 0/ M o r a l i t y. 39 

Commentator « has judicioufly remark'd, that in ces of the Pentateuch, a tacit Oppofition to the 
that Law of the Decalogue, Honour thy Father wrong Notions and Cuftoms of the Egyptians, 
and thy Mother 5 there is, as in many other Pla- 
% Cleric, in Exod. xx, 12. 


II r nil pTiTTj 

C HoTt i 



THE Doftrincof thePfr/^^rWjWasmuch the 
fime with that of the Chaldeans., their Ma- 
ilers, as feme pretend, from whom theyrc- 
cciv'd it. The manner, in which they educated in 
Perfia^ the Children " of their Kings, and their young 
Noblemen ^ gives us all the reafon in the World to 
believe, that they diligently apply'd themfelves to 
Morality and Politicks. At '' the Age of fourteen, 
the young Prince was put into the Hands of thofe, 
who were call'd the Royal Preceptors. Who were 
four of the moft Eminent for Blrth^ and CharaSer^ that 
con' d be found in all Perfiaj they ivcj-e chofen in the 
Vigour of their Age \ the firji pafl for the mofi wife^ 
the next for the moft juji^ the third for the moft tem- 
per at e., and the fourth for the moft valiant, 'the fir ft 
taught him the Magick of Zoroaller, Son of Oroma- 
zus 5 in which -was comprehended all the IVorfhip of 
the Gods : He alfo taught him the Laivs of the Realm., 
and all the particular Duties of a good King, 'the fe- 
cond t.iugkt him to fpeak the 'truth always, tho" it 
made aga,inft himfelf\ 'the third taught him never to 
fuffer himfelf to be overcome by bis Pafjions 5 to the 
end that he might continue always free., and always a 
King > by ever maintaining as abfhlute a Sway over 
himjclf.y as over his Subjetls. 'the fourth taught him 
to fear neither Dangers., nor Death ; for, by fub- 
jeSting himfelf to fear, from a King he beco?nes a Slave. 
A Learned E.rjift} Author", who was Mafter of 
almoll all the Oriental Languages, and even of the 
Dead Language of the Zend •, (^ ror fo it was the Per- 
fians call'd the Books of their frmous Zoroafter, or 
Zerdufljt :) pubiifli'd, fomc Years fince, a Eatin 
Tranllation of a Piece inVerfe-, which is itfelf but 
a Veriion, into the Modern Perfian, of part of the 
Books of that antientLegiflatour. They who have 
read that Abridgment, call'd Sad-der,\}\A,\"va per- 
fuadcd, readily fubfcribe to the Judgment of a Learn- 
ed Journaliil'^ ; who fiys, that thcvQ-3.xe,amongft fe- 
veral good Precepts of Morality, many f'uperftitious, 
and trifling 'things ; I have in my Notes " on Mr. Pu- 
fendorf reported part of thefe Maxims; which are 
indeed highly conformable to Reafon. And here 
the Reader has the moil confiderable of the rcll. 
{viz.) If you^ will be holy, and fave yourfelf, you have 
two Rules to praSlife: 'theoneis,thatif in this World, 
you love Paradife better than any other 'thing what- 
ever, do not pofj'efs yourfclf of the Goods of another ; 
for Paradife is worth more than all the things of this 

World \ becaufe this World is only as it were the Space 
of five days; whereas Paradife is as it were an infinite 
Duration. And if the Pojfefjixin of Paradife be mo(i 
agreeable to you, fet not your Heart on thefe poor 
'things : Remember to do good to every one, for Acls 
of Goodnefs are excellent fForks in this Eife. Do then 
unto Men the fame things, that you woufd they f/jou'd 
do to you . 'the other Rule is, to offend no body with 
your tongue ; but to promote, by your Humanity and 
good Nature, Society amongfl Men. — Do ^ your En- 
deavour to follow truth, without any Adulteration ; 
fieek it with care, for it will make your Soul perf col : 
Of all the 'things which God hath created, there is none 
better than 'truth. — Have '' no Commerce with a Pro- 
ftitute : do not feduce the Wife of another, tho" fije ticUi 
your Heart, and tho' floe lay Snares for you. — Do not 
offend your Father, ' who hath brought you up ; nor your 
Mother, who hath carrfd you nine Months in her 
Womb ', nor the Prieft, who bath taught you the Ma- 
xims of Goodnefs and Virtue. — When your Parents 
command you to do anything, rife up chearfully to obey 
them. '^ InftruB your Children ; and then be it known 
unto you,that all the good ABions,which they flmll do^ 
it fhall be as if their Parents had done 'em themfelves. 
— Ele that lives in Ignorance, knoxveth neither God 
nor Religion. The Rcafons, with which thefe ex- 
cellent Maxims are accompany'd, are not always 
very folid j and there are fomc of 'cm even ridicu- 
lous. They lay, for example, that a Man ought not 
to debauch his Neighbour's Wife, becaufe, ' if af-' 
ter it the Husband approaches his Wife, he commit- 
teth a Sin, as much as if he had to do with an Har- 
lot. They fiy futher, that "" whofces:er hath had to 
do with a TVhore,flmlllofe for forty days, hisUnder- 
ftanding. Knowledge, and Difcernment j nor [Joall he 
be able to condud: himfelf, tkc. Li another Place " , 
they advife to marry betimes i becaufe, fay they, C/;/7- 
dren are as a Bridge at the laft Judgment ifo that they 
who have no Children at that day, cannot pafs over 
into the Manfion of Immortality ^ But muft remain on 
this fide the Abyfs, which feparatcs it from this World. 
It muft neverthelefs be acknowlcdg'd, that they do 
not fail frequently to alledge the general Motive 
of the Rewards and Punilhments of another Life j 
which Zoroafter taught, with a kind of Refurre- 
(Slion ; tho' he has upon that occafion vented a 
thoufand grofs and abfurd Conceits 3 as may ap- 
pear by reading Mr. Hyde's Book. 

" n«'7^f jS 01 7WV Aei?av rii^oSv 7miJ\( hi Tviis EcttriXitot .^Jfc/K TKttS'tuovTiu. Xenoph. de Cyri Min. cxpedit. p. 158, 
Ed. H. Steph. Lib. I, c. 9, f. 2, Ed. Oxon. Et p. 266, D~. Ed. Paris. 

07aT©-j ei^)]SrivHV J)d TWinhi t^ li'w o JV <ra<p^»i'i?a.7@-t (ji!'S'' vtto fxiaf a.f;^Smi toc fUoiaii ( <fa 'tA5K3tf ©- «>'» tSiCv-mi 
K) fJ7u( Bai7/X6Uf, if/J^v 'jfUTi'mv Lv dnat d>}^d. UM S'vMvuv) Jl dv^'pn'o-mr©-, dipo£oi> >^ dAS. 7m.pcKin.ivdCu\ ■, 6-mv 
«rw(7i) /kAoc ofTw. Plat, in Alcib. \,p. 121'-, 122", Tom. II, Ed. Serran. Et p. 32, F", Ed. Lasmar. N.B- As tlie Au- 
thor follows the TranQation of Mr. Dacier, fo docs his Tranflator him, unlefs where he fees jult Caule to do otherwife: and 
this he obferves too in all Tranflations from Originals, quite thro' this Prefatory Difcourfe. 

"^ The late Mr. ///Vi-, \n\iKHiJlory of the Religion of the antieiit ?e\-(uLns, printed at O-v/J;;-^, in 1700. 

^ Mr. Bernard, in K\s Novelles, of Mart h, 1701, ;>. 250. 

' On Lii. I, Cap. 3, Se^. 8, Not. 3. Cap. 7, Sea. 4, Not. 3. and Lii. 2, Cap. 3, Se^. 14, Not. 10. and LiL 3, Ctip. 3, 
Sea. 16, Not. I. Cap. 4, Sea. 2, Not. 3. f Sad-der, Port. 71. s Port. 6S. >> Port. 69. 

' Port. 64. k purt, jj. 1 Port. 69. "" ^^''^- " ^^'^■ 




'An Hiftorical and Critical Account 


AFTER having fpokc of the Chaldeans, the Egyp- 
tians, and the Verfians j I muft, before I pafs on 
to the Weftern Nations, fay fomething of the hi- 
dians, and Chineje. What fome Authors have rdated con- 
cerning the tnanner of Hving us'd by the Indian Thilofiphers, 

" duc'd their EfFed, and that EfFeft agrees with the Light 
" of right Reafcn; 'tis then call'd Union or Agreement be- 
" tween Reafoii and the Paflions ; whilft the Paflions iiill 
" keep the Medium, they are look'd upon as the maia 
Spring of the Univerfe, and the Foundation of all good 

whether they are call'd Br^f/pw;<JOT, or Gerw^w, or Gymno- " Adions; and, when they are conformable to Reafon, 
fophiftsi (for there were feveralSefts of them, which are not " '^"" ""■ '"-"''^ ^'^° ■^■■'° -f 'i- t r„,„..r. .„^ ,u„ d.....i 
fufficiently diftinguifli'd by the antient Authors, who fpeak 
of them: j What, I fay, is related concerning their (^) fad 
and folitary Way of living ; and of their fuperftitious Aufte- 
rities, in which the Modern Bramins {B) have but out- 
done 'em i plainly (hew, that there was a great deal of Ca- 
price and Folly in their Principles and Maxims. How- 
ever, fts Stralo reports, they believ'd the Immortality of 
the Soul, and a fumre Judgment ; (C) as far, fays he, as 

they are call'd the Rule of the Univerfe, and the Royal 

" Way of Mankind. '' There are foui- Rules,' which 

" a Man of Integrity endeavours to obferve : Scarce one 
" which have I obferv'd as I ought : \ft. To pay the fame 
" Obedience to my Father, which I require from my own 
" Children, idly. To have the lame Fidelity to my Prince, 
" that I expeft from my own Servants, idly. To have the 
" fame refpecl for my Seniors, that I look for from thofe, 
" who are my Juniors, j^thly. To have the fame Zeal for 
" the Interefl of my Friends, as I myfelf expeft at their 

it has any relation te Piety and Holinefs. And it appear, . . ^ 

by a Converfation, related (D) hy Philojiratus, which ^fe/- " Hands- and to endeavour as much to be beforehand 

lonius had with one of the Gymfiofephijfs of Ethiopia ; that "■ with 'em in all manner of good Offices, as I wou'd de- 

" fire they ihou'd do on my Account. A Man of Inte- 
" grity puts thefe Virtues in pradlice every Day, and every 
" Hour ; without Artifice, and without Diiguife. He fs 
" prudent and circumfpect in all his Difcourfe ; and if he 
'' has in any thing come fhort of his Duty, he never reflr, 
" till he has fupply'd what was wanting. If he finds a Tor- 
'' rent of Words come upon him, he is very careful how 
" he gives 'em utterance j bccaufe he will be always feen 
" to fute his Aftions exad ly to his Words ; and his Words 
'' to his Adtions. A Man of Integrity is always content 
" with his Lot, he always lives in a manner futable to his 
'' prefent Condition j and never wifhes for any thing, that 
'' is not proper for him. As he feeks only to make him- 
'■■ felf perfcft, and demands nothing of other Men , he is 
'' never difpleas'd or angry with them ; and never murmurs 
" either againft Heaven or Earth. When he is unfortu- 
" nate, he complains not of the Injuftice of Providence ; 
" he imputes nor to other Men, hisownDefeiSs; nor does 

.,-.„.>.„..-» "■ he accufe them of being the Authors of his Mifery. Heis 

ralltyT or the'lnfiitution of Virtue, the Re-eftablilhment '' like an Archer, who lays all the fault upon his own Hand, 

of that Rule, by the Application thereof to ourfelves, in " v^■hen he has mils'd his aim. — ' I do not fee of what ufe 

" ■" ■r..nr__. t-k:™ r>..i„ u„: — " a Man Can be in the World, who is without faith i un- 

" fmcere in his V^'ords, and unfteady in his Promifes. 

their Notions of Juftice were right enough. As for the 
Chineze, whofe Opinions and Cufloms were unknown to 
us till thefe latter Ages; the celebrated Mr. Leihiitz aflures 
us, ^ that, in Matters of Morality and Politicks, the Learn- 
ed of that Country far exceed ours here in Europe. Per- 
haps this Encomium may be fome what over ftrain'd ; but 
however this at leafl: is certain, tho' * Mr. De St. Evre- 
mond be never fo much of the contrary Opinion ; that 
there are a great many moft excellent Things to be met 
with in the Books of '' Confucius, (or Ciiw Fit Cu) : who, not 
to mention the Divine Honours which have been long 
fince paid him in that Country ; is fo much elfeem'd for 
his Philofophy, that there are in every City publick Schools, 
where his Works are expounded ; and where one muft 
ftudy fome time, before he can be admitted into any Poll 
in the Government. I will now give my Reader a Tafte 
of his Principles. " " All that, which is the Celeitial Part 
" of Man, we call the Rational Nature ; what is conform, to 
" Nature and Reafon, we call the Rule : as we do Mo- 

« the Government of our Paflions. This Rule, being 
" eflential to the Rational Nature, neither can, nor ought 
" to be feparated one fingle Moment from Man ; for if it 
" cou'd be feparated from him at any time, it wou'd not 
" then be the Rule, nor the Reafon, which Heaven has 
" given us. ( Confucius, or Cu Su, no doubt meant by this, 
" that to ceafe to be rational, is to ceafe to be a Man , 
" fince they add: ) This is the reafon why the Man of In- 
" tegrity keeps fo diligent a Guard upon himfclf ; and is 
" fo watchful even in Things, which do not appear to the 
" Eye;, fuch as are the firll and moft minute Motions of 
" the Heart : and that he governs himfeif with fo much 
" Precaution alfo in Things, which are not to be diftin- 
" guifli'd by the Ear j to the end, that whatever he does, 
" he may never fwerve from the Rule of right Reafon; 
" which he always carries imprinted on his Soul. The 
"■ Paflions being eflential to Nature, or rather being Na- 
" ture itfelf ; the Man of Integrity applies himfeif to go- 
" vern, and keep 'em under the Reftraint of right Rea- 
"■ fon; { but not to fupprefs or extingaifh 'em : ) For Joy, 
" the Attendant on Good, and Grief, on bad Succefles; 
" Sorrow for the Lofs, and Pleafure in the Enjoyment of 
" any good; before they come to be reduc'd into Aft, 
" are term'd Medium, or reputed to be in a State of Me- 
" diocrity ; being as yet indifferent with refpeft to either 
" Redundancy, or Deficiency. But when they have pro- 


" what ufe is a Chariot without a Beam ; or a Wheel with- 
" out an Axel-tree?" One may judge by this Sample, of 
the Accuracy of Thought, and profound Meditation of this 
Chineje Sage. The Inltrudtions which he gave to Ngai'cum 
King of Lu, concerning the Art of Government, ^ contain 
wojl ad7mrable tnoral RefleBions ; which do not ineerh cenffi 
oj indetermind geiicralNotions :, but of particular InftruBioiiSf 
adapted to all the feveral Qccafions, and jfunBures «f Af- 
fairs, luhich ca7i hefal a Prince : injomuch, that it may very 
•well be faid without Exaggeratio7i, that there is more to he 
Uarjidfro-in this jmall Book of Coni'acius, than from the vafi 
and numerous Volumes of jovie of the Fathers of the Church. 
But there arol'e iince his Time another s Philofopher, whofe 
impious Notions at length prcvail'd ; and have continu'd t:> 
this day to be the Opinions moft commonly receiv'd. His 
* Difciples have an exterior VoHrinr, which they preach to 
the People, to retain them, fay they, in their Duty; and which 
confills in teaching, that there is a real Difference between 
Good, and Ei'il; Jufl, and JJajufi : and that there is another 
Life, where every one fliali be punifh'd or rewarded, ac- 
cording to that which he hath done in this. But their || in- 
terior Doilrine, which is only for the T?iitiated:, is upon the 
uplhot a kind of Spinoji/m ; which at once entirely expun- 
ges both Religion, and Morality. 

(y^)Sec chiefly Straio, Geogr. Hb.\i,f.-]\z, A-,l^c. and Philojiratus, DeritaJpoll. 7>a». /tf^/s; and p.iiticubrly /y. iig , 
V Edit. Paris. 1608. [B] See the Letter of Mr. Bcrnier, entitled, ^lil 71' y a opinions fi ridicules, ni fi 

\£c. Edit. Paris. 1608 

, do7it rEjprit humain ne foit capable, Isc inferred in his Voyages. 


extravagantes, -j^ -^ --, - -^ , , i"x ~ o. ./ « , s ,< 

C TlapaTTl^iKKO] Ji >C)iJ.<i9is( aiTnp KjUT^arm, met n itjiiaffflat -lv)iV(, ly nDf !(ati adis Kexina"t K, a.)^a Toi3.v-nt — ont 
Jiyli -Bpii ivffiCucu/ 'L, iminimt. Strabo, Lib. 15, p. 1040, J, C, Ed. Ahnehv. Et p. 713, C", l^ p. 714, A', Edit. Paris. 
Anno\kio (D) De Vita Apolt,Tyan, Lib. b, cap. zi', Edit.Olear. Et cap. ii'. Edit. Morel/. Pufeitdorf 

has cited a'Pafl-age out of it, lib. l, c.C), f. 5, n. 4^ ^ Pr^fat. ad Noviffima Sinica. 

* He calls him (Toot. 5, p. 69,) the mojt tedious Morahfl he ever read. His Sentences, adds he, vjhere l:c is intelligible, arc be- 
low the Stanza's ofPibrac ; where he is obfcure, he is above the Apocalypfe. But a Man of the Charafler of St. Evranond, might 
be tired with the reading a Book of Mor.ili'ty ; .and yet that be no Prejudice to the Merit of the Book. Not that there are not as 

b 'Tis pretended, that he liv'd 551 Years before C/!;r//?. ' Bibliotb. Univ. To7n. 7, p. 420 

o^ Confucius, by P Couplet, printed at Paris, in 1687, in Folio. ^ Ibid. p. 427-, {5" feq. 

t Bibl.Univ. ubi fufra, p. ifi(i~. ' 8 iw, or Xe Kin, OX Xac a. See Bibl. Vniv. ubi Jupra, p.^oz-, U feq. 

405'. II l<'i<i- h 406-- * 

in the Extr.iiEl out 
Ibid. p. 443-. 
* Ibid. p. 404,, 

of the Science of Mora lit ri 



WE come now to the Grecians, whofe is now extant an Elegiack Poem of Theogjiis * 

Opinions we are mueh better ac- of Megara, under the' i'ltXc of Sentences •^■w\\qxo 

quainted with than thofe of the Eaf- you have abundance of good moral Reflec- 

tern NationSy whofe Difciples they had firft tions. Homer too we find, with the other lefs 

been ; though they afterwards became Mafters antient Poets, but more efpecially the Tra- 

to all the other Nations of Europe. They fet gedians, full of Precepts; fometimes diredt, 

themfclves to extend, and, in Procefs of Time, fometimes indired; fcatter'd too all over 

did in Fad confiderably improve " that Stock Works, which were principally delign'd / for 

of Knowledge, they had imported from abroad : Diverlion, rather than Inltrudion. But they 

And hence it is, that the farther we look back muft be read with Judgment and Caution ; for 

into Antiquity, the more we trace amongft the the good and the bad lie there both blended 

Greeks, the Notions and Manner of teaching together : For which Realbn 'J^Iato banifh'd 

of the Eaftern Nations. Thus it comes to them his Republick; and 'Plutarch wrote a 

pafs, that the Morality of the moft antient Treatife purpofely to inform Youth, with what 

Grecians conlifted in Enigma's, Jpologiks, and Precautions they were to be read. But to fay 

Sentences, not much unlike the 'Proverbs of nothing of the abfiird Ideas they give of the 

Solomon. There had been, before y^fop, whofe Deity; we find there, amongft fome few In- 

Fables are fo much celebrated, many other * ftances of Virtue, many Charadters extremely 

Authors in that Sort of ingenious and inftruc- vicious; which they are lb Ikr from expofing as 

tive Fiftions. 'Tint arch,, fpeaking of ' 'T^it- they ought, to the Horrour and Deteftation of 

theus. Grandfather, on the Mother's Side, to their Readers; that on the contrary, they are 

The/ens, who liv'd about the Time of the firft frequently fet forth as the very Patterns of 

ytidges ofl/racl; fays, That the Science then in y'''"",".^ . " ^ Astlict-^ ore fome moral Sentences, 

ffe conjijled chiefly of i?^*'''''"-"! '»'"^ muiai ISay' 
ir/gs ; fnch as ' thofe ivhich gaiti'd Hefiod fo 
much EJiceni, in his Work entitled. Works and 
Days. Jmongp the Sentences of that 'Toet, adds 
he, this is one; which is afcrib'd to Pittheus t : 
Let the Reward thou promifeji to thy Friend, be 
a competent Reward. Thefe Sentences were 
generally put into Verfe after the Eaftern Man- 
ner ; which ferv'd to help the Memory, and 
give the Precepts a more lively Turn. Inhere 



" which nrp mn<l- true; and Ibme moft noble 
*' Sentiments : fo likewife there are fome 
" Thoughts mean enough ; and moral Reflec- . 
tions too, which are falfe and ill-grounded. 
Let any * one read what Theognis fays con- 
cerning Poverty, and the great Care we 
ought to take to avoid it ; and he will be 
forc'd to own, that no Mifer could have faid 
more. ' Hefod fays : For my '^Part, I would 
neither myfelf bejiiji amongji Men, nor would 

" f 

* See VIm), Efmomii. p. 987, E, — Tom. 1, Btlie. H. Steph. & p. 70J, D, — EJ. tim»r. 

* See 7. Alb. Fahricii, Biilraihec. Gnc. lid.i, c.g,SeB. f, — torn, i, p. 394.. — 

' Hv T^? ffoiffe; lulivv)? TOiaiTi^ Ti? loiti Hj ';, o<« Xpvi^afASv©" 'Hffi'oScG)' tuioKifiei fLXMqa. T£()i ri? ?i/ rSir, fpyoi; yi/tofiOAo- 
-ptt-i vj ft-Uv ye fitmv Ihuv^iv AtySiri n/rStu? Iivai, MiT9a,- S' avSpi $''^ia w(>ii|X£v©' apx'®* £?«■ I" V't3 Thef. init. p. 4, — tom. X, 
H. Steph. Edit. & p.i. A, — tom. i, Edit. Francofuiti, 1620. 

* Oper. ^ Dier. Lib. i, virf.^yo. Edit. Cleric, cujus vide Not. 

* He liv'd about the fifty eighth Olympiad, about five huadred and fifty Years before Jefus Chrifl:. See the Bibl. Grxc. of Mr." 
Tairuiui, Lib. 1, c. i 1 , Seft.i. 

■'' Seethe ParrhiiJ;ana,Tom.\, Anic\ci,Tp.T, — t. — and the fine Difcour/e oi Houdart de la Motteu^on Poetry, e^c. ^.ii,(^feq: 
tdtt.Holl. An antient Philofopher, mm'd Emtcflhenes, did long ago advance this Propofition, which does at prefenc fo much fcan- 
dalize the Grammarians and extravagant Admirers of Antiquity: rioiiiTfii/ yap s'lf*) xavra ^rojcaif^ffSai •4'''Xar"yi'a^, du SjoaffKaAi'<-if, 
which are the very Words ot Straio, who vainly endeavours to refute them, p. i8, ^ feq. Ed. Am/}. 1707. & p. If, D. — £d. 
Cii/aHt). Nor is it likely, that what Madam Dicier fays thereupon, in her Preface upon Homer's Iliad, ^.6j,(^feq. Edi;. Paris, will 
make Men quit this Opinion of theirs, who have not devoted themftlves to the idolizing of Antiquity. Perhips too this new 
Vcrfion, done by f) aHe a Hand, will not a little prejudice the Original, in the Judgment of thofe who have not toil'd much in 
frutiying it, notwithflanding the Care Madam Dader takes at every Remark to cry out. This is admirable! this is divine! .as if ftis 
had fome Diftruft, that without fome fuch Advertifemcnt, the great Beauties of Homer would not be perceiv'd. Perhaps too it 
Were to he wifh'd, for the better underflanding this Poet, that his learned Interpreter had made ufe ot the Remarks of other 
learned .Moderns; and that die had not fometimes fo faithfully adhcr'd to the antient and common Latin Verfion. For Inftance, 
lib. I, ver.yiS, fhe turns, cv Sijui/feo, yljfurez. moi,&iC. for prenez, y garde, ConfderrceU what yon engage me in: as it is well expounded 

by Mr. Boi, O^yer. Cn>. c.29, p. 115- Verf. i ^i, Jxii s irxpixiveexiyVousneponrrezmefurprendre; intiead of, fous n'echapperex. 

pas, Xou Jliall r.ot avoid vhat I have refdv'd to do; as Mr. Gr^viies has correfted the common Vcrfion, in his Notes upon HefioJ, 
Theogon. vcr.615. and this Correilion has been followed in the fmall Edition of Wctflem, puuliflied in 1707 ; and which might 
have been very lerviccable to Madam Dacier. Verf. 410, 'Iva irii/re? i-rivfavrcu ^o.gla",©', the L«?/» Tranflator has ridiculoufly 
put, Ut omnes fmantiir rege : Madam Dacier tranflates, Afin qu'ils jou'tjfent tons de la fagejfe de leur roi; and thereupon ftie makds 
a very (ubtle Remaik, W'hich fhe might have fpar'd, had fhe tranflated Afin qu'its foient tous punis pour leur roi, according to the furs 
Expolition of Mr. Gr^vius, upon Hefiod, Eyp. verf 140; follow'd by the lad !«/(« Tranflator, in the Edition of IVetflein. I_ fhall 
mark but one Place more, Verf. 178; iK]xre Agamemnon fays io Achillei; 'ei {j.a.7M xaprtfoi tact, ht'Si xa eo'! rCy'X'SMnfj.Sitii esfi.vatU 
Unt, d'ou te went ta valeur ? n'ejl-ee pas Dim, qui te /' a ? It fhould be turn'd, N'efl-ce pas ttne Diviniti ; that is to fiy. Theiis 
yoHr^ Mother, as appears by Verf iSo. But our Admirers of Homer, and other Pagan Authors, wUl, whatever it ccfts, find in them 
tholV Ideas, which are peculiar to the facred Writers. 

« I apply to the Poets in general, what Mr. Le Clerc fays of HefioJ, in the Extraift inferted amongft the Additions of thejettr- 
nal de Tre-doux, Efit. Ho//. Tom. i, p. 262. * Parrhaf. Tom.i,p.4f. — 

' Oper. gc Dier. Lib.i, VerL27o, al. 168, & feq. I ufe the Words of the Journal above-cited. See here the <3rtek Verfes of 
the Poet: NCi/ Si Ivi is-^t kvro^ 'iv livflpwiroicri Sixai©' "Eiv)v, {t.-j\T' ifj-iq Oijj" £T£i kcskov atSpec cly.aiov "E/i/AEVai, ii ftiit^ia ys Jfmja 
«SixaiT£;©- ii,ti. ' rciy bto) iOAxa teMIv Aia - 




Mn Hilioricd and Critical Account 

*' I have my Son fo^ if we were to he Sufferers 


It j or if fVroiig-doers ivere to pre' 

vail over the "J'tfi- Bi't this is wh^t I do 
not believe Jupiter will ever fiffer to come 
to pafs. He mufl: have liv'd but a very^ little 
while, or taken hut very little iNotice of what 
paiies amongft Men ; who imagines, that the 
moll virtuous are generally the moft efteem'd : 
And the Man who expeds to fee any fuch 
" Thino-, will find himfelf wretchedly milla- 
" ken. Let him but confult Seneca's Book of 
" 'providences the excellent Preface to it by 
" Mark Anthony Miiret \ and the Notes of fe- 
" veral learned Commentators on that Book ; 
and he will plainly fee, that the Mifery 
which attends Virtue; and the Profperity of 
Vice, if we conlider this Life only ; have 
always been the conftant Subjedl of Lamen- 
tadon and Complaint. Yet He/iody more 
than once, makes the Adherence we owe to 
Virtue, ' depend on the Riches and Pro- 
fperity which accompany it. Such Difcourfcs 
were very proper to perfwadeMen,thatVirtue 







is but a mere Piece of Cunning, to be made 
ufe of whilft fuccefsful ; but to be thrown 
aiide, whenever there is any Probability of 
its being hurtful ; that is to fay, for the moft 
part. — Can any Thing be more flat and low, 
than to ia) , as ' Heflod does ; that // ice make 
" a Feajf, we Jlould invite none hut our Friends^ 
" and not our Enemies ; and that we ought to 
" love them only^ that love as, and not to vilit 
" any, but thofe from whom we receive Vifits?" 
Much of this kind is .o be f:;u.>i in all the 
Poets; with whom 'tis ' the commoneji Thing in 
the Ti orld to hold pro and con, without afford- 
ing the Means of dijiiuguifiing between the good 
and the bad. 'This may he feen in the Colleifion 
of Stobseus; where you may he jhr'd with '^af- 
fages out of the 'J'oets, that will ferve to main- 
tain both Sides of the ^ejiion^ upon fever al mo- 
ral Subjecls. But our proper Bufinefs here is 
Avith thofe, who make it their Profeffion to in- 
llrudt, and not to divert. Let us run over the 
moft celebrated of thefe, as they lie in order 
of Time. 

* See Verf. 18 !,/»/. 178, 179. & 184. al 18;. 

' To'i- ^iKim' iT? SaiT», tcv S't'x^fiv eacai. Verf. 341. hI. 340. Toy if iA£oyT« ^iAe'v, i^ tw tfottix-rt rpistvat. Verf. jyj. 
«'. 35^1. "Parrhaf. Tom.i, p.46. 


TH E firft that occur, are thofe feven 
famous Cotemporaries, call'd the PFife 
Men of Greece ; viz. ' Thales of * Mi- 
letus, Tittacus of Myttleney Eyas of <Triene, 
Solon the Jtheviany Cleobulus of Lindus, Myfo 
of Chen, a Town of Laconia, and Chilo of La- 
ced^mon. All thefe, except Thales, ' govern'd 
the States where they liv'd \ and every one 
knows, that Solon was one of the greateft Le- 
giflatours of Antiquity. Their Knowledge * con- 
Jjjhdin certain notable Sayings or Sentences, ex- 
prefs'd in a lively and concife Manner. Being 
one Day all together, they confecrated to Apollc, 
as the firfi Fruits of their tVifdom, thefe two 
Sentences, which are now become common 
Proverbs; and cans' d them to be written in 
Letters of Gold, over the Door of the Temple of 
Apollo at Delphos : Know thyself : And, 

Too MUCH OF NOTHING. The Anticnts have 
preferv'd, and tranfmitted down to us, feveral 
Apothegms of thefe feven wife Men *. I Ihall 
content myfelf with reciting here thgfe of * 
Thales, the Founder of the lonick Se6l. God, 
faid he, is the moji f antient of all Things ; for 
he is uncreate. The World is the moJi beautiful 
of all Things ; for it is the Work of God. -— 
God e is what hath neither Beginning nor End. 
They who commit any ivicked ABion, are fo far 
from being able to hide it from his Ey^ that 
they cannot even conceal their Thoughts from his 

Knowledge. 'Terjury is worfe than Adultery. 

-— The nioji difficult Thing in the World is, to 
know one's felj : The mcjt eafy, to preach it to 
others. That's the happy Man, who enjoys good 
Health, finds Fortune favourable, and has well 
cultivated his Soul zvith found Learning : --which 


' Thusthcy are named and placed by Plato, in Protagor. Tc^. i, p. 343. A. Ed. Serr. And p. to6, G, Ed. Ldmar. Others 
jnftead of Myfo, put Periander of Corinth. Some make the Number greater. See D/oj. Laert. LiU i, Seft. 13, ibique Jnterpr. & 
p. 9. — Ed. Colon. 

* But a Native of Phoenicia. See Menace on Diog. Laert. Lib. t, Sefl-.ti. But Ed. Colofi. p. 13. — 

' Septem fuijfe dtcuntur uno tempore, qui fapientes O" haberentur, & t^cc^reniur. Hi omnes, pr titer Milefium Thaler., civitatiius 
fuis fr^fuerunt. Cicer. deOrat. Lib 3, c. 34, " 

* Kai zarafialoi a» ti<; mzxv tviv eo(plxv roicivryiv Saav, ^yijiaTCt jSpaj^Ea a?'ofiv;ijxo'v£UTa ?««£?« eipi)(X£va. 'Outci h) xoiv^ ivviA- 
?ci'vT6? aT«px>iu tJ;^ <ro$/'a,- u.vihci'j 71a '.iToAAoivi tiq rov yfiv t«v bv AsAfpoic, yfu-iimri?, tSut.x a iv) vavrei; iiiviai, TNilQI 
SATTON, x). MHflEN 'AIAN. P.'iJ?. ubi fupra, tom. I, p. 343, A,— Edit.5f>T. 

* See a Treatils of Mr. Buddeus, entitled, Safientta ■vettrum; hoc eft, diBa illufiriora feptem Crtci* fafientum, drjfertatiomius ali- 
quot Academicis explicata, &c st Hati in Saxony, 1699. 

' He was born in the firft Year of the thirty fifth Olympiad, 640 Years before Jefijs Chrift, and died aged ninety two Years. 
See Petav. D. Temp. torn. 2, p. 303. — 

^ TlfeiSurxTov Tiv o'vTcay, Gedi' iyi'vvvjTov yaji. KaAAi?ov» ko'ffft®'* iro'mjxa yhf OeSv. Uiog. Laert. Lib. J, Sect. jj". — Sc p.23.— 
Edit. Co!on. 

£ T! ri Gtioyj to fiJiTE ipX^i" "'X'V'> y-^iTi rehivriy. ibid. p. 24. — Ed. Colon. & Sefl:. 36. — 'Hptir^ifs' rig iurov, «i ^vjeci Ocii 

«v8pMT®- a5ixiy' 'Aaa' b'Js iimobfj.Si©', 'ilft^ . . . XsTpov iJ-oixuai, imofxicc Ti Suo-ksAov; .... to iccurov yv^vai. Ti it eukoAov; 

to' oiMta uToT.'Oij^ai. ibid. Ti's 6i.Siiftuy ; 6 to fisy ff^rJia Cy.Ji;. ri^y ruxnv suTofC^-, Tiiy A-JX¥ tuTaiStUT©- (xvj t<v o^-iv xa?.' 

>.-jyrlUcSai, aMi toi; imrvjiimxciv thai jeaAo'v. ibid. Sea.36, 37. — & p. 24. — rfiS,- ay api<ra ti, SiKaioraru. liiu<iMiJ.£v ; t'av a 
Tor? aAAoi? iTrniiJ.%ii.iv, auToi /xii Spijxsv, ibid. Sedl. 36. 8c p. 24. — *.'Ao)y Tapo'vTMy x, aVo'ylejy (A£/xyvi«9ai $>)»<• .- • . Mil TAbTEj 
komHi; *0u? ccj spavouf itfevByxv):; to(« yot/^vci, Tbs auTa; TpojSfXS Jt Taps; riy rtuvaiv, ibin. Sect. 37. — .^ vX p. 2j". — Edit. 

Colon. Jillobi: See the Bibl. Choi/ie ot Mr. Le Clerc, Tcm. 2, p. 49, & ieq. where Thales is clear d from Atheilm. i 

of the Science ^/^ Morality, ^n 

ive ought to value ourfihes more npoHy than the for it makes almoji every Tljin^ eJfe mifora and 

ii doming and fettiiig off our ^erfotis. - — T^'be off'cnfroe. ' Lo-ce Learning^ 'rempcraiice 'I'm- 

hejt Way to live up to the Rules of 'Jujiicey is, to dence, Truth, and Fidelity. Make tbyfejf skil- 

avoid doing that, we 'blarae in others. — - fVe fill by Experience: Labour to acquire Dexterity 

eight to be mindful of our abfent, as -well as and Addrefs : Cherifb Friendjhip, OEconomy 

prefent Friends. — Do not enrich thyfelf by Arts, and ^iety. I know not whether a fa- 

evtl and bafe 'l^raitices., Expe£i the fame vourable Confl:ru<ftion can be put upon another 

Treatment from your Children, that your 'Barents Sentence, which is amongft thofe already men- 

hai-e receiv'd Jrom you. ''Nothing is more t'loned: * What bejt enables io bear Misfortunes 

tifeful than p'^irtue : for it makes all other Things is to fee one's Enemy more unfortunate than 

vfcful, by teaching tis to make a right Vfe of one's felf 
them. --- Nothing is more pernicious than Vice : 

Ti i^iMixdiraTov; apsr^' x, yip •.- aMx rS xp^sHxi xciKxg, t'|)//i,'/a toie?. T( /3Aa;G=piuTaroi/ ; utiKia.' «, yap ri TAsT?a /SAaVlii 
iTitpayevoiJiev^. Plutarch, in conviv. lap. ;>. 266. — Opufc. Tom. 1, Edit. H. Stefh. & Tom.i, p. ifi, D.— Edit. Fruhcofur:. 

Stoi- Scrm.j, p.46, lin. ly. Edit. Geaev. :6og. 

* nS? av TIS i.Tvy^>'M paqa. (p/jioj ; ji TSj 'x^fi^g X^^fn irpaVtroi/Ta? /SaeVoc. Dicg. Lxert. Lib. I, Sed. 36. — 8c p.l4. — Edit. 
Colon. Allobr. 


PTTHJGORJS, ' the Difciple of Thales, 
and ot'^PherecyiesofScyros *,and Founder 
of the Italick Seel; con fder ably * adyanc'd 
the Science oj Morality ; yet it Jtill continu'd to 
be but a ColleSlion oj particular Trecepts, under 
Covert and Obfcurity; unattended with p'n-J-^-- 
Reafnning, or <-Vroof Jirifiotle Ipeajcs of him 
as ' the firji who attempted to treat of Virtue ; 
and Horace fays, ' That he was no mean Au- 
thor on the Subjects of natural ^hilofophy, and 

Before his Time, thofe who excell'd in the 
fpeculative and praftical Sciences, and were 
dillinguilh'd by an exemplary Life; were call'd 
Sages, or wife Men : which, according to the 
Style of the Greeks, * meant the fame with 
what we now-a-days term learned, or literate. 
Men. (Pythagoras however, finding fomething 
too afluming •'' in this Title, took another in- 
ftcad of it; by which he fignified, that he did 
not think fit to arrogate to himfelf the actual 
Poffeifion of Wifdom, being only an humble 
Encjuirer after it ; and therefore he gave him- 
felf the Appellation of ^Philofopher, or Lover 
oj Wifdom: a -Name which has been ever lince 
given to thofe, who make it their Bulinefs to 
lludy Natural Science and Morality. " ^ytha- 
*' goras ^ bent his ufeful Labours to reform, and 
" inftru6t the World. His Eloquence could 



" not but be very powerful, when his Inftruc- 
tions had fo great Etfed:, as to make the In- 
habitants of a very large Town '', deeply 
plung'd in Debauchery, entirely quit their 
luxurious Way of living ; and betake them- 
fcl-reo to a Life ^£ flrJ^S- Sobriety and Virtue, 
He prevail'^ even v/ith the Ladies to part 
with all their fine Cloaths and Ornaments; 
and to prefent 'em as an Offering to the prin- 
cipal Deity of the Place. — It was his fpe- 
cial Care to corred: the Abufes committed in 
in the * Marriage State; without which he 
thought neither publick Peace, Liberty, a 
good Form of Government, or any the like 
Things, for which he labour'd with very 
great Zeal, could make the People happy. — 
' His Affedkion for the publick Good ot Man- 
kind, made him refolve to carry his Inftruc- 

tions to the Palaces of the Great. He had 

" the good Fortune and Glory of having form'd 
" Difciples, who prov'd fome of the moft ex- 
" cellent Legiflatours ; fuch as Zalcucus, ' Cha- 
" rondas, and others. He had travell'd " very 
much in the Eajl ; more cfpecially among the 
Egyptians, the '^erfians, and the Chaldeans ; 
from whence he brought many of his Notions, 
with his Method of Teaching; for he deli- 
ver'd his moft excellent Precepts under the 
Vail of Symbols and Enigma's; and there is 


a k 


" He flouridi'd about the fixtieth Olympiad, five hundred and forty Years before Jefus Clirift. Authors nrc not agreed as to 
the Time of his Birth and Death. See J. Alb. FaSncii Bihl Grdc. Lib. 1, Cap. 12, Sedl. i. — and Baylc's Di(ft. Nor. (&) 

* Our Author fliould have faid Syros. See Me?iag. Objeriiat. on D:og. Laert. p. 69, Col. i. — &. Cellar. Ceogr. Tom. i, p.834..— 
8c SuitUm in OspexuSvij. 3c Strab. Geogr. p. 487. B. 

* DMicr'% Life of Pinto, p. 68. — Edit. Varis. You may alfo confult the Life of Pythagoras by this learned Pcrfbn, publidi'd in 
1706, before his Tranflarion of Hierocles's Comment on the Golden Verfcs; and of thofe Golden Verfes, as w';u as of ihe Symbols 
attributed to Pythagoras. 

* UfuT©- ^iv SI/ s'^xE^pviss nviayo'pa; vet) a'pErq,- Eixtiv, Magn. Moral. Lib. i, c. i, p. i+J", c. Edit. Paris, 161^. cc P- ij>2. 
A.— An. 165-4. 

' Kon fonliJiis aticior Nattira, -verique. Hoi-a/. Lib. i. Ode 28, 14, ij-. Ses thereupon Meffrs.Le Fewe, and D^i'/.'r. 

' Sec Scheffir. de Nat. & cenftit. Phil. It.ilic£, Cap. 6. So that the critical Ccnfure of Laciantius, Infi. divin. Lib. 4, cap. i. Num. 
10- IS not over-well grounded. 

'' Cicer. Tiifc. ^u/tfl. Lib. f, cap ?• — P>'og. Laert. Lib., t, Num. 12. & p.S.~^ Ed. Colon. Allib. 

* Mr. Bilge's Diftionary, p. 2441. Second Edition. 

* Cr(ifoi/», in ndy. See Juflin. Lib. 20, Cap. 4, prtotum. 

* '^ceRem. (Fjin BayJe'sDiaionary, p. 2442, Col. I.— * Ibid. Rem. (Gj"" 

' ^^'^ vttaPythag. Lib. I, cap. ?o, Seft. 172. — and D;o^. Lacr/. Lib. 8, Se£t. i^. & P-f77 — 
- SceDio^. Laert. ubi iupa, StSt.i, — 3. — ibiquc Intcrpr, And p. 5-68.— Ed. Col. Allub. 

[G2] I 

j4n Hijlorical and Critical Amount 

but too much of the Myftical in the greateft 
Pare of his Principles of Morality ; even thofe 
of 'em which are the moft clear. He had two 
Ways of Teaching-, the one for Strangers, 
which was obfcure und enigmatical ' : the 
other for Initiates, which was open and in- 
ftructi\e. It is not certainly known whether 
he ever publilh'd " any Thing in Writing; but 
certain it is, that we have now nothing of his 
extant. The little Poem, call'd, the Golden 
Verfes of Pythagoras, was compos'd by one of 
his Difciples ; which fome affirm to be Lyjis ; 
others f Empedocles. I lliall here give the Rea- 
der a general Account of his Notions, as far 
as they relate to Morality. He believ'd the 
Unity of a fupreme God; whom he conceu'd 
to be of a '^ Nature impaj/ible ; and -which falls 
not under the Cognifance of theSenfeSy but is invi- 
Jibky Incorrupt ible, and folely Intelligible. As he 
made great Ufe of Arithmetick, or the Science 
of NumberSjtocxprefshisThoughts by; he faid 
that Virtue^ ' Healthy Fnend/hpy every Thing 
that is goody and even God htmfelf were nothing 
but Harmony. 'Tis well known, ' that he had 
his Opinion concerning the Tranfmigration of 
Soulsy from the Egyptians. Notwithftanding 
which h: Ipeaks of Hell^ and the Pains of ano- 
ther Life ; in which ' he is not very confiftent 
with himfclf. " Nothing in the World can be 
more admirable, atn-l PKi-iAid.u-likc, rha.^ what 
" he fays of the main Deiign and Aim of our 
" Adions and Studies : For he held, that the 
Study of Philofophy " tends to bring Men 
to a 'Rcfcmblance with God. His Doc- 
trines contain'd 'two Parrs; which may very 
well be compar'd ro the -Turgatiyey and Uni- 
tize Waysy about which our Quietilb * have 




" faid fo many fine Things. »-- The Acqui- 
" lition of 1 ruth was, in his Opinion », the 
" only Way to become like God; But the 
" Way to difcover Truth, is to fearch after 
" it with a Soul that is purify'd; and has fub- 
" du'd the Paffions of the Eody. The Fol- 
" lowers of * this Philofopher taught, that a 
" Man perfedls himfelf three Ways: Firft, by 
" converting with the Gods ; bccaufe, during 
" fuch Commerce, he abllains from every evil 
" Adtion ; and thereby makes himfelf like the 
" Gods, as far as fuch a Thing is polhble. 
" Secondly, by doing "'" good to others ; for 
" this in God, is one of his Properties; in 
" Man, the Imitation of him. Thirdly, by 
" departing out of this Life. The moft ex- 
" cellent Endowments Heaven ever confcrr'd 
" on Men, are, according to Pythagoras **, 
" thofe of fpeaking Truth ; and doing good 
" Offices: 1 hefe two Things, fay the 'J'ytba- 
" goreansy nearly refemble the Works of God." 
This " Philofopher very earneftly recommended 
Sobriety, and Moderation in all Sorts of Plea- 
fures. He forbids '''' the leaving this IVorld with- 
out esprej's Order from our General^ that is^ 
Gody iiho has given each Man his 'Toji here. 
But, when we are call'd upon to quit this Life, 
he would have us do it with a good Grace, 
and without any Concern for the Lofs of the 
Pleafures of this World ; all which he ligni- 
fies to us -oy thio fyinboliral Sentence : " " Not 
to return back again^ when we are once entcr'ct 
upon our Journey. ^^ Another of hisSymbols or- 
dains, not to pafs the Equilibrium oj the Ba- 
lance ^ intimating, that the Rules of Equity 
and Juftice ought exadly to be foUow'd. 

■ See Scheffir. de Nat. c^ Conjl. Philof. ltd. Cap. i j . 

' See Diog. Laen. ubi lupra, Sc£l. 7, — ibique laterpr. 8c Ed. All. p. 370, 8c feq. and the Bibl. Crtc. of Mr. yairiciui. Lib. s," 
cap. iJ, Seft. 4.. — 

' See Mr. F^bricius ubi fupra, Sedi. 6, — p. 469. — 

* 'O'jte yap sicsTv©" ouc^^rov fj TaOijTO'.'. aipxroti Ss Xj »it/iparov x, vo'vjTov OxsAafx6«v£v sfi/ai to rpSrov. Flulttrch, in Nutna, p. 6y, 
B,— Ed. prancof. & p 118,— Ed. H. Siefh. See Bayle'i Dpct. Not. (N) p. i++(5. Col. i. — 

' T>jv T6 ajBTviv ctpuLoviaii uvai, >y T'^v Oy.'fiav, jt) to tiyx^ov axtiv. x, tov ©soV . . . $iAi'au Tf t1vai> evap(xo'visv leorvfra. Dig^, Laert, 
Lib.8, Seif>. 35. — & Ed. Col. p. fS/ See Ariflot. Mag. Moral. Lib. i, c. i, p. 191, A. — 

' SceD;o^. Lacrt. ubi fupra, Seft. 14, — ibique Intcrpr. 8cp.f69 Edit. Colon. Heredot. Lib. 1, cap. 115. — Diod. S/V.Lib. I, 

p.88, B, — towards tlic End. Mr. Dacier pretends to explain in a figurative Scnft, this Opinion of tlie Tranlmigration of Souls, 
but fee what Mr. Le Clerc fays to it, Bibt. Choif. Tom. 10, p. i8f, — & fcq. 

» See Mr. Bayles Didt. Rem. (F) towards tlie End, p. 244.5-, Col. 1. — 8c Rem. (M^ p.i^+f. Col. 2. — 

" Upii Tijv flt/ctv oixo'iijiaiv ava'jfi, x) tv); nuBayspmii,- (pi^oco^iuf; to» TsAeio'raTov ffKoTov ixxxAumi, Hierocles in Prif. ad Carrn. 

Aureit, circa Ji/^em, p. 13, Ed. NecJh. 5c p. 9. Edit.Lorid. Tomfci-r.^i, Xlxdrm tcc-jtU-tu- nu6i',o',ja. te'/®' cfioi'afr/ 0.=i). Stob.E.c.o^. 

Lib.2, C.J, p. 163, lin. 44. I have here all along taken the Words of Buyle, Rem. (N), Artie. Pythxgorus, p. 1446, Col. 2, — 

' See Schrffir. de Nat. ^ Conjl. Phil. Ual. cap. 10, p 78. 

* ."^ee the Words (M)'/?/<j«p and ^ietifme'^ in Diiiioimaire Univer/cl, a Trevoux, 171 1. > Scheffer. ibid. cap. 7. 
" Apud Phor Cod. 149, p. 1J13, lin.j-/, Ed. Roth. 

' ° Asi/Tcpov, tv Tiu Ju TTOiuv OsB yiip THTo Xj dti'a; fxinyjiteaf. Ibid. lin. fS. 

* * n'jflayo'pas t^eyf. S"9 TauTa tit t5v ©icJv toT^ dv^fdiToif 3iS»'ff9ai HdAM:;a, to', t6 dxyih'vsiv, k} t3 ivefyeriXv' 1^ TpojETiSii, irt 
X, "dine Tol; ©c5« Ipyoi; Sxirepov. ALliun. Var. Hift. Lib. 1 1, c. S9' Ed. Periz.on. 8c Torms. 

' <■ See Diog. Laert. ubi fupra, Seft.p. — 8c Ed. Col. p. 5-73. — 8c Jamblich. Sea.41, — 42. Eii.KuJler. 

* * I'eialque Pythagoras iajujfu imperatoris, id e/l, Dei, de prsjidio ^ flationc vits decedere. Cieer. de Senecfute, cap. 10. — Plato, 
(in his P^<j''o, p. 61.— Andp.377,P, — C, — ' D, — Ed. L*mar.) afcribes this Precept to P/wW;i«j,aPy/Aagore»«,whodoubtlefshad 
it from the DocSiine of Pytha/oras. 

" b.i)i. Si TB, tU axaiviuiciv (ialito-j-za nCj i-zi^fe'$ii^xi, T«ps)«( toi; araW^Tlcfit'i/oi; Ta f^iv. fx>j eTi9u;xvjTix£; i'xs'v t5 ti-v, fX/jSe 
i-iro t5v ivrav^x -.iSovav i-xdyidUt. Diog. Laert. ubi fupra, Seift. iS — And p.J-79. — Ed. Colon. AUoi. 

ff Xi St> Zuyon (x^ t3«pe<ti'Ke(v, tbteV' "^i 'f^ >'j 5i'x«.ov(i^ uTefe«iv:iv. Ibid. Sedt. iS. And Ed. Colon, p. ^■jS.— 


of the Science of MoRALixro 



ANAXAGORAS, ' thefirjlofthenomck 
Seiff (if we except Thales,) who ac- 
kiiowledg'djor the original Caufe " of the 
U/nverfe, an injinite Spirit j was neverthelefs 
generally look'd upon as an Atheiji : becaiife he 
faid^ that * the Sun was nothing elfe hut a Globe 
of Fire, and the Moon but an Earth j that is 
to fay ^ becaufe he denied, that there were fpiri- 
tnal Sahjiances join'd to thefe Planets ; and con- 
feqti?ntly that they were Deities. " Before ever 
" the Gofpel had taught Men, to renounce the 
" World and its Riches, in order to tra\el 
*' the more expedite ly the Waj to Perfedion; 
" there had been Philofophers, who faw, and 
" were fo fully perfuaded of it, as to have ac- 
" tually put it in Pradice j by the ridding 
" thcmfelves of their Eftates, that they might 
" have nothing left to incumber, or divert them 
" from the Study of Wildom; and a ferious 
" Enquiry after IVuth." Thus ^d>.ys Mr. Bayk' : 
But as he feenis here to attribute to the Go- 
fpel, according to his wonted Cullom, over- 
ftrain'd Notions of Morality ; fo he extols a 
little too much the Condnt^ nf tVi^fv. rtULient 
Philofophers^ in which there was more of Olkn- 
tation, and a miftaken Notion of Dilintcrelled- 
nefs, than of true Wifdom : for we may make 
a good Ufe of our Riches ; nor is the entire 
relinquilhing of 'em neceliary, to a more clofe 
Application to the Study of Truth and Vir- 
tue. But, be that as it will, Jnaxagoras^, 
" after ha\ ing convey'd s all his Patrimony to 
" his Relations^ applied himfelf wholly to the 
*' Study of Nature, without in the leaft med- 
" dling or concernmg himfelf with the Pub- 
" lick^ which occalion'd his being ask'd, whe- 
" ther he had no Concern for his Country : 
" His Anfwer was admirable; the Chriftian 
" Philofophers could not ha\ e made a better : 
" 3^e^, faid he, pointing to the Heavens '•jlhave 
" an extraordinary Care for my Country. Ano- 
" ther Time ' one ask'd him, To what End 
" he was born? To contemplate, replies he, 
" the Sun, the Moon, and the Heavens. And 

« accordingly he plac'd the ' Sovereign Good 
" or the chiei End of humane Life, in Con<-em- 
" plation ; and in that free State of Mind,\vhich 

" Contemplation produces. ^ He thought 

" the Conditions ' of Life, which appear'd leall 
" happy, to be the moft fo; and that thofe, 
" who tafte the Sweets of true Happinefs, were 
" not to be look'd for amongft the Men fur- 
" rounded with Riches and Honours ; but a- 
" mong thofe, who till a fmall Spot of Ground; 
" or who, void of all ambitious Cares, apply 
" themfclves to the Study of the Sciences. - -- 
" He " was the firft, who fuppos'd the Poems 
" of Homer to be Books of Moralit)-; where 
" "Virtue and Juftice are explain'd by allegori- 
" cal Stories. 

" Archelaus ', the Scholar of * JtiaxagoraSy 
." apply'd himfelf chiefly to the Study of Na- 
" tural Philofophj-, as his PredecelFors had 
" done ; but ' withal engag'd fomething far- 
" ther m the Bulinefs of Morality ; though he 
" prov'd not over-orthodox on that Subjed: 
" for he heia ', that humane Laws were the 
" Ungm of all moral Kettitude ; that is to 

fay, that he own'd no fu^h Law as the Law 
« oi Nature, but admitted of pofitive Laws 
Lc c^^y^"^^ confequently believ'd, that all Sorts 

ot Adtions are in their own Nature indiffe- 
" rent; and that they become good or bad 
" according as it fliall pleafe Men to cftablilh 
" fuch or fuch Laws." I cannot fay, whether 
what has been alledg'd be exadly conform to 
the Sentiments of Archelaus : But certain it is 
that Socrates, his Scholar and Succeflbr, had 
quite different Ideas of the Nature and Foun- 
dation of the moral Part of humane Adions. 
Perhaps it may be in this Cafe, as it is with re^* 
fped to the Imputation of another Opinion to 
this fame Philofopher; which, in the Judgment 
of a moft able Perfon ', appears not to be well 
verify'd: But be this as it will; let us now 
pafs on to his Scholar, who, in every Refped 
much excell'd his Mafter; and under whom 
Philofophy took a quite different Turn. 


■ He was born at CUzjimene in Ionia, about tbe feventieth Olympiad, five hundred Years before Jefas Chrid. He died aeed 
about fevcnty two Years. ^ 

* Rdph CuflTcrth, in the ExtraB of the Siil.Cho'if. by Mr. Le Clerc, Tom. 2, p. j-6. — See a!fo Tom. i, p.Sj. 

' See Diog.Laert. L\b. r,StSi. 6. — £c F.d. Cofcw. p. 91. — 

* Ibd Sed>.8. — £c p. 93. — Eiit.Colon, Alloir. ' Mr. Ba^/f's Dia, Art. Anaxagoras, Rem. (A) 

/ Ibii). in the Text, p.^i 14 — / Uhg. Lam. ubi fupra, SeS. 7 .— & D. 91.— Edit. Colon. Allohr. 

^.91.— Edit. Cohn.^Uoi. Ani Edit. Amfiel. Sea. 7. ~ s«, to, spavov. xo.a, 
'Epm'':if''s't; -ros, ti; ri -ysyivvjl.-ii ; 'Ei? hxpictv. "(J)vi, i^^i'a k, «Ai5vv),- ;i Kpavs-Ibid. p 9^. — Ed. Alloi Amfltl. Se(!l-. 10 

* Ctem A.ex. Strom. Lib. 1, p. 416 — This Thought is criticis'd very impertinently by Laa^ntim, ("Lib. 5. Cap. 9, Num. f, 
& feq. Edit. Celhr.) who grofly makes Anxxagoms mean it of the Eyes of the Body. See the Oiferv. SeleUt Sec. printed at 
UaV in Saxony. Tom. 2. Obftrrv. 14. ' 

' Bayle'^ Dift. uL.i fupra, Rem. (N) p. 226, Col. i. — 

■ .Vfc jiaritm frudenter Anaxagorai ii.terroganti cuidiim, quif/iam ejjit Beatus: Nemo, ingulf, ex its, tjiies tu /elites exifllmas : fed 
turn in eo nitmeio refertet, qui» le ex miferiis (vel mifeni) conjlare credilur. Non erit Hie divitiis, aut honoritus abundant: Jed ant 
exigui ruris, aut non ambittoU doSrinn fidelis. ac pertinax cultor ; in fecejfu, quam in fronte beatior. Val. Maxim. Lib. 7, cap. i, 
in extern. Se£t.9. — And p. ^62 — Ed. 5. Gryfh. 

* Dio^. Laeri. ubi fupra, Sc<ft. II. — Lib. 2, & p. 95-, — Edit. Colon. Allobrogum. 

' Some fay he was born at Athens, others at Miletus: His Age is not certainly known. Sec Bayle's Did. Rem. (A), Tom. r 
!og. Cola. — ' The Words of Mr. Bijy/e, ibid, in the Text, p.; 10. — ' ' • » 

p. 509, Col a. — 

- -- ..; ^ !©- S.-i,a.c(ia.- -r^? 'hSjz-:,.-. Diog. taert. Lib. 2, Seft. 16. — And p-99, — Ed. Col. 
Kai tJ Si:<2I'-v iSvut K, -ri a.ic%fbv «' $j<:si, aAhk vipiuj. Ibid. Sedl. l6. — ■ 
' See Mr. Le Cierc, in his Biil.Choifie, Tcm. 1, p.S6.— 


An Hifimcal and Critical Account 


COCRJTES ", the honefleft Man, and 
A J wifell Philofopher of all Heathen Anti- 
quityi -was' thefrji ivho, hioivwgthat 
what paJles ivithout us concerns us not, and af- 
fords rather Matter of Curiofiy, than truly pro- 
fitahh Enquiry \ applied hinifelj more particular- 
ly to the Study of Morality , and handled tt in 
his Difcourfes more methodically, than any 
who had gone before him : And for this Rea- 
fon it is, that he has been look'd upon as the 
Parent of ' moral Philofophy ; not that he was 
the very firft Philofopher, who had laid * down 
Rules for the Conduct of Life : we have the 
exprefs Teftimony of Jrifiotle thereupon; 'Pj- 
thagoras, fa}-s he, was the firfi who attempted 
to treat of Virtue. —- * Jnd after him Socrates 
did it more accurately-, and in a more exteifrce 
Manner. Socrates ' wrote nothing: His In- 
itrudtions were only, the Difcourfes he had in 
common Converfation, with Men of all Sorts 
and Degrees ; for he fet up no School, where he 
might communicate his Thoughts only to a cer- 
tain Number of Scholars. He h«<i *« admi rable 
Way of confounding, and turning into Ridi- 
cule the Sophifters of his Time ; who being 
Mailers of no other Learning, but a falfe Rhe- 
torick ; and the Art of maintaining, by vain 
Subtiltics, both Sides of the Queftion, on all 
Sorts of Subieas ; entirely corrupted and de- 
bauch'd the Principles of their Youth ; aiid 
thereby acquir'd, with immenfe Riches, a great 
Reputation among the Unlearned, and the 
Populace. Whenever he had to do with any 
of thefe Pretenders to Learning, who made it 
not theirBufmefs honeflly to fearch after Truth; 
or with thofe, who were prejudic'd in Favour 
of them; he contented himfclf with only con- 
futing 'em, and reducing 'em to Contradidions ; 
without ever proceeding to the Decifion of the 
Queftion in Debate. " He gave out ^ that he 
" knew nothing; and had always thcfc Words 
« in his Mouth s; that there was but oncThing 
" that he certainly knew, which was, that he 
" knew nothing. — He talk'dthus, to con- 
" found the Pride of all thofe, who boaftcd of 
" Science, which they had not; and which it 


w^as even impoffible for Man to acquire. He 
did not efteem that to be Knowledge, wrhich 
proceeded no farther than Doubts and Con- 
jectures; nor call'd him u cl> Man, 
who faw no bettcr,.ncr lanher J:ha:i his Ihort- 
fighted N ci ghbours. — But to in fer froip hence,_ 
that he hiid a i.'iiiid to introda.- a S|:irit of 
iDiliidence in all Sorts of Knowledge; aud to 
pretend, that his fajiiig he kiiev.'uodiing,was 
in eacd to fa)- ; that nc kne\v not th„.L A- irtue 
was good, that a Man ought to love his Coun- 
try, or, that he ought to have an Averlion 
to Vice: This, I fa^-, would b.e to millake his 
Meaning very grorfy ; and tc put a very ugly 
' Face upon his Humility. He could 
' not but be well aiiur'd, that true Happinefs 
' confifted in Virtue; for Virtue was his only 
' Aim in all his Actions. He could not but 
' well know, that the Laws ought to be o- 
■' bey'd; for 'tis plain that he himfclf obferv'd 
•' 'em : that Arrogance, Hatred, and Ingrati- 
" tude ought to be had in Deteftation ; for he 
" did his utmoft Endeavour to make 'em odi- 
■* ous. -A-cui finally, he could not but have 
" ftcdfaflly believ'd there was a God, and that 
" he ought to be ador'd ; for he never ccas'd 
" talking of his Benefits towards us : and of the 
" Duty and Reverence we owe him. Thcre- 
" fore wc find * Cicero inlilVnig upon it, that 
" Socrates ought to be ftruck out of the Scep- 
" ticks Lift; it being very unreafonablc to 
" make that great Man, who had,w ith fo much 
" Clcarnefs and Perfpicuity, taught Manldnd 
" the Rules of Juftice and Piety; to be the 
" Author of this Dodrine of Doubting; which 
" deftroys all Religion and Virtue whatever." 
Thus does the French Author, who has given 
us his Life, juftify him. " ' Socrates acknow- 
" ledg'd one only fupreme God; as manifeftly 
" appears by thofe Dilcourfes of his, which 
" Xenophon has left us. Bui it is not true, 
" that he rejedled the inferiour Deities ; and 
" that he was for this Realbn put to Death. 
" 'Tis a vulgar Errour, which Mr. ^ddworth 
" has very well refuted ; tho' maintain'd by fc- 
" veral of the Fathers. It appears by the Ew 

" thypbro 

's omncs antt etim 
lie bsr.ii 
2c 4J, — ibique 

* He was born tlie fourth Year of the f-venty fcventh Olympiad, four hundred and fixty nine Years before Jcfus Chrift, and 
died aged feventy Years. See his Life, by lAr.Ch:irfentier i mdihcSilvi ThiUogicAoi Ur. Le Clerc, pubhfiied m 17 ii, cip. 3. 

* Dacier'sPrekce lo M. Anmm. A j a.— and in the Life of Plaio, p. 68. _ , . . •, 
' Sccratei mihi -uidetur, id quod confiat inter onmes, primus a rebus cccultis, & ab ipfa natum involutis,^ in qiMus omms ante t 

Thilofophi occutatifuerunt ; aiocn-vijfa Hilofophiam, & a<l communem adduxijji ; tit de ■virtnttbiis !& -v-.tiis, on.nmoque de b 
rebus & mitlis, qtareret ; cakflta aiilem vel procul effe a. nojlra cogniiione cenferet; ■vet ft maximi cognititejf^nt.jiihd tumen a J i 
'jiverJum. Cicer. Mudem. Quxft. 1,+.— See alfo. X«/l-. Qua:ft. f, c.4.-- & Viog. taert. Lib. 2, Seft. 21, 2c 4>-.— •'" 
Interpr. And p. 101, 102 : 8c p. 120. — Ed. Colon. , _ 

<« M/li Todov Sc:>»pa1>5,- iTiytvoVsv©-, r^, y] Iz) ■x;,£r5v £"<T£v OxJp r6-,Tm. Ariftot. mg. Moral. Uo. 1, c. l,— p. 192, 
Sec tlie reft of the PafTage cited above, Seft. 18, Not. fc;. ..l„ -■„ i- 

' See the Bihl. Gnc. of Mr. Vairicms, Lib. 2, Cap. 23, Seft. 30, Tom. t , p. 82; — 0.-.ferve, that when Horace fays, Kern tibi 
Socratic<i poterunt oflendere charts, Artis Poetic, vcrf. 3 10 ; he means only the Writings of his Diiciples. 

fClM>pe!,tier'sLifeofSocratei,V.8^,&cfcq.Ei\t.Amflerd. „, ^, o t, ^r i. 

g K.; 1j.'v«. f.i^.5-, xA^v ^v-a rSro l:S.'v«.. D^s-U^rt Lib. 2, Seft. 32.- 5c Ed. Col.y.iog _ See thereupon C-y,,/,i. 
8c Menas & C:c Acad Quxft. I. 4— 8^ Dav.s, i. 1. As alfo, Apolog. p. ^,60. E.- Edir. Lt^ar. £c p. 2., D, Serr^n. 

" &:wrur„ e nttmero [qui nCRatrent quiJquam fciri, aur percipi podc: 1 toliendtts eft (3> VUto o- Socrates-- de fe ,pfe darahens 
in dfPltatwne, pins tnhuebat iis, quos tolebatrefellerc. Ita cum niitid d:ceret atquefeniiret, liieater tttt foluus efi m difPmuUttone, 
auitm Gr&ci im-.zi:^ vocant, Acad. Qua:ft. Lib. 4. Cap. f — 

* Bibl.Ckoifie oi Mr.i.e C/e/r,Tom. 3, p.70 — 7'' 7^- 

of the Science of Morality. 51 

" thyphro of 'J^lato ', that all the Impiet)- laid Children. No one ever viohttes -with Imptmity, 

" to his Charge was j that he had openly con- adds he, ai/y one La\zi ejiabltlh'd by thi Gods., 

*' demn'd all the Fables concerning their Gods, Tiere are -Pnntjhments which infeparahly adhere 

*' in which wicked and impious Adtions were to the Crimes committed againji thefe Laws 

" attributed to them ; although he had at the "-ifhich 'Q^nni/hments it is tmpojjihh to efcape ' 

" fame Time own'd inferior ' Deities ; as may ivhireas a Man may eafly ward againji the Se- 

<• be feen by feveral of his Difcourfes. --- verity of humane Laivs^ after he has tranfgrefs'd 

" The People indeed concluded, that thofe 'em'^ either by concealing^ or defending himfelf by 

" Fables could not be rejected, without deny- open Force. -"To do good to them^ 'ijho have done 

" ing, at the fame Time, the Deity of thofe, good to as, is alfo an univerfal Law. If any 

" to .whom they related ; in which they rea- Jin againji this Law^ they are fufficiently pu- 

" fon'd better than Socrates s for, in fine, the nifh'd /or if^ Jince their beji Friends will thcre- 

" only Knowledge they had of f up iter ^ and upon abandon them: and then they will be obligd 

" the reft of their Gods, was no other than to betake themfelves to thofe^ who have an Aver'- 

" what they had received by Fable, or oral Jion to them. For are not thofe, the beJi Friends, 

*' Tradition; and if that Tradition was to be who do us good Offices, when we make ufe of'emi' 

*' look'd upon as impious or falfe ; then it muft But if he, who has receiv'd Favours from them, 

*' neceffarily follow, that the whole of what was proves unthankful, does he not draw upon himfelf 

*' faid, concerning the Gods of Jthens, ought to thetr Hatred by fach his Ingratitude? And yet, 

" have been rejcAed. That there is a Gofl', might as he finds it to his Advantage to keep himfelj 

** then as well as now be believed, without admit- in their good Graces, will he not Jiill continue 

*' ting thofe Fables : but how could it have been conjiantly to court and fie to them with the 

" ever imagined without them, that there was great e/i Application F --•- iVhen I confider, that 

" a fupiter, a Saturn? &c. The natural Idea each Law carries with it the •Tunijbment of htm, 

of a Deity, which is abfolutely incompatible who tranfgrejjes it; I eajily perceive it to be the 

with Vice; made Socrates overlook this Jncon- PFork of a Legiflatour more excellent than Man. 

fequency in his Principles. Nothing can be The Gods never make any Laws which are un- 

iiner than what he fays of " divine Providence; juji : on the contrary, other Legiflatour s, bejide tlye 

and his Maxim upon Prayer, is worthy the Gods, can fcarce make any that are jujt. It may 

Light of the Gofpel. ' When he pray' d to the eaiily from hence be jnHg'd, what were the 

Gods, he only askd them itize"eral Terms, that Principles of Socrates. Many of the particu- 

they would give him good Things; becaufc they lar Confequences, he drew from them, may be 

knew better than we do, what Things are truly feen in the Memoirs of Xetwphon ; who feems 

good; and he faid, that they who ask'd either to have mix'd nothing of his own, with the 

Gold or Silver, or fovereign ^Pcwer ; made as ab~ Difcourfes of his Mafter, which he there re- 

ftird Requejis, as if they had ask'd to game, or to ports. This great Philofopher makes ufe of 

fght, or dejir'd any Thing elfe, that might eajily a very poor Argument, to Ihew that Inceft with 

turn to their ^Prejudice. Let us now fee what a Father or Mother is contrary to the natural, 

his Sentimentswere concerning the Law of Na- or divine Law: ^ For they, fays he, who give 

ture. There are °, faid he, certain Laws -which themfelves up to thefe unlawful Embraces, muji 

are not written; thefe are the Laivs ivhich are needs have but very pitiful Children, 
tmiverfally receiv'd throughout the World : But Belides the Works of Xenophon, we have 

neverthelefs Men did not make them ; for all ftill extant fome * Dialogues by Efchmes the 

Men could not affemble themfelves together in any 'Philofopher; and a little Piece of another of 

one 'Place ; neither could they all fpeak the fame Socrates'^ Scholars, call'd "■ Cebes. This laft is 

Language. They ' were therefore made by the a moft ingenious Piibure of human Life, wherc- 

Gods : for in the Jirji 'Place, it is ordain' d for in the Method and Genius of the Mafter may 

all Men to ivorpip and adore the Gods. It is alfo be feen, as well as in the Dialogues I juft now 

com?iianded every where, and to every Man, to mention d. All the feveral Sed;s of Philofo- 

honour his Father and Mother: and that Fa- phers, who have appear'd in the World lince 

thers and Mothers Jhould not marry with their Socrates ', have been defirous to have him for 


* P.6, A ~ B ~ Tom. i, Ed. Serraf. And p. 49, E,— F, d.& Edir. Lsm-ir. 

' See what Xenophon fays, in the Beginning of the tirft Book of Memorable Things, p. 708, — 709, — ■ gc feq. Ed. Vxris, i6if. 
" Xeiioph. Apomr.em. Lib. 1, p. 421, 8c feq. Ed. U. Stefh. And cap. 4, Ed. Oxon. And p.47, & feq. in Charpentier's Verfinn. 
And p 7i6, E,— & feq. Ed. Pans. 

apyuyjov, V) Tupavi/i'Sa, ij aAAo t< tSu Toialai;, ouSSv SiaS'P'" ivo.outev 'iv%icix.t- it li ifjfiei'atv, »j fxayyiv, % Imo ti tux^'vio tSv ^'ccjtpai 
aWAuv, oTai? aToe^i^do. Ibid. p. 410, in fine, EJ. Steph. cap. ;, Sedi.i, Ed. Oxon. Et p. 711, C, Ed. Paris. 

° 'Ayf-i^i Si Tfvac o"2a vo'fia; > ts^ y 1/ -raJv) X<"P« Koli raula vo.aiJofXsKS? ci yl [avSpuiToi] bt£ <ruvi\6iTv lirav^.tq av 

5uvsi?£r£v, S e ono'^anji itci- Ibid. p. 807, B, Ed. P^ris. And p-470, Ed. Steph. And cap.4, Seft. 19, EJ. Oxon. 

f 0£S; Ofta' THS vo'fty? Tuldj Tor,- a>6p»iToi,- iiivou' lij v^P Tapi Ta^ivavOiJUToi? xpilov Wfxi(,i\a.i rs- G£B? CiSsiv it, yovlcci riixZf 

"*«,■? ax^ viixili at ij \x'^e yovia; ■zui^^t ixiym^Beci, f-!^e i:xiix~ yove-jciv- --- l^ixyiv yi to» SiSoscctv it TxfaSiivo'jIe; rs; ito riiv 

iixf^v itaovittt ct fji.£v> T^xv^xvovEi;, cj 5s. QiaXo;j.£v'3i. Ta? £u T^ii\Px; dvlcuspytlsTvy %xP\a.%'dv7'JLf^x6vl:^i'-' 6t tsto 'ZX.hx^mvsv e^ Stx'^v 

itiixit, {J)i'Aa)v |Xiv a:'a5av spvinjj ■) lyvoxevot, rsi SI ixifSjlcci j^iutb; «vay»jtW,j.evoi SimBiv ij a^c ot /xsv £u toisi'Ie-; tb," XP<^i'-i ovg txv- 
ToS;, aya9o> (pi'Aoi iiaht it Si /x^j cl'^svspyiTuJlsi tb? roioura;, Sia (Aev t»jv axxft^'^^ (XjnoC/lai ux' dulZv, Six ri ijlzM^x ?iveihMT\i t;7^ 

T3<sTo<; xf^'^xi, ~8Ty,- ixxKi^a SiuixHci; Ti yap -rSg i/o'|X«c au"s? roTg rrxjixScuvisci ra? Tifiapi'a; Ix^'^' Ss>!^lo-j@' h xxl a.SpaToK 

voMsls Sdxu -xo! £?vai. 'O-JK xMx [tiSv S.x^iav vofjLo^r.Siiv it ©S2('] JX"^'!) yxf&v aAA©* yt tij tk Sixoix vJfisSsl^^iev, U ft^ O.s,-. 

Ibid. p. 807 800, A.— Ed. P;jri.'. 

T( yap Xv fxeri^ou TaQoigv ayOpwTOi TEXvoTOiyjxsvo;, ts xxkx^ Tinv^icztita^cu. Ibid, p. 807, D, Ed. Paris. 

* Mr. Le clerc hai lately publifhed them, with his Notes, in 171 1. 

^ It waspub!i(h'dentire,and of a very fine Edition, at Amflerdam, 1689. Seethe Bihl. Grae.o^ Mr. FaSricius, Lib. 1, cap. 23, Seft. 54. 

I C:tm tAmsn ommife philofo' ':: Socr.uicos, 0> did vellsnt, ^ elfe arbitmrentur. Cicer. de Oratore, Lib. 5, cip. 16 — , " 

i2 An Hifiorical and Critical Account 

their Chief; and have endeavour 'd to bring came out of his School; and wc fliall begiii 

their Sentiments and Notions to thofe of this wih him, who was the moll celebraled, and 

g-reat Man. We Ihall now fay fomething of the only one, except Efchiues, whofe Writings 

the moll celebrated Founders of Seds, who we have now left. 



PL A TO % as well as Efchives, " the better 
" to keep up the Appearance and Air 
" of their Mailer *, that grand Reftorer 
" of Morality ; preferr'd that of teaching by 
" Dialogue, to any other Method. For as it is the 
" mofl diverting, in that it does, as it were, fct 
" before the Reader the very Scene of Affairs; 
*' where he fees all the Parties concern'd inAc- 
" tion: fo it does, I may fay, better carry on 
" the main Defign, which is to perfwade and 
" inftrudl ; for it is more animated, and has 
" all the Force of a judicial Proceeding, where 
" the Parties on each Side of the Quellion are 
" fairly admitted to make their Defence, as ful- 
" ly as they are either willing, or able to do ; 
*' fo as that the Vidory, which the one gains 
" over the other, can be no farther difputed ; 
*' at leaft when the Dialogue is compos'd by 
" an able Hand ; and one who is fincerely en- 
" gaged in the Search after Truth." This is 
the Sentiment of Mr. Dacier ; who has under- 
taken to tranflate our Philofopher into the 
French Tongue. But lince all Capacities have 
not either the Attention, or Penetration requi- 
lite to difcern, amidll the Jumble of Arguments 
pro and co//, what is the real Opinion of the 
Author ; 'Tlato, in my Judgment, w ould have 
done well to have modellly declar'd himfelf at 
laft; and have let the Reader feen, what upon 
the Upfhot appear 'd to him the moll proba- 
ble. — Thus the ingenious Dialogift of our 
Da)-s, w ho has gi\ en us the new Dialogues of the 
T>\ never fails to put into the Mouth of the 
laft Interlocutor that fpeaks, fuch Sentiments as 
contain the Deiign and Refult of the whole 
Dialogue; the Want of which Precaution has 
drawn this Refleftion upon 'Plato '; that in 
his Books the Reader^ "who finds nothing there 
laid down as certain^ is always left in Sifpence. 
But Cicero, whofe Refleftion this is, does him 
Juftice in another Place ■*; where he exempts 
him from the Number of thofe,who maintain'd, 

that nothing could be certainly known. And it 
appears, by a beautiful Paiiage in his 'Phicdoy . 
that this Philofopher was, as well as his Map 
ter, in many Things well fix'd and determin'd 
in his Opinions; and that, " if he fecms not 
" pofitively to affirm any Thing in his Wri- 
" tings, 'tis becaufe he ' entirely follows So^a~ 
" tes's Manner of Difputing ; and is in every 
" Thing careful to a\oid the magillerial Air 
" of the Sophifts, and Dogmatills ; who aflert- 
" ed every Thing in a peremptory Manner ; 
" taking almolt always limple and bare Ap- 
" pearances, for indilputable Truths." He ac- 
cordingly there introduces Socrates fpeaking in 
this Manner: ^ Is it not a mojl deplorable Mif- 
fortune, that though there are Keafons true, cer^ 
tain, and moji obvious to the Apprchenfon; there 
Poiild veverthelefs be found a Set of Men, whoy 
after having refus'd to lay hold of them ; and 
having beeit frcfevt at fonie of thofe frivolous 
Dtfputes, ivhere every Thing appears, fometimes 
true, fometimes falfe; come at length to doubt 
whether it be fo or no : and injiead of laying the 
Blame of thofe Doubts on themfelves, or their 
oivn Want of Skill and Application, they at lafl 
throw it on the Keafons themfelves ; and tl:>en 
peeviply pafs the reft of their Lives in vilifying 
and fetting at naught all Reafon whatever; and 
thereby utterly deprive themfelves of all Truth, and 
Knowledge. It has been obferv'd, that there 
are four s particular Pcrfons, in whofe Mouths 
'Tlato generally puts his real Sentiments ; viz. 
Socrates, Tim<£us, the Athenian Hcjf, and the 
Stranger of.Elea. 

And tho' there are fome particular Dia- 
logues *, which treat more exprefly and particu- 
larly of Morality, than the reft ; yet that Science 
is diffused ' thro' all his Works ; and whatfo- 
ever Subjeil he is upon, he feems to have always 
an Eye to that. His Principles, as far as I have 
been able to colled; 'em from his Writings, may 
be reduc'd to thefe following Heads. 


" He was born the firft Year of the eighty eighth Olympiad, four hurn^red and twenty eight Years before Chrifl. He died 
aged eighty one Years. See Dacier's Life of PUto ; who would have done weH, in this, as well as the other Works iie has pub- 
'ifh'd, to have cited the Paflages of thofe Author;, from whence he takes bit Fadts^or at leaft have referr'd to 'em e^taftly. One 
is not obiig'd in fuch Cafes to take a Man's bare Word. 

* Dacier, ibid. p. 68, 69. 

* Cujus [Platonis] in librii nihil adfirmatur, Q> in utramque partem muita dijferuntur. de omniius quiritur, nihil certi dicilur. 
Academ. ^K^/. Lib.x, cap. i» 

* Sjiorum e numero toUendus efl Plato : --- quia relicjuit ptrfeciijjimitm difciplinum, Feripateticos, £?* Academicos, 2cc. Ibid. Lib.^, 
cup. f ' Dacier, ubi fupra, p. 74. 7J'. — 

f 'Ovyiv< « Oai'Sou, ("$1) ux"f3v av ut^ rd irifi©', Ji ovT®-'Sij Tiv<©- aAii9a; k, liiSal^ /oj-H. k, SvvurH KUiUmt^raj, 'l-xua tJts Ikt;- 
»av drroffi Sid ri TccpxylyvBc^a' toiSJIoic) Ao'yoi;, toT? duloTg Toli (xsv Zovvfiv cAijSjriv iTvah Toli ii )x^> IJ->i ^avlo'j n: cii''.mTo, ixviil T}y 
icc\i » dTi%via.v- ahha t£A£u1£b, Zm to ahyi7v, afffifv®- It< t«i; t.a'i'Hi; d(f' liU^B ry;\) diVav aToivaiio' ly vjSi tov Acitcv ^i'ok (//j-uu T6 >.) 
^cif^JiHv T8\- /o'ys; S(a"£A;r ra-j 5^ (thus I read, inftead of t£. with H. Sieph ) ovlm Ti]« aAiSo'.z? Te k, l-ri-^iu^,- q-£p>)5£i:i. p. 300, 
C, D Ed. L-£W«r. And Tom. I, p. po, C, — D. Ed. Serram. Sextus Emfiricitis (Vhr. Hyfot. Lib. i, cip.j:;, — p. 45-, B.~ ; 
acknowledges Plato to have had fi.\'d Opinions about fome cerrain Things. ("Edit. Fabricii, p. fj, — Num. 211, & d.) 

* Ka5 irff) ixin rav cc S Sokhk w;/ aTet(pu.!vi]ai Sia reTlaiaiv -rfcilmijiv, SiuKpoIa?, TiiJ.iUil> tb 'AS^jvaiS Sivv, tb £?.£.;rH SiVJ. Diog, 
Laert Lib. 5. Seift. 5-2. — ik p.217, — Ed. Col. 

* As, for Inftance, his two Alcibiades, Socrntei's Apology, Crito, Vhsdo, Gerrim, Philebtn, the ten Books de Rrpiib. and thr 
twelve de Legibus, &c. 

t Flenrfi Difcourfe on ?ktt,f . iji, the trujftls Edition, .» 

of the Science of MoRALixr. 53 

The End afid Jim of all humane * JcJioiis is tion from that fovereign Gccd\ or bears the near- 
fame Good:, ai.d there is ' a fo-cereign Good^ a tjt kefemblance to it: This Good, which may 
Good hy ivay cf Excellsuce \ which every Soul be compar'd to the other, as Ltght and • Eye fight 
pants after, i his fovereign Good mufi needs be " to the Sun, which may be truly faid to refenible 
perfeSr, file fujficteiit by ttfelj ; and fuch, that the Sun, but mt to be the Sun itfelf; this Good I 
whoever comes to know it, cannot but vioji ardent- fay, is Knowledge and Truth; which ' produce 
jyfeekthe'ToJJeJ/ionofthatalone'^withouttheleaJi Holinefs and fufiice^ by which we are as far 
Concern j or any otherThings, biitfuch as are made as 'tis pojjible, united j, and made like, to «God: 
f erf eel by thofe Gocds, which have fome Relation and alio the Love ■"• of that fupcrlatively ex- 
t hereto. But this can only be found in ' /^^? //.•- ccllcnt Being; from whence reiults « ^/ei?/7/re 
jinite Being, who is the -Parent and ° Caufe of that is pure **, virtuous, and without Remorfe. 
all other Beings ; who not only gives to " Things If the Sold retires pure, unfully'd by any Conta- 
kncwable, whatever they contain of Truth; and to gion of the Body, as not having willingly had 
intelligent Beings, the Faculty of knowing them : any Commerce with it, but on the contrary, ha- 
but is alfo the Juthor cf their Exi fence and Ef- ving, as it were, always punn'd it, and been 
fence ; being htmfelf aboi e all Efjence, both in refpeSi always recolleBed %mthin itfelf by continual Medi- 
cf Time, and 'l^cwer. Without the Knowledge », tion ; that is to fay, by truly philcfophizing, and 
and PoffefTion of this Good, all other Things effeBually learning how to die; {for^hilofcphy is 
arc unprofitable. And ho' all Men defire it ', a Preparation for Death :) if the Soul, I fay, re- 
and have fome Senfe of it ; yet do they not tires tn this Difpofition, it goes to a Being like 
lufFicicntly know what it is : nor can they ar- itfelf; to a Being divme, immortal, and replete 
rive at a thorough Knowledge of it, either by with Wifdom; where it lives in the Enjoyment 
their own Meditation; or by any certain and of marvellous Felicity; exempt from all its Er- 
invariable Information from others. For which rours, Ignorance, and Fears; from all thofe 
Reafon there are but very few Men ', who ar- '^ajjions, and JffeBions, which once tyranniz'd 
rive at Happinefs in this World; and none over it; and from all the other Evils attending 
\th.o can obtain it in Perfedion. All the Hap- humane Life : and leads a truly celcjiial Life 
pinefs we can polfibly attain to here, amounts with the Gods " to all Eternity '^. So that, be- 
to no more, than the Enjoyment of a Good, fides the r/iojt glorious and moji certain Reivards, 
which is only ' the ^rodiichon of, and Emana- that good Men receive in this World ", both from 


* Te?.®' iivai St^asiLv rav TfUltnv t5 ccyaiov, !x, ixilvH s ana Sttv Txv]a 7-aAAa vpirlecixii aM.' ^x InErvo, t£k aMav, p. JCZ," 

H. — EJ. Lttnur. & Ed. Sirrar.i. Tom. i, p. +99, foo,~ Corg. 

' 'O 5i :Siix£( fiJi/ aiaca ■\'MX>,< «; tbVs 'iymx ■xa.r.a. 'ZfiT^ti, De Refub. Lib. 6, Tom.i, p.j-of, E. Sc p. 477,0. — Edit! 

" niiTaji' S^ Ta liXtazct'ov [ivayxv) eivaij lux^iiv T AyaSo'v tJ Se •)£ (x>iv, uq Uixxi, -rif't aids? avaixa/oralov Itmt xiyetv, 

&; T^y -rb -lyvtirKow iu'5, 6>l(i«-j£/ li itpie'cct 'iMofj.ivcv IaeTv, j^ x£;> au.i KliijCas^ai , x, rHv uMjuv b'Ssv (p^oylf'^t*, TAii^ t5v aTo'tAKfjiivuK 
a(i..t aya^if. In thilei. Tom. 2, p. 10, D. & p. 76, C,""" Ed. i«ji. 

" n;iTov fAtvTciivui' airjipsv >£')t), Phi.ed. p. 78,— Ed. I«f</. 3c Tom. 2. p. 17, B. — Tor Piato acknowledg'd, beCdes the fu- 
preme Beinpr, interiour Deities. See Bibl.Univ. Tom. 10, p. 3S7, — & Jiq- and the B16I. CLoif. of Mr. Le CUrc, Tom.j, 

p.72.— 7?-~ 

Tou tjcv'bv 'Aj'/a. fhiUb. p. jo, E. & p. 80, D. — Edit. LtigJun. 

' 'El it ftii iVfiEv |.T>iv Tb 'Ayats /St.iv,] avsu Si -rxir-^i; li Zri iJ.rUj^a. Txf^u Iir;:jiiu.s6:£, oisS' ?ti bSsw -.^jxiv c'^tA®"' wjTEp s J' 
I. HSK'^^ifieei -1, ^vEu t£ ayaiu- De Rep. 6, p.foj", A,— Tom.i. & p. 4-77. E-— ^A.Lugdun. 

' 'Aroixav'ivciJ.iji) ti iijui [iricca 4'UX'iJ "-'"r^'t- 5^ >i/ an tX"'^'* AaEiTi/ IxMai ti iro'i Iqiv, aJt nric^ti xfyjiac^ui pioviVai, J.a ly 
vep'i -riMa. De Rep. p fcf, E,~" Tom.i. Sc p. 47 7> G.— E-d. Lugdm.^ 

''O-j <f»)^i f.vai SuvaTiv av8ptiToi«fiaia;p;'c(i te X) EvS.ii(io« yEviiSai, irAvjv oKiym' filxf ""^P "" t^C-i^, tS^.o Siopifofiai. ipmomiJ. init. 
P-973> ^' — Tom. 1. 8c p. 697, F, — Ed. Lugd, "cOi av[y,y [tb 'Aya9s /Slav,] s'x rxavj^ iVfttv. De Repub. lib. 6, p.foy, 

A, — &p.477' E' — . 

' "Oi S' ?x-,ovo'; T£ Tb 'Aya'ii 4)a(vElai -^ 6ii.oi6tii.&- luei'va. Ibid, p- jotf, E, 6c p. 478, C,— Ed. Lugd. 'Oi/T 'Ayaejy ly<vn,. 
«•.- iviv.-jov MUM. Ibid. p.foS, B, — 5c p.473, G. — Ed. LugJ. 

P-479. A, — 

» 'Hvi'(J-'i-'*15 5i iv.j5£i'iti, BK av to'e, oi|x.-ji, (J)aifi=v aulij X'-'^v xaxiov ixaBflvjiai. D« Rff. lib. 6, p. 490, C. & p.47l.Fj — 
Ed. Ludg. 

} See PhiJo, Tom. i, p. 79, D. — & p. 385-, C, — Ed. Lugdun. 

" Aio z} T£ip3rfKi Xf^ Iviivie txiTffi (fuysiv Zti t&X''", fuy*) Si, iiJLai'MSii ©£i3 KHia tJ Jjva!o/ Cfio'ioifi; Ss, Si'xaiov x", yfiov (JleI^ 

q)fov.i«M; 7£vEr6;«. Thextet.Tom. 1, p. J76, A, B. & p. ii8, F. — Sec alfo de Legibui, lib. 4, p.716, C, — Tom. 2. ti 

p. 601, A,"~ U. Lugdun. 

" 'OfuivTi to 6pa"3« TO xaAdv, \yiv!;ti\ai\ ti'k'siv aAiiSi; L^'p"'^'] "^Tf tb aA>)6s$ l^airlon-snj ; tex^vIj Si a.fili;v uKyfiH, y\ 6pt4'<- 

ILEvu), uTrapX^' fleo^'^s* y'"'"''*') i^i «i''^«p Ta aAAa avJpwi'B, a^xvara ^ IxEi'vaj ts'tSJ th xl.^fia'©' t^; mifuTiix, CfCctt evvtpyov 

«ji£.''m 'Epai®- 8K Ml Ti? JaSiu; Aaesi. In Conviv., A, — B. — & p. j?t,E. — Ed. /.«^i. 

** *A? liSova; sSfxiv, oAjra;, KaSapi^- tTovoiiciiav iSf T^; ^-uXIS *u^>5s ^ziq^iii-cti, t2i{ Se iuSi^yeyiv £Tcfj.sva?. Phileb. 
Tom. 2, p. 66 ,C.~~ & p. 94. G,— Ed. Lugdun. 

" PUto bciiev'd, as the Chaldeims did , that the Soul return'd to the Places which are above the Moon; from whence they had 
been ftiit into the Body, as a Punifhment, for the Crirres tbey had committed. See Jim&us. 

" 'Eiv (iEv xeAiLjj. aTaMxTl.^ ai [•/] ^-jX'-i,] h»i5«v ts ffifiai®' (run^sAxsira, ars bSev Koiveoi/s'a avlii iv Toj i3ia tita^a E<va:i, a*A« 
^iuyS^a a/o, )^ ffuvv-fipoKT.'iE'vi} li'lvi li« iiui'iiv, «r£ fjLSAs'oira oe) tbts, tsto S« b'Sev aAAo i^i'v ^ opSi; (fiho(:ti((isa, i; Tm 'v'' n^yuvUt 

fiU.'a.?.* p:6oiM5 TsT av eii fi£Ail>) SavaTB. --- bth h-e'v tx^"^*! ''? '''^ ofx^iov aJ^jji tJ Se^ov itTlp5(,Eli)!i, tJ Seiou te x) didvaiov x) 

^jov.aov ^Oi a^ixcfisv/i \5xa^x«' a'J y '"Sai/xovi e'ivsi. TAavs)? Xj aymia^ x; (foSjiv x^ dypimv ipxiav xj TiTi/ aA^.wv xtixicv Te;y avSpsTEiMH 
oTv)>A:ty(J-£^1 --- li; KAi^otr; tJv AsitJv xf3V3v jxilx 0£5v Siayyira. P/'i:</fl. p. 80, E, 81, Tom. I. Sc p.jSy, ;S6, Ed. !.«</</. 

*' *A M-6V Taivt'i/ twv;* Ta iiicdnay "zxpA Q£?-v re Xj avQpcoxwv, (i9Aa te ^ fiiffSo* ;^ Sa-pa yiyvslafj 'xpd; txEi'voK T-^^ ayaSo*^ o/< 

«"■'''>) TaptiX^''^ '1 Sixaioffuyi), c-3<5uT av tiii. Kai iJ-u\', s^ii zoAa ts ;^ liiSaiX. Tau'a Toimv »Siv l?< ■af.iidt' «2« (ieys?«i Tpsj 

ixEiv.x a T£-£vl<«-2v"a Ixilspov TEpi(ity£i. Dc Rep. lib. 10, p. 61;, 614, — Tom.i. & p. 3:8, F, Ed. Lugdun. See the De- 
scription that follows on quite to the End of ^le Book, |of the Rewards and Punifhments of another Life j as alfo in Ph*de, and 
Cor^iajjTom. i,p.fi3.~" d-/'^. 

j^n Hifiorical and Critical Account 


God, avd Mart ; and the good Thtrigs which 
Probity naturally procures for thofe^ -<^ho with 
Covlfaiicy adhere thereto : they receive after their 
Deaths too. Rewards both immevfe and innume- 
rable. Whereas the Wicked are punilh'd, in 
another Life, proportionably to the dimes 
they have committed in this. ^Plato lets torth 
thefe Principles with all the Ornaments ot a 
maieftick Eloquence; but intermix'd with a- 
bundance of abftraded, and myfterious Mo- 
tions ; to fay nothing of the Metempfychop of 
the Souls of wicked Men, with his many o- 
ther Imaginations and Conceits about the State 
of anothir Life: fee, for inftance, what he iays 
of Love ; in the Abridgment, which one of 
his extravagant Admirers // has given us of 
his Thoughts on that Subjed : " There is no- 
« thing more natural to Men than Love; they 
" naturally love every Thing that is beaudtul : 
« becaufe their Souls are delcended from the 
very Source of Beauty. But every 1 hing 
that has any Refemblance of that primitive 
Beauty, attcAs them more or lefs ; accord- 
ing as the Soul is more or lefs addided to 
the Body. They, whofe Souls are more free 
" and difengag'd, adore in each beautiful Ob- 
" jed that Ibvercign Beauty, of which they 
" have a complete Idea, and for which they 
" were born; and this Adoration produces in 
" 'em Temperance, Fortitude, and Wifdom ; 
" with every other Virtue. But they, who 
« are bemir'd and deep funk in Matter, no lon- 
ger retaining any Idea of the fovcrcign 
Beauty; madly purfuc thofe Beauties which 
arc imperfed: and tranfitory; and plunge 
themfelves, without any Confideration into all 
« Sorts of Pollution, and Impurity." But what 
is ftill more to be regretted, 'Plato gg, even when 
he is handling the great Truths ot Religion 
and Morality; interfperfes fometimes veryloofe 
Difcourics, upon the moft fcandalous Excelics 
of Debauchery; or at lead very ludicrous Ideas, 
fit only to turn Morality into Ridicule. In 
what a pompous Manner, for Example, does 
he defcribe '^ thofe Voyages, which the winged 
Souls make in Chariots, on the highejt Vault oj the 
Heavens; where they contemplate Beauty in its 
EJJence : the unhappy Falls they fometimes have 
from a ^lace fo lofty and fublime, quite down to 
the Earth ; thro' the Fatdt of fome one of their 
Steeds, that happens to prove ungovernable : the 
breaking of their Wings; their Refdence in the 
Body; how frangely they are ajfecled with the 






fidden View of fome beautiful Face, ; which they 
difcover to be a Copy of that Beauty, which they 
havefeen in Heaven : their fVings which grow 
warm again, which begin to Jledge; and which 
they endeavour to make ufe of, to fly with, to- 
wards the Objefi of their Love : to conclude, the 
Jw, the Dread, the Terrour, with which they 
are Jhuck at the Sight oj a Beauty, which they 
know to be divine; the holy Fury, which traiif- 
ports them; the longing Defire which they feel, 
to offer Sacrifices to the ObjeSl oj their Love, as 
Men do to the Gods ? 

It muft however be allowed, that 'T^lato draws 
from his Principles a conliderable Number of 
excellent Precepts of Morality and Politicks ; 
whi>.h are fometimes too fufficiently clear'd and 
dilcufs'd : fo that a Reader of Senfe may very 
much improve himlclf by the reading of his 
Works. 1 here he may find that famous An- 
gument, which Mr. '■Pafcal has in the laft 
Age urg'd with fo m.uch Strength and Clcar- 
nels : For Socrates, after having produc'd the 
Reafons he had for his Belief of the Immor- 
tality of the Soul; addrciles himfelf to his 
Friends in the following Manner : "" Jf what I 
fay be jound true, 'tis highly reafonable and ex- 
pedient firmly to believe it; and even Jhould it 
ajter my Death prove otherwife, and all come to 
nothing, I pall have Jl'tl reap'd this Advantage 
from It; that in this Life, I have been lefs fen- 
Jible of thrfe Evils, that generally accompany 
it. --- Unlcfs a Man has Icfl his Scufes, he can- 
not but be ajraid of Death, till he knows afj'ii- 
redly, and is able to demonjirate, that the Soul 
is immortal. — To tell you now, that all thefe 
Things are in fail precifely fuch, as they have 
been reprefented to be; 'tis what a Man of found 
Scn/e will never take upon himfelf to averr. But 
that, what I have told you concerning the State 
and Man f ion of departed Souls, is, in all 'Proba- 
bility, either abfolutely true, as I have related it; 
or very near the Matter, feeing the Soul is, as 
appears, immortal; this is what no Man of found 
Senfe needs fcruple the venturing to ajfrm; and 
he will moji certainly find his Account in it, 
whoe'er (Jjall run the Risk : And a nobler Ven- 
ture he cannot make ; jor 'tis fuch a bltfsful 
Hope, that every Soul ought to be charm'd and 
transported with it. 

'Plato teaches »*, that wc ought never to 
undertake any Thing, without Prayer to God : 
But declares, at the liimc Time, that God " re~ 
jedls the Prayers and Sacrifices of thofe whole. 


■ff Dachr's Life cf Tlnto, p. I07:_ 108. ~ See Phidriis, Tom. 5, p. ifo.— & fei]. Sirraa. & p. 34^, B,_ & fq. Ed. 

eg In his Banquet, for Inftance, and in his Phalrus It is remarkable, that Philo the J^erv, otherwife a great Admirer of Plato, 
durft not undertake to excufe him as to this Particular : If this Philoibpher, fays he, fpeaks fometimes of Celeftial Loze, 'tis but 
for Decency lake De V:t. p.?t)8, B. Ed. Parii. & p. 69+, i-,— Edit. Colon. AUob. See alfo le Ckrc's Bibt. Choifie, 

Tom. 1 1. p. 3 17, (frfq- ^ .. , r,- 1 

ike uie of tlie Words of Mr. Fonlenelle, Nonv. Bid. dei marts 1. Part. Biag. ties jnorts Anc. avec les MoJernes, Dial. 4. 

** T mak 
p. 198. 8c p. 97. 

niieay,y.ei yap (fcGfiir 

I, ii iJ-yi avo'v).©* El-))- ru (xij 11 Son, fiio 

Edit. LoKil. 1707. , , T 

" Atm ^''t'ov toT; Ta?«Jiv aiiSij,- Efo.uai dSy|:o>£v©-. Phidon, tom. 1 , p.91. B. 2c p. 390, E, Ed. Lii^dtin. 

sX""''' ''"'yoi' SiS^vai iii ai:iv:C.6\i liji. lbid.p.9f, D. — & 391, E — 

i.'l iqfi, i, Tail';' ar^a, Ttfl 
vSuvtCcai, oiofisva 

cited, r«/fn/ Ds 7«r.Nfl/. cj- GfW- lib.i, c. 3, Sea.7, Not.j-. , , „ , t 

** TS:o ye Si, TM.e; Zdo, x, yaO. /S^aX" ff«(()poffu'v^c_M.ETfXB5iv, Ixl Triffv, iffx^ xj quxfu x, fxiyuM ■zparfia^®' ©sJ" "£' -^B Ka?b<fiv. 

Id Ti;«xo, Tom. J, p. 17, C,~^c^)'. & r- 5-16, C, E6. Lmlg. ,. ^ , — » 

" napi ii (x,a:K-j;fa bT avSp' a-,a»av, b"te G»v I:;) Tols to've 6.^6h Six^.lcc: De Leg- hb.4. Tom.2, p. 716,— 7'7. Serr & 

p.601, B. — Ed. Lugd. 'Oj t^u f''|naj toibto'v l^i ro tuv Gsiv. w^s Cia Su'piov vxfuyzaUi, cuv xanbv ■Toy.iqy,v, Aicib.i, Tom. i, 

p. 149, E ~ Serr. & p.43, C,~ Ed. i«</j. 

1i li.iv Sv ta.v'M luamfieaa^a: stm; t%(i\i ag iya it£hi!;>.t(ay 8 vfi-ei vav s'xovli ^vSpi" oti ixiv toi vj raul si^''-', h i 
T.x^ ■i.vX^i viiJ.Cv, xj TO-c (.mv.t^.K., 'iT.urtf .ISaia'ov 7s vi 4'i'Xj) flJaivela.- Bffa, tbto X; -jrp^rEiv Ifxc! SokeT, x^ a'lov ^S 
^TMc ^/_£^/ Ha^a? vap 6 x.VSuv©-, ;:, XP^ 'r^' TciSfJla ucirif '<TifiHv lau'^u. ibid. p. 1 1+, D, Sen. L&mar. 40 i , A, 

of the Science of Morality, 5^ 

Souls are impure ; and that he fuffers not hini- folutcly on, even to Death, in a fteady uniu- 

felf to be brib'd with Gifts. This Philolb- tcrrupted Courfe of Virturejj; iho' publickly 

pher "" look'd upon a blind and immoderate fcourg'd^ jiut to •various Kinds of 'Torture kept 

5elf-love to be the Source of all the Evils of Life; in Irons^ his Eyes burnt out^ forc'd to endure all 

and elleem'd the Conqueil a Man gains "" over Sorts of Mifery ; and in the End crucily'd. But 

himicitj to be the grcatcfl: and moil glorious "(P/i^ro has, notvvithftanding, here andthcrefcat- 

of all Vidories. He fays, that we fhould be ter'd throughout his Works feveral Notions 

always learning "' to die ; and yet ''^ fliould which are really exorbitant and beyond Bounds, 

bear with Life, in Obedience to God\ vvhofe In his Crito^ for Example, '5'ocr^/'« maintains 

Will it is, that we fliould not quit it, till we that it is unlawful for a Man condemn'd to die 

have obtained his expreisDifcharge. He Ihews to make his Efcape, if he can, tho' his Sen 

■as^''^ that It e -were not born jor onrfehes only\ but tence be never fo unjuft =2. Nay, he goes fb 

alfo for our Country^ for our Relations^ and far as to fay, * that if a Criminal is not dif- 

fvr the refl cf cur Friends : " that we ought not cover'd, he ought of his own Accord to go 

to injure any Man : that we ought net to return and offer up himfelf to Punilhment. What 

Evil " for Evil \ and that " 'tis much better he fays upon '"'" Treafure-Trove^ fhews, that he 

to receive^ than to do an Injury. He routes in did not very well underftand that Topick. 

his Repiiblick., in his Laws, in his GorgiaSj and He likewife gives into the vicious Extreme of 

in many other Places, thofe falfe Notions of thofe, who abfolutely *** condemn all lending of 

Morality and Politicks ; which tend to the ut- Money at Intereft. 

terSubverlion of the Law of Nature. He ac- 'J'lato has, in his Political Writings, laid. 

knowledges *" that there is no Law in common down the true Principles of that Science; tho' 

to Men and Beafts; and that Man of all Ani- the Confcquences he draws from 'em are not 

mats is the only one, who has any Idea of alwajs jull. He makes it a Fundamental, 

Right; and of the Deity, from whence it That '" Laws are abfolutely neceffary for the 

proceeds. He forbids** all Copulation con- Prefervation of Society ; and that without *em, 

trary to Nature. He gives Rules of Condudt Men would li\e together no better, than the 

for the different States of Life. The Defcrip- mofl: favage Bealls. He defines a Law to be, 

lion he gives of a confummate Virtue, is fo a publick Ordinance ''''* of the Body of the State, 

beautiiul, and does fo hit the Charadler of our the SuhjecI-AIatter cf which, is for the Good of 

Saviour, the only Pattern here below of per- the 'Community. He owns the tacit Agree- 

fect Holinefs ; that many have regarded it as ment there is between every particular Mem- 

a kind of Prophecy in the Mouth of an Hea- ber, and the State ; and fays, that thofe, who 

then. This Philofopher does, in fa<ft, give us rcfufe to fubmit themfelves to the Laws, vio- 

the Repr'eientation of a Man truly virtuous ; late that Jgreentent "' ; which was not iwpos'd 

who ncvcrthelcfs was to be generally reputed upon 'em, either by Force, or Surprife, without 

a bad Man, alcho' in all Things he infiexibly giving ttem Time to ccnfider of the Matter ; 

adhcr'd to Juftice; and was, without being fince they might have retir'd, had they been dif- 

dillourag'd at this unjuft Cenfure, which all fatisfed with the Laws ; or thought the Terms 

the World pafs'd upon him; flill to march re- they propos'd unjuji. He fays, that the Heads, 

'^ and 

*■ To Ss :0-^hU ye -rraCm a-jLa?%;i.iTo:v, 5ii tIjv ff4>o'Spa; lau"a ^if^!av> ailiov ina.<^a yiVtlai ixai^o^t. Be Le^. Iib.5-, p. 73 I, E, 
Sff ^ \-.Cc6, D ~ Ed. LtigJ. _ 

*" ra w«2v a.-<^ivlTij, rariv uxJtv Tptirii re K- a;iV=1- ^^ ^'S- ''''• '■ V- ^^^y E- Serran. & p. j-fi/. C, — Ed. Ltt^d. 

" t-e fe Pjflijjc Out of PhiJo, cited before. Note fdd.) 

'f -fc l' p. 61, B, Tom \,S:rrmi.bc p. 377,6, C, D, ^i.LuJg. 

*' '£«<); ,-iQ- ^(x3v a'x axui fianji/ ysjovEv, aAAi Til? yeviaiu); vifiwv th (xsv ti vi rrafiitJ-cfU^iCiit tb Ss t;, ci ytvvijffccvyeg' t3 St, ot 

Ao<ro (piA'i. Epift.p. — 

"■ OtSafiS? TO ye cI^lkuv srs i'raOov, are xa'.o'i/. InCritone, Tom.i, p. 49, A, Serran. & p.37l, D, Ed. Liijg. 
■" 'Ouls afct a'''a.iixsiv SeT, o-Sle xxx-Tii -roiuv aJsva d^^fiiriav- a'S' av c't^v Ta';x>i ux' uvia.v, ibid. C, — Serr. & E, — LiiqJ.^ 
" MeKii/ rxii/ xxxij (pdfiJv ii a5i/£rv. sAar ov ?J, -i, cl^ixircUt- In Corgia, Tom. I, p. fop, C,— See alfo p.5-27. B. Serrati. 
£c p. 306, H, — Ed. I,«<^^. See a:fo p. 514., C. — 

" "O [ii/flpujTj*-] rjidH T£ uTefiyji riv aAAav [i;<io)'/,] x} SiV^v z) fieii,- fiovov vojjiriei- Menexen. p. 237, D, — Tom. i, Serran. 
gc p. 404, C, — Ed Lu^d. 

" De Le^iiu:, Lib. 8, Tom.i, p. 836, A, — &feiii. Serran. 8c p.64j-. F, — & feci. Ed. Ltidg. 

ly M>i5£i/ -iCtf a'?iKoJv, 5o';av Ix'To) Tijv (A£y:Vlv aSixi'tf?' tv 13 GtSx(rxvi^yiU&' ii; ii/.aiocuvy\v, ri y-^ riyyec^oci vTo KaxoSoJi'a;;, ^ t£« 

Oir' a."v)i yi)'V(!fX£v;;v' a,u' vira a'isla'-a'®' l«-sX.P' Savaru. li? -vi 'i3%u}oM (lA£AuSa;j SjKanJuvii; --- 2ri srw Siaxsi'fisv®- 6 iixai®', 

(ix^iydidilxt, crpeCAaffilai. ^e^ofcit, tKKau5.'>£''a( tm o^SaAfia. T£A£ul£v, TiJla xxxx T«9iv, uvcci!Xt^iif.evi-^,ee'.ai. De Repub. lib. 2, 361, 

C, 362, — Tom. 2, Ssrran. & p. 423, B, C, Ed. Lugd. See a Fragment of the third Book de Rep.ot Cicero, in Laclantius, 

JkJI. r>ivi«. Lib. 5-. C.12, n f, 6. 

22 See Mr. Pufendorj's, Law of Mature and Uaticns, Book4, cap. i, SeiSi:. 20. And Book 8, cap.3, Se£V.4, Num. 4, And 
Not. 8, 9.— 

* Corg. p. 480, A,— B, Tom. I. Serran. Sc p. 294. E,— & F,— Ed. tiigdun. See Tufend. de Jur. Unt. ^ Gent, lib. 4, 

C.6. Sed 20, Not. I. wheie you will find the Pafiage here referr'd to. 

"'"' De Legih. Lib. 1 1, p. 913, A,— Sc d. at the Beginning. See ?»/«»<!("■/, Lib. 4, c. 6, Seft. 13. 
**' M.,5J Za^iiCtiv ItJ To'Km. De Legih. Lib.}-, p. 742, C, — Tom. 2, Serr. & p. 610, G, — Ed. Ludg. 

'" 'fl; «?a vo'ixS; av9?u7ro(; avreyxaioi/ ri'SEfSai, j^ tyv xa-rit. vo;xB?, Jj fiijSiw Sia$«p£iv rSw Tavly aypmraTev iv[f'M'j. De Leg. lib. 9, 
Tom. 2, p. 874, E, — Ser. & p. 660, G, Ed. Ludg. 

,'''''' 'E-s-i 2e xSo-i TSTOi;, AoyKru^i o, ti toT c'/ISv afisivov >j xeXpv 0^ •ytvjfisx®' Soyfia SoAtaj xoivi'j, vo'fi©' »xo)vi,aa-«:i. De Leg. 
lib.i. p 644, D, See Af/BW, p. 317, A,— C, Serr. 8c Ed. L«<ig.p. j-7 3. B-~ See too p.45-, F, — G — 

'" $aV>i3v1j5 ce £fioAoy>i«ivai ToAiltijSffSai xaS' y,iix.<; [vo'fxa;] ipyia, a.M.' a Ao'yoi ivvi^xa^ rag T^_a? v,(i2? eiu.BS, x, i;^n5Aoyi'<»s 

lapaei'ivci;' a'x >!'^' av«'yx>)? oixsAoyiiffa,-, aSe aTa">i6£)?, s'Se £v uAi'yio XPov? avayK.iffSs^? ^sxivcac^xt »J <:« a-rifvai, ti fxM .^ptirxo- 

H£» y.nji;, fivjSs S.'xaia. i(p^mvl6 coi it ofAsAoy.'ai t'lva/. In Crim. Tom. i, p. 5-1, D,— E, Serran. 2c p. 374, A,— B. td. Lwrf^. 


An Hijiorical and Critical Account 

and Governours of a State are no more, than 
fff Muiijicrs of the Laws'^ that -wherever the 
Laiv bears Sway., aud the Magijhates are tts 
Slaves \ there -we fee floi'.riJbihgToiV}is^ and the 
greatejl 'Plenty of all thofe good Things^ ive ex- 
pa fro/n the Boiiuty cf the Gods : but, on the 
ether hand, ivhere the Magifirats is Majhr, 
and the Lazv his Servant and Slave \ there no- 
thino- can be expecfed cr hcp'd Jor, but Rwn 
and'' DeColation. He maintains, that thole 
L^^g sss^ which tend onlj to the particular 
Interefl: oi the Legiflatour, and not to the 
pubUck Good, are not really Laws \ but the 
Didates of Fadion, Tyranny, and Injuftice. 
In a word, *' 'tis his fix'd Opinion '", that 
" all Politicks, which tend to make the go- 
" verning Part powerful at the Expence ot 
" the Subieds; and which make all the \ irtue 
« of a So\ereign to conlift in fecurine, and 
« increafing his own Power; leaving Juftice, 
« Patience, Goodnefs, Fidelity, and Huma- 
« nity, as Virtues fit only for Slaves, to be 
« pradis'd by the Subjeds ; are no better 
" than downright Tyranny: and that the 
" End and Delign of true Politicks, is to 
" make the w^hole Body of the Subjeds live 
" fociably together, like Brethren, in the hap- 
" pieft "Manner poffible ; without Poverty, 
" without Riches; according to the Rules ot 
" Juftice and Sandity." 'Vlato, having laid 
down thcfc general Principles, enters upon 
particular Expedients; of which he gives us 
a confidcrable Number, for the regulating of 
the publick religious Worlhip, the Choice ot 
Magiftrates, Marriages. Divorces, the Edu- 
cation of Children, Wills, Guardianlhips, 
"War, and Peace; with the other principal 
Aiiaiis of Civil Life. But " there is, in his 
" Politicks, a very confiderable Dcted '" ; 
" for in order to baniih, out of the Govern- 

" ment he is forming, all Manner of Proper^ 
" ty ; he ordains Community, not only of 
" Goods, but alfo of Wives and Children. 
" --This Community islofar from conducing 
" to the Euct its Legiflatour propofes; that 
" on the contrary it ctiedually prevents the 
" Attainment of it; and intircly fruftrates 
" the Delign of his whole Eftablilhment. For 
" inftead of uniting the Minds of his Sub- 
" jeds, it fets 'em a: Variance ; diiiolving af 
" once all the Relations, and moft facred Ties 
" of Nature ; and traiupiing under Foot all 
" Law, Religion, Houelty, and Decency. --- 
" Anjioiie has ftrenuoully oppos'd this Maxim, 
" in his fecond Book of 'politicks; and 'T^lato 
" himielf abandons it in his lixth Book of 
" Laws; where he rellorcs to the Marriage 
" State, all that he had before taken from it. 
" Helidcs this, there is another Dcted, con- 
" ccrning the Educa.ion of Women; whom 
" he deftins to the lame Emylo- mc^ts as the 
" Men ; and calls 'cm to the Command of 
" Armies, and the Government of Srates." 
Let us, that, by his Manner of fpeaking 
of thofe, whom the Greeks call'd Birba- 
rians *** ; he feems to have retain'd the falfe 
and preiumptuous Ideas of that Nation ; 
who, forgetting the natural Equality of all 
Men ; pretended to have a Right, to treat 
all other Nations, as their Enemies by Na- 
ture, againft whom they might lecurely ex- 
ercife all Manner of Hoftilities. Another very 
conliderable Blemilh, is his Pretence ; that ''' 
jiothtng ought ever to be chan^d m the Keligion 
ive find ejtablifh'd; and that but to think of any 
fach Thing, was the higheji '7'itch of Extrava- 
gance and Fol/y. A Maxim which can have 
no other Effed, but to keep up Super ftitioa 
and Ignorance in the World ; and for ever 
exclude Truth. 

^ff T8C 5" afxiy'a.', i^iywsiVi^ vDy liTtpIra? tni vijaoig De lej. llb.4, Tom. 2, p. 7_i}-, C— Serran. & p. Coo. E — Ed. 
ZuJ^. "Ev ^ (xev yapiv (tiJae.) a'p>;o'(i£-.©- ^ n} a.m(,&' vin®-, ipSopiv opa t^' ™ai/'T>) Itoi>vi" Hfav' iv ^Ss av Ssjto't^? t£v iixo'""""', 
« Si a^X'^le: SaA3< tb vo>3, ca.-y,,lxv, Xj Tcivi cc;a Peo) xoAerr/tSaffaty a,a'i:.^vi)v6'J.iva xaOopi. ibid. D.. ^^ Serran. & F,^ "d. Lu^d. 

KtS Ta'.la? S-JTa (lafie'i' VM-^i"; iTl' t-vM ■aoXiela';, bT OfflB"? vsaB?, ocot fxv) ivxzrii t>5,- iroAtai; "vsxa zS koiv« iriftt^cay 61 S* 
?«Ka TivMV." c;x<:L']ila;, aAA' a' i!o>A.(.Ui ■^v.Tii (fay-iV k, Ti tbto^i/ iUaia a. (faeiv tivai. ftamv lipqcSai. Ibid. B, Serran. 8c 
Ei.LuJ D,— _ 

*»* i).ic/fr's Life of PUto, p. 90, — 91. 

''■' Ibid, p. 91 — & ^"}. 

»** S« MenexeiMi, Tom. t, p. 241, D."" and the fifth of his Repu6. p.470, C, Serran. & p. ^96, C,— & p,4<S4, G, 

T!A T Hits • ^— • 

'" '0'j5=); tnxtipi'Cei ttive'v ysv 'ixaiv tb'tojv vofxoflfTvj rj ffpiixpo'Talov uTclvlav sSiv Kivvirhv. Leg, llb-j", p. 738, B, — C, 

Serran. Ss p.609. B,— Ed. Lugd. See ivlr. De Manx's, bifcours fur I'Hifi. Uaiv. p. J 17, Ed. Holi. 



of the Science of Morality. 



aNTISTHENES% another Scholar of 
y^ Socrates^ founded the Seft of the Cy- 
incks\ and had, amongll others, the 
famous ^ for his Scholar. What 
an ingenious ° modern Writer has faid of 
Dtogeuesy may be generally apply'd to the 
Philolbphers of that Sed. " That they 
" were of the Number of thole extraor- 
" dinary Perfons, who run e\cry Thing in- 
" to Extremes, without excepting even Rea- 
" fon itfclfj and who verily the Maxim, 
" * That there is no great ffit without a Spice 
" Madnefsr They had learn'd from Socrates^ 
that Morality was the moft ufeful of all the 
Sciences; and what deferv'd our greatcll Care 
and Application. From this moll true Prin- 
ciple, they abfurdly concluded ; that Logick, 
Natural Philofophy, Geometry, Mufick, the 
liberal Arts and Sciences \ in a word, every 
Thing that did not immediately relate to the 
Science of Morality, was to be defpis'd ', and 
intirely thrown alide. The tundamental 
Maxim of their Dodtrine '' -zcc/j, to live in 
Coi/Jormity to the Rules of Virtue'^ which ' is 
fvJijiC'.ent to make Men happy. But the _ Confe- 
quences, they drew from thence, were in fome 
I' too rigid 5 and in others too remifs. 
/ -iLe Godsy faid they, have need of nothings 
this IS their proper a)id natural Condition : Thofe 
tlsn ithojiavd in need but of a few Things ^ do 
the ih.f refemhle them. To procure to them- 
fel>cs then this happy Independancy; and to 
Ihew with what an utter Indillerency they 
look'd upon Riches, Pleafures, Honours, and 
the Approbation of Men ; they pretended, 
that we ought intirely to renounce all the Con- 
veniences of Life \ and voluntarily reduce 
our felves to the molt extreme Poverty ^ : 
And they accordingly purfu'd this Maxim 
of theirs in their Manner of living : A 

long Beard, a Cloak, a Staff, and a WaMet 
made up the whole of their Attire, Equipao-e' 
Goods and Chattels. Dicgaies^ for his P-lit* 
would have no other Habitationbut a * Tub • his 
Wooden Cup too ', when he came to find he 
could drink out of the Hollow of his Hand, was 
thrownaway. Jntijthenes faid *, he had rather lofe 
his Senfesy than he feufihle of '^leafure. They 
thought themfelves entitled freely to make 
ule of any Thing that came in their Way, 
without troubling themfelves whether they had 
the Owners Conient, or not ; which Practice 
of theirs they jullify'd in this Manner. Jll 
Things^ faid they, belong to the Gods: But the 
Sages are Friends to the ' Gods., and all Things 
are common among Friends : Therefore a'l Things 
belong to the Sages. They laugh'd at all humane 
Eltablifliments ", believing th mfclves bound 
by no other Law, than the Law of Nature ; 
of vyhich they had very falle and imperfed: 
Notions. Upon this Principle Diogenes " made 
no Scruple of coining falle Monev. He maln- 
tain'd that ° all Women ought to be in com- 
mon; and that the Laws of MaiTiagc were 
but a vain Subjcdiion. According to the O- 
pinion of rhefe iame Philofophers, there was 
nothing that a Man ought to be afliam'd of: 
They publickly, and without Referve, trod 
under Foot all the Laws of Decency, and Mo- 
del!:}'. ^ A learned German ^ not long fmce 
maintain'd ; That they had never advanc'd this 
Paradox, had it not been to remove from them- 
felves the Abufe of thofe, who, making the 
Whole of Virtue to confift in external Decen- 
cy, did under this beautiful Vail conceal the 
moll enormous Pradices. " If this be fo, 
" (fays an t ingenious Journalill in his Re- 
" marks thereupon) their Delign was o-ood • 
" but their Means Hark nought : For,"^ as a 
" certain ' Lady, who did not alwaj-s fol- 

" low 

* J^ee D;'o^. Zaert.\\h.6, Seft. t, — & feqiien. And p. 36/, ^66. Ed. Colon. Allob. 

* N!r. Bayls, Diftion. Arte. Diogenes, p. 1049 

* i<iil!um mugnum ingenium fine mixturd demetitU f:tit. Senec. de Tranq. Anim. cap. ult. p. 219, Tom. i, Ed. Gronov-. 

' .'ipi^.iiiv avruq (K.iiV.KtT;) Tov Aoiixov yj riv Oucixoy roTiVTificupetv fxo'vu) Zl irfoaixeiv rm 'H'/kijT xj 'ivtf ItI 'ZaKfATUCy 

Si Xj TX I-, xjxA.'it iicA-ifi.arct- Tpafji;jiara yuv (Ajj fiav6av£iv sif^s-icsv Avri?6fv>ii; t8{ (ritCppoviZ^ y£vo(X£v«c, tva, fxif Stt-pKpoivTi toTj aA- 
?orp':':. Ylifia';-hCi Si k, Ttaiixirfiixv, k, MsirfliijV, x, nxtTx. TO Toiaura- Hwg, Lacrt. Lib.6, Seft. 103, 104. — Ec p. 43 i .:_4?2. 
Ed. Colon. 

** Afiffxii S' avrct: z) tsA©* iTvcu ro xar aperiv t-^y. Ibia. Seft. 104. — 

' 'Avrapxy, yccf t^v a-£TJ,v ttvai rrpb-; ivSclMoviav. Ibid. Seft. I I. — & p. 371.— E-l. Colon. 

' 'O? (Air, iv.1-) "(faruB, (SeZv fisv iSnv i7:ai, (iviSevJ? SSMflai' riv ii Qi-^Tq cfj.6vjiv, -ri oAi'yw" Xn'CiN- Ibid. Se(fl. loj". — 2c Ed. Col. 
p. 433. Socraiei laid this before. Sec Xenofh. Apomn. Lib. i, circa fin. p. 73 i. A, Ed. Farts. 

S *^ee Diog. Li.ert. uti fupra Seft. i 5 . — ibique Interpr. Vid. p. 373, Ed. Coionn Aiiobr. Sc P.37S, 379. 

* See Remaik fG) of '.!r. Bay'.e'i Dictionary, in the Article of Diogenes, p. lof i. Col. i. — 

* See Dieg. Lusrt. ubi fupra, H6i. 37. — And p. 379, — Ed. Colon. And Senec. Epift. 90, p. 302. — Ed. Gronov, 

* Mavtr.iv (xSA'cv '), i.c^^iyy- ^:og- Lflfrr. ib. Stft. 3. — & P-3<5iS; Ed. Col. 

Tilv Oeev Iqj xivT.'',' Jji'Aoi SJ 61 {ro(pol Tor; 0£or«' xoivx Jira TiIv$i'AKV.TivTa apal^iriv co^iv. Ibid. Seft. 37. — & Ed. Ca/.p. 388."" 

See alfo Seft. 11, — & Seft.72. — & p. 371, And p. 410. — Edit.Co/«». They excepted not even Things facred. SeeSe<fi. 75, — 

8c Ed.Co/(7». p.411. — 

" M:<Jiv i-ra toI,- xari vofiov, tS; tsTj nxrx (puaiv SiJa';. Ibid. Seft. 71, — &. p. 410. — Ed. Col. 

" Tciiura J<£Atv£To ;^ Tciitv l^oivETo. cvra? voaifffta ira!f«xa?ar^(Oi'. Ibid.Seft.71 8c Ed. CW. p. 410. — See Sect. to. & 

E.1.C0/. 377, 578. 

EAe^E f,i xj xor.'xq cfvat SiXv TUf yvvZixoi' yafiov f;i>tS£v omi/.a.tii>v, aAAoi -riu •iTitsa.vTCt T? Vlicas'^i rvvsTvjy. Ibul. Sect. 7*'"~ ^ 
P-4",— Edit. C<j/o«. 

' See tuddel tlem. Vhilof. jKJlrumeT.t. Hift. Philofoph. Cap. 4, Seft. jf, 

* Mr. Bernard's KouielUi of fxly, J703, p. ?/. 

' Madam Dt VHledieu. ■ 


An Hijlorical and Critical Account 

" IciT her own Maxim, has handfomely ex- 
" prefs'd it, 

C'eji un nit'chatit moien d'eiifelpier la Verttty 
§lue de la f aire z-cir par le portrait da Vice. 

It is hut a had Way of teaching Virtue^ to il- 
lufirate it hy vicious Images. But let us fee how 
they argu'd the Matter : ' Jkere is not^ fay 
they, any Harm in dining: Therefore there is none 
in dining in the Middle of the Market-^Place. 
It is juft and lawful to carefs one's own Wife •: 
Therefore'tis jufl: and lawful to carefs her before 
all the World. But, as Mr. Bayle has very 
well obferv'd ", " this is but the poor Fallacy, 
*' a dicfo Jimpliciter ad diBum fecundnm quid. 
*' 'Tis as if one fliould fay : It is good to drink 
*' Wtne\ therefore it is good to drink it in a 
*■'■ Fever. Thefe Men knew not, that many 
" Adtions are not good but in certain Circum- 
" ilances; fo that the Abfence of thofe Cir- 
" cuniftanccs may make that a bad Ad:ion, 
" which otherwile might have been a very 
" good one. To lend a Friend Money to pay 
*' his Creditors, is a very laudable Adion : 
" But to lend it him, to be drunk, or to game 
*' with, is a bad one. Some Adlions are ellen- 
" tially bad, and can never become good, how- 
" ever circumilantiated; but there are others, 
" which are fometimes good ; and ibmetimcs 
" bad, according to the Time, Place, and other 
" Circumflances, in which they are perform'd. 

" The Difficulty then may be reduc'd to 

*' this lingle QuelHon : Whether a Man ought 
*' to he ajhara'd, to perform conjugal Duty in 
*' puhlick Vieiv ? " I am furpris'd to find this 
celebrated Author, whofe Words I have bor- 
rovv'd, niaking the Cy nicks to triumph j as if 
Reafon alone v^'as not fufficient to demonftrate, 
that their Impudence is vicious, and contrary 
to the Maxims of the Law of Nature. '* It 
*' may be objedied, fa}s he, to Dicgenes, that 
*' the Scnfc of Shame, in Cafes of this Nature, 
*' is a natural Sentiment j fo that to be without 
" Shame on thefe Occalions, is to do Violence 
" to Nature itfelf. But, to this he will an- 
" fwer ; that was this Scnfe of Shame a real 
" Diftate of Nature, the other Animals too, 
" who fo faithfully follow the Impulfe of Na- 
" ture, would feck for dark Holes and fccret 
" Recefles, to perform this Work of Gcncra- 
" tion in: The contrary of which is moll ap- 
" parent. At leaft, this would be uni\erfally 
" trde as to Men, that they in fuch Cafes al- 
" ways feek out the darkclf and moft obfcurc 

" Retreat; which is alfo ' falfc. It will 

" here be reply'd to Diogenes, that it is fuffi- 
" cicnt,^ that all ci\ iliz'd Nations are fubjed to 

" this Scnfe of Shame. To which he again 

" will make this Return ; that the Nations we 
" are pleafcd to call barbarous, have much lefs 
" deviated from the Rules of Nature ; than 

" thofe, who have, with their refining, and 
" Subtilty of Thought, fo vaftly multiply'd 
" the Modes and Forms of Decency and Ci- 
" vility ; and in Ihort, lince the Law of Na- 
" ture is not fubjedt to Prefcription, it is both 
" right and lawful, at all Times, and in all 
" Places to return back to the Oblcrvation of 
" it ; without having any Regard to the arbi- 
" trary Yoke of Cultoms and Opinions, how"- 
" ever, or wherefoever eflablilh'd." Theie are 
the Reafons which Mr. Bayle puts into the 
Mouth of Diogenes. I have noT)efign to en- 
gage myfelf in the Difpute; this being no pro- 
per Place for it. I Ihall content mylelf with 
Ihevving in a fewW^ords, that all thefe puzz-ling 
Subtilties of Diogenes, are capable of a very 
eafy and obvious Anlwer. Firft, he alfumes 
a falfe Principle; to wit, that the Maxims of 
the Law of Nature are founded on an Inltindt, 
common to all Animals; every Impulfe where- 
of is irrefiftible : And yet Mr. Bay/e has him- 
felf juftly fet at nought y thofe moral Reflec- 
tions, which are drawn from the Condudt of 
brute Beads. Secondl}-, Neither is it neceflary, 
that all Men Ihould ha\ e innate Idcis of Vir- 
tue ; and ftill lefs, that they ihould univerfally 
follow them in their Condu(5L What I have 
already laid, is fufficient, in my Opinion,^ to 
make Diogenes change his Battery. So that, third- 
ly, I Ihall now grant, as much as he pleafes, that 
the Scnfc of Shame ,with regard to Adtions in them- 
fclves lawful or indifferent, is not a natural Sen- 
timent: But I Ihall maintain, that humane InlHttH 
tion may have Force enough, to make fuch kind 
of Adlions \icious and criminal; when attended 
with proper Circumftanccs. My Realon is, be- 
caufe Men are born to live together in Society, 
and confcquently to be complaifant one to- 
wards another ; not unfeafonably arteding Sin- 
gularity, but avoiding to give Olience to any 
Perfon whatever ; as iar as it can be done with- 
out Breach of their Dot}-, or bringing on them- 
felves fome confiderablc Detriment : in a word, 
to have all the Refpcct imaginable for one ano- 
ther, and more efpccially with Relation to 
thofe 1 hings, that are authoriz'd by an efla- 
blilh'd Cuftom. Fourthl)-,There are three Sorts 
of Modes or Cuiloms, in the Pradtice of which, 
Civility and Decency are made to confill: Some, 
which are exceeding troublefome, and without 
any P'oundation: Others, which are but little 
or not at all inconvenient ; and which may be 
difpens'd with, as well as the former; without 
giving Offence or Scandal to any one; or occa- 
lion to fear any ill Confequence thereupon : 
And laAly fuch, the "^^iolation whereof is liable 
to very great Inconveniences, and, on this Ac- 
count, have the Charader of Impudence af- 
fix'd to the Contempt of 'em. I conceive, that 
no Man can be obUg'd to fubjed himfelf to the 
firft Sort, any farther than his own Intereft, | 
or Condition of Life do neceffarily require it. 


^ ^ 'EuiSfi SI imrxToinvivr^ '.J-Ua, *) tu. fliJfjt^iTp®' X; M 'A?>?oSiV.i,-' xj rsiirVg Twa? yipJirx Aoysc. E' ro a.pi:;£v ftiiStv jm ar^rov 
s5' lu ayopr? Jcjiv btotoV six 'iqi 5i aroTov ri apiqa"' is'5' apx Iv ayofd ^u anrov. Diog. Laert. ubi fupra, Sc(k.6^. & p.4oS._ 
Ed. Colon. 

' See Augtifl. de Civ. Dei, Lib. 14, Cap. 10, — & L Viv. i. 1. 

" Dia. Hi/!. (^ Crit. in the Article of Hipfanhia, Wife of Crates, a Cynick Philofopher, Remark ("D), p. 15-64., Col. 1. 
Several Nations in Intiia do the cont.ary. See alfo Sext. Empiric. Pyrrhon. hyfot. Lib. j^ Cap. 24, p. rj-2. A,—- EJ. Stefb. 

P'77' EH. Fiiiric. And la Mothe le Vayir, Dial. D'OraJias Tuiero, p. 15-6. 
I Sec the Tranflation oi Pn/end. de Jur. Gem. ^ Nat. by Mr. Burbeyrac, lib. 2, 

cap. J) Seft.ij Note;. 

of tide Science of Morality. 


j'^s to the fecond Sort, I do not fee why a wife 
iVlan fhould here refufe to conform ; lince it will 
coll him lo little Pains or Trouble to comply: 
wh}', for InlLince, Ihould a Ivlan obltinately in- 
fill upon dining in the Streets, when he can, 
with as much or more Eafe and Conveniency, 
dine in his o\vn Houle ? However I Ihall grant 
Diogeuei^ if he pleafe, that in violating this 
Sort of Culloms, a Man at mrji incurs hut the 
Cci/fure oj Qoisjnijhvefs^ and Want of common 
Complaifance to an ejiablijh'd Citjiom. But, for 
the lall Sort, there's none but a Cynick^ that is 
to lay, a Man accullcm'd to treat all the H vrld 
•with Contempt^ and to take the Liberty of do- 
ing every Thing he pleafes, on an ill-grounded 
Pretence of reftoring the L-4\v of Nature^ who 
can, out of mere Humour, and without any 
Necelht), trample upon and defpife 'cm. Thus 
we ought, without Difpute, to make ufe of 

Means of humane Inftitutlon, and common U- 
fage, joins to the principal Ideas of the ■Things 
thenfelvcs. The fame may he faid with refpeSf 
to certain Turns^ -which ferve modeftly to exprefs 
fuch Jaionsy as common Decency would have 
hid from publick View, on Account ot the ma- 
ny Inconveniences which would othcrwife en- 
fue ; not that they have in 'em any Tang of the 
Corruption of humane Nature \ as the Author 
whole Words I havejull before cited, pretends. 
For in Reality ythefe Turns are^for this Jingle liea- 
fonj counted ?node/t and virtuous ; becaufe they do 
not f imply exprejs the Things themfelves ; but the 
Difpof'tion alfo oj him who thus fpeaksof 'em \ and 
whobyhisModeJty and Refervednefs peivs an Un- 
eafnefs at t he Sight of 'era ^ and an Endeavour to 
conccalthem^ as much as may be^ both from himfelf 
and others. Whereasthey^who mention fhemin an- 
other Manner y plainly fhew^ that they are picas' d 

fome certain Terms, rather than others, tho' and diverted -duith the View of Cuch 6bjef:ls\ and 

^' ^' fitch ^le.ifure being inf:mouSy 'tis no JVouder 

that the Words too^ ivhich imprint fuch Ideas on 
the Mmdy pould be thought contrary to true 
Modejty^ and friB Virtue. Much more then 
ought this to take place, in regard to Adions 
themfelves; but- there is no Need at preilnt to 
enlarge on a Thing lo evident and clear : Nor 
is there, in my Opinion, the Icaft Occalion here 
for Revelation; and I could wifli with all 
my Heart, that there was nothing more than 
theie, and fuch-likc, Objedions of the Cynicks, 
to be produc'd, to fliew the Scantinefs of our 
Knowledge, I am perfuaded, that humane 
Reafon, would not, were that the Cafe, be much 
mortify 'd at it. 

in the main both lignify the fame Thing, TL 
fiords « Adultery y Inceji^ ahominahte Sm, are 
not infamous ; attho' they reprefent very infa- 
mous ylclions: becaufe they reprefent them no 
ctherwifcy than as cover' d with a Vail of Hor- 
rour ; ivhich makes us conjider them only as 
Crimes ; fo that thefe Words fignify rather the 
Crime oj thcfe Aciions^ than the Jtiions them- 
felves : Whereas there are certain Words, which, 
wit/'out giving any Horrour at all, exprefs them 
rather as pleafng and agreeable, than criminal ; 
and with the Jddition too of a certain Jir of 
Impudence and Effrontery. Thefe are the Words, 
•which we call infamous and jJjameful; becaufe oj 
tbofe accejjbry Ideas t^ohich 'the Mind, by the 

^ Artof Thinking, I, Part. Cap. 14, p. 137, — 138, !c p. 121, — 112. — Ed. Amfterd, 



AMONG thofe Difciplcs of Socrates, the mofl infamous Actions. They abftain'd from 

who were the Founders of new Sedls, their Pleafures, no farther than was neceifary, 

we have alfo Jrijiippus ; Chief of the either to the avoiding Pain and Trouble; or to 

Cyrenaicks. He ' had the Character oj an agree- the keeping up luch •' an Independency in 

able Dehcfbee, a polite Libertine ; and a Man of themfelves, as might hinder 'em from falling 

Addrefs, who knew the World, and perJeSlly un- under a flavilli Subjedion, to any one Thin'j- 

derjfood hoiv to carry himfelf. Altho' the Cy- whatever; fo that being ty'd to no one particu- 

renaicks were for gratifying Nature, in every lar Pleafure, they might, with the greater Free- 

Thingjhe could depre; they did not however af- dom and Indifferency, experience all Manner 

fume to themfelves the Impudence oj the Cynicks. of Enjoyments, By this we may fee, that Vir- 

They entirely rejedled the Law of Nature * ; tue had no Place in their Syftem of Morality ; 

and according to them. Civil Laws and Cuf- any farther than fhe was thought requilite, to- 

tom, were the onlv Foundation of Juilice and wards the procuring for 'em, that grofs and 

Honcl'cy. They plac'd their fupreme Good in brutilh Pleafure, which was the only Objedt of 

'Pleafure ', from what Caufe foever it proceeded; their Enquiry. This Sedt was divided into fe- 

mt excepting even thatj which was procur'd by veral fmall Branches ; one of which ' made 


"Dlft.of Mr.Bs/.'e.Art. HfWfiWf/, Rem.CF), 2. — See alfoD/o^. Laert. ]\b.2,Se&.6^, 66, O' fi^- !<^p-'32, — 
& fi-q. Ed. Col. 

* MvjSsv re etvai (pucet SUaiov, yj xMiv, ;') hcxpiv, aMa. vSfim x, tin. ibid. Seft.pJ — & p. 149, — Ed. Col. 

' 'hSov;jv fi£w Toi -yfj rS aii'-'cfz®' Ti?,<Gf ttvM (paii i hat Ss ayoL^ivi kkv «tJ tbv a(rx>1fio"aTav yiv^at- luid- Sect. S/,—* 

88— gc p. 1+,- — ;46.— Ed. Col. 

* Nanc in Anftipfn furtim prscepra relabor ; Et mihi res. non me rebus, fubmittere Conor. Herat. Lib. r, Ep. I, 'S, 19. There 
nas been fome Difpjre about the Meaning of tiiis inft Verfe, occalion'd by the new Explication of Mr. Cojle, in ijis Edition cf 
T- rriron'i .ce. See NouveUes de la Repub.iles Leitres, 17 10. 

* The Theoitorum, fo cal d from Theodorus their Head, furncm'd the Atheijl. See Diog. Laert. SeQ..^6, Kb. 2. & p. 1^4 — 
i^y. & p.ij-2. I know not how K<j;)iM (in his Comparifon of Ptoo and v4r(/7(j//f. Tom.i, of h\^ Oeuvres dtver/c!,f. i^-j, 
EU. Amfitrd.) ccmes to put He^efai and TheodorHs among the Stoich. This Anachronifm is very confiderable. 

An Hijlorical and Cy'ltical Account 


open Profeflion of downright Atheifm ; and in 
confequence thereof maintain'd, that ' a Sage 
might JieaU commit Jdidtcr'm^ avd Sacrileges^ 
whenever he had convenient Opportunities fo to 
do\ thofe Things heing evil only, faid they, in 
the Opinion cf the Vulgar-^ which was invented 
to keep Fools in Jwe. Hegejias, Chief of that 
Branch, which bears his Name g ; made fuch 

eloquent, and pathetick Defcrlptions of thd 
Mileries of humane Life ; that feveral of his 
Auditors, upon hearing thef; Ledlurcs, went 
home and difpatch'd themfelves ^ fo that ^PtO' 
lomy. King of Egypt, where he taught, was 
forc'd to prohibit him from touching any more 
upon that Subjedt. 

e For this Reafon he was furnam'd 6 n=i<r.eava.©-. See Dwg. Laert. ubi 

Cicer. Tufc. Quxft. lib. t, cap. 34 
Cyrenaicks, as to 

Ed. CbL _ 

fupra, Seft. 86. & Ed. Col. p. 144, 14?.— 

tc Kd/. A//i*i»>.rib.8, cap. 9.^ I know not on what Grounds Mr. BudJeus, to juftifythe 

the opinions they are charg'd with, fays, fin his Abridgment of his Hiftory of Phtlofophy, Injiit. Hit. nleBic. 
Tom c 4. Sea i ? ) that Hege/ui mote very elegantly about the Immcrtalily of the Soul, and its haffmefs after Death. The 
Atniior^I cite, lay nothing of thisj Ciaro mentions him, where he is proving Death to be no Evil, in cafe the Soul does not 
fbrvive^ becaufe 'tis then deliver'd from the Miferies of Life. Mr. Dader is guilty of the fime Fault, la his Argument to tUtfi 
fh&do, Tom. 2, p. ij-o — Ed.P<»r. 


/jRISrOTLE', the moft celebrated of 
^2 all Plato's Scholars, founded the Seft of 
the ^^eripateticks. He was the firft of the 
antient Philofophers, who gave us a methodical 
Syftem of Momlity 5 at leaft of thofe, whofe 
Writings we have left. Father Rapin'', ground- 
ing himfelf upon ' a PalTage of C/cero j infifts, 
that the Morality of Ariitotle, has the fame 
Foundations, the fame Principles, and the fame 
OEconomy, with that of Plato j and that, if the 
latter is lefs frnple, and has more of Splendour 
and Ornament * ; the other will be found to be 
more folid, and better conneBcd. But I know 
not how to reconcile this, with what he him- 
felf owns, in another Place ; where he fays ', 
That Ariftotle's Morality is too humane, and too 
much confined within the Bounds cf this Life ; 
that he fcarce propofes any other Happinefs to 
Man, than that 0/ civil Life: Whereas the 
Morality of Plato, is more noble and fublime ; 
is a 'Preparative to a Life more pure and per- 
feif. And indeed, Religion has no Share in 
the Syftem of Jrijhtle f. Befides that 'tis not 
yet a fettled Poif.t s, v/hether he believ'd the 
immortality of the Soul ; he makes no Men- 
tion of Providence but by the By ; and in fuch 
a Manner too, as Ihews him not to be tho-- 

roughly perfuaded of it. If * the Gods, fays 
he, at all concern themfelves with human JJ- 
fairs, as 'tis probable they may ; 'tis jujl and 
reafcnable to believe, that they are pleas' d with 
that in Man, which ts the beji, and the moji 
like to themfelves; {and fuch is the Underjiand- 
ing:) That they reward them, who love and 
cultivate this 'Part of themfelves', as taking 
care of that, which is dear to the Gods : and 
'moreover, as leading good and honejt Lives. 1'his 
Philofopher " makes frequent Mention of a 
" '■ Plurality of Gods; and when he talks of 
" Daemons, which he does more fparingly ; he 
" fpeaks of 'em as intelligent Beings, united 
" to the Stars. However, he acknowledges, 
" as well as 'Plato, his Mafter ; but one only 
" Principle, which he calls * the Immovable 
" Spirit, which moves all Things. In his Syf- 
" tem of Divinity, there are four principal 
" Articles: The firft is, that, tho' every Thing 
" is not eternal, yet fomcthing there muft be 
" that is incorruptible: otherwife all Things 
" might return to their primitive Nothing. 
" The fccond is, that the Deity is an immate- 
" rial Subftance. The third, that his Under- 
" ftanding comprehends in itfelf every Thing 
" that is "intelligible. The fourth, that God be- 

" ing 

" He was born in the firft Year of the ninety nin»h Olympiad. 384 Years before Jcfus Chnfl ; and died aged faty three Year J. 
» Tom. 2, de fes Oeuvrei diverfes, See. And in his Reflex, fur la Morale. Art.4, p. 390. Ed. de HoU. 

• Idem forts erat utrifque, [Peripatcticis, & Veteri Acadcmisc,] & taderr, rerum exfetendarum.fugiendarumque partitio.- - - Com- 
mmis h J ratio, & titrliquehic bonorum finis -videbatur.-. Ort.nis ilU antiqua I'hilofcfhia fenpt in una v.rtute ejfe fofttam bcatam 
-vitam. Acad. Qu^ft. Lib. i, Cap.4,_ 5c 6.— Befides. that Cicero there fpeaks rather of the Scholars oi Phto xhm of Plato him- 
felf. What he fays may be true in fome Senfe, and yet the Principles of Plato be very different from Ar.Jlotlesi as the Cafe ap- 
pears to be in my Abridgment of 'em. 

/ A^i^orwl'JM'e leafl of aKy made ufe'If'hthe Greek Father,. They found, that he ffoke /lightly of TrovUence , and of the Na^ 
ture of the Soul; that his Logick ivas too intricate, and his Morality too humane: For this ts th. Judgment St. Gregory »/^Nazi3nie 
maVesof him, (Orat. JJ , p. fjf, D." ) Fleury, des Etudes, kc. p.i8. Ed. Bruffels. See alfo the Abridgment of the Hijloiy of Pk- 
Wophy, hv Mt. Bfiddeus, Cap. 4. Scft. 3 J. , ,, , , i r- . 

' t See Bayle-s Di£t. p.jyi. Col.i.— Rem. (O). Artie. Ariflot. in c. 11, lib. ., of his ^thitks to Ktcomachu.', tov.-ards the End. 
p. 17, B,~ Edit. Taris. Ariflotle fays, that 'tis a Problematical Qiieftion. Whether the Dead cnn partake of my g^odCood or Evil} 

* "E. ',if Ti; lT;|xtA£(a riv ivSpuTtov iiri BeZv ylvfa: £cTef ioxcT, x, 'iivi av luAo-yov x^'f^'" « «"'«« "^^ «'''=?'^ '•& '"? t'^yy^^e^^rx 

%vTa-. Ethic. Kicom. lib. 10, c 9, p ib'f, C.— Ed. D/w*/. This PaiBge is ill tranflated in Le Clerc s Bibl. Choir.Tom.i,^.\i<, ^ 

but I'did the Juftice to charge the Fault on Mr. Cudroorth, who cited not the Place where it was to be found; and bclides, has 

omitted a material Word of the Original. See B:bl. Choif. Tom. 9, p. 597. 

> Extr:.(ft from Mr. C««JTro«/j, \aBibl.Chof. Tom. 3, p. 7;, — 74.. t, tj i~ 1 

» TivSi GeJv irtif^alov arit^as.i, xaSi n) 5 Tlhxrm. --• ^ ttvu i^h^^v iiToV Diog. Laert. lib. f, ^f"-?)-, f^ ff y?^'"- 

p. 52 I .— *av£fav, SVi ccZuvzlov ri Tfirtt xivav, ,^ a^ivviTov sx«iv ti fity«9o;. -- - aSia.peliv tc;i h. u;j.tlf;. Anflot. FhyJ. Aufctilt. lib. a, 

«i fine, Tom. I, p. 609, B. 

of the Science of Morality. 6i 

*' bcing*imiTiovcable, all his Adion is included a very verbofe and confus'd Manner; and after 

'• within his own Effcnce, (or is the fame with fome incident Queftions, begins to t treat of 

" it.) — io the Religion ot yJriJhtle^ maybe re- Virtue in general ; which he thus defines; *A 

" diic'dtothcfetwoFicadsiThatthereisaDeity, laudable H^bit, ivhich perjecis both the SitbjeSi 

" which includes all Nature; and that there arc /'// ""J-'hich it rcjtdcs^ and its proper Aclion, or 

" belidcsinferiourGods'. Asfor all the reit, he Bu/wefs. He f divides it into intelleSiiial^ 

" look'd upon it as fabulous, and the additional and moral Virtue: The inteUeBnal^ which re- 

" Jriventions of Men ; fram'd andeftablilli'd up- lldes in the Ufiderjfaudiiig'^ and the morale 

" on politick Views. He " introduces Na- which has its Seat in the rational Jppetite^ or 

*' ture, ailing as an Inltrument of the fupreme Will. The firft ■* is acquir'd and corroborated 

" Caufc ; not as a Machine fet a-going by the chiefly by Study; fo that it requires both Time 

*' neceflary EtFedl of Mechanifm; but as car- and Experience: 7 he other is produc'd by 

" rying on certain - Ends, tho' to her un- Cuftom, or Pradice; from whence it has its 

" known." In his Ethicks^ this Philofopher Name. Here, according to Order, our Au- 

cxplains ^vell enough the Principles of humane thor fliould have enter 'd upon his particular 

Aaions ; treats too of the particular Vir- Accownt oi intelleBual Virtue \ which, zs, Jrif- 

tues, in a Manner much more diftind, ex- totle himfelf owns, is the "' principal Source 

tenlive, and methodical ; than his Mailer had of all mcral Virtue : This Philofopher however 

done. But not enough to make us fay, with has thought fit to begin with the latter. After 

one of his extravagant Admirers; that " it is having prov'd, that it is " neither a ^ajfiov^ 

the mojl cxacl^ regular^ and compleat Syjhm of nor a Faculty of the Soul\ he defines it to be : 

Morality in the World. The Jefuit too, whole " zn Habit of Jclingwith Choice \ which con- 

Words thefe are, does himlelf confcfs elfe- fjis in a certain Mediocrity liith regard to tiSy 

where J", thdX there is fomething of Order zvant- determined by Reafon^ according to the Judg- 

ing in Ariftotle'j Ethicks'^ as well as in his Lo- ment of a prudent Man. So that, according 

gick. The Reader will be able to form fome to him, what conftitutes the Eif^nce of moral 

Judgment thereupon, by the lliort Analyfis, Virtue, is a Medium equally dif ant from tivo op- 

which I am now going to give him of that pofite Vices ; whereof the one errs through Ex- 

Treatife of Afo>v//i/j, which ptalles for .^r///of/tf's cefs'^ and the other through Deficiency. And 

Maftcrpicce; I mean that which he has enti- this as well with Regard to the Jclionsi, as 

tied, by the Name of his Son, Nicomachus. TaJ/ions. Let us Hop a little at this Principle, 

Alter the Introdudlion, where our Philofopher which is the Balis ol Arifiotk's Syllem, in his 

fa}'s, amongfl: other Things; that ? the So- Explication ol the Virtues. " It is certain, 

vereign Good, which is the ultimate Scope of " there are fome Virtues, whofe Office it is 

' Morality, and of all humane Adions; is no " to moderate the Paffions: but this (as '''' Gro- 

other than Beatitude,oi Felicity : he fliews, that " tilts obferves) arifes not from any eflential 

this fovereign Good does not confill ' either in " Property belonging to all Sorts of A^irtucs; 

'Pleafares, or Honours, or Riches, or even in " but 'tis becaufe right Reafon, whofe Max- 

Virtue ; or in « that Idea of Good, of which his " ims Virtue conftantly pur Cues; teaches us, 

Mailer Tlato fpeaks ; and which the Scholar " that there are fome lliings wherein a Me- 

feems not rightly to have uriderllood. The " diocrity ought to be obferv'd ; whilft in o- 

Jieatitude then in Quellion, according to his " thers, it encourages us to pufli forward to 

Definition is " ; the ABion of the rational Soul, *' the utmoft of our Abihty. We cannot wor- 

ferjorm'd according to the mojt excellent and " fliip God too much ; lor Superllition con- 

rnoji acco7?iplifljd Virtue, in a perfe^ Life ; that " fills not in exceeding the juft Bounds of di- 

is to fay, throughout the Courfe of a long Life: " vine Worfliip; but in the perverfe Man- 

For, adds he, as one Swallow, or one Day, " ner of Worlhipping. A Man cannot have 

makes no Sutnmer; fo neither will one Day, or a " too carnell a Delire for eternal Happinefs ; 

jhort Space of Time fuffice, to make a Man happy. " nor too great an Apprehenfion of eternal 

He then goes on to ' explain this Definition in " Mifery; or exceed to a Fault in his Averfion 

" to 

* See Cttdworth himfelf, Intel. Syfl-p^-lj. — 

' See his Metafhyficks, Lib. 14, cap. 6, 7, 8 See particularly Tom. 4, p.483. B. 

" BM. Choij'ie, Tom. i, p.i J2. — 

* 'Atotov it rb fivj vies^at '^vixa tS yii/sc^xt , liv fi!) siSaiffi tS xivSv (SSAuuffa/Asi/ov "Oti (j.»v bu diTi'a 1^ ^usii, 1^ Stoi; i; 'ivextt 

TK« C^vsp^". ^%^ Aiifiuk. Lib. 1, c. 8, in fine. Tom. i, p. 477, C. — 

' •, Tom. 2, r.39°- ' Tom. i, p. j^i. 

» IJih. I. czo. 2, — Tom. ^, p. 5, E 

' no>.^ix^. For as lie always has in View Man, as a Member of Civil Society ; £0 he underftands by Politicks, Morality in general; 
of whicii roHtich, yroperly fo call'd, is but one Part. 

' Ibid. Cap. 5, — ftr totum. ' Cap. 4, totnm. 

* To .iv9;iTivov ilyaCiv, 4<JX'i; (^"ymSj^) ivifyeia y!ve]ai, hoI' cifsriiv' li ol 'Z^d.-Sf at apzluh x:3^ Tijv apl^^iv k. rn>.eiiTXT-^v' sr« 
Si Iv (3iV ref^eia- c-ix 7^0 %if.iSxv 'iccf a ■nam, b'Ss fti'a v^ni^cC bTu Ss aSt (xaxapiov kj JuSaJjiavi (Xia i^fitfa, iiz 6\iy<&' xfo'"®'- CO,—" 
Tom. 3, p.'", B — Ed.l'aris. 

" Cap. 7, — &feq- ' Cz'p.i^,fer tot. ^ feq. 

* T:^v «i6'-<iv lirxi, iTa'vSTccq, aferctc ^iyoptv. ibid. in_fine, p. io, D — Xlata. apeT>„ ov av ^ Ifsrii, aulo rs £u iX"" a.roTeMi,i 
t8 "pyov a^'S tZ a-cSi»(Off(v, Lib.J, C.J-, — init. p. 27, A. — 

■f- Ajyoftev yip aUTiiJv, rxi fisv Siava;;'iKCC;, rxi; Si yfiixii;. Lib. I, C.I J, in fine, p.20, C. — 

* 'H ;xiw ^lavovirixv;, T^ TAsT^jov Ik Sifx.KX^iai 'ixsi x} Tvji/ y»i/£f<i/ Xj riji/ ccv'it^aiv Siircf t/jiTeiffui iitria xj Xfiv^' ^ ^ ^-■"►J. ti 
t6s.- viptyiviTai' 59ev x) Tsvofxa 'iaxy,x£, lactpov t^pskkAivov ani ts tflar;. Lib. 2, c. i, init. p.20, E, — II. __^ 

" Tlp<iaipccia;Zi{aiX^t^ op-s'S rj'K6y@' I'wxaTiv®-' Si5 aveu vS X) Sjayoias. bV t^iv v| *poai'p6iris, Lib-O, C. 2, p. 90, A, 

** Lib. 1, Cap. 4, per tct. 

'' 'Eqiv apa. VI apsTii ("vi^'uvj) 'ii'i TpeaipjrixiJ, iv fjnaortiri iaa. rij vfii v(fi5?t tSpurfitUiji Aoyiu, x,(ii; av 6 (ppo'vi^®^ ipiats. Msjarvi; 
St Sjo itaxi.".'/ Tii; ,u5v, xttV uxep.ScAiiu" tS; Si, xitS' 'iKMt-i^iv — - sv re tjI? "iraSsffj, j^ Iv rai? xpaiEJi. ibid.C. o, p.20, C, U. 
** De Jure Belli ac Pads P,-fl/f^e;». Ssci. 45-. — 


jln Hijioricd and Critical ylccount 

" to Sin ". O^'C cannot, fays a more mo- 

" dein Author //", love his Country too well ; 
" the', to iave that, he loleth his Life. A Man 
" may be refolvedly patient unto Death; fo 
" that it is not the 'Mediocrity of Refolution, 
" which makes the Virtue; nor the Extremity 
" which makes the Mce; but the one being 
" with, the other without, Reafon. Saving a 
" Man's felf, or fuJcring, if with Reafon, is 
" Virtue: If without it, is either Softnefs; or 
" Obftinacy. 'Tis true, Virtue ftands, for the 
" moil Part, between two Vices ; yet is it here- 
" by no more detin'd, than an honeft Man, by 
" living between two Thieves. Therctore the 
*' Nature of Virtue is better exprefs'd by '■Vrc- 
" portion ; as it alio is, elfewhere, hy jrijiotle 
" himfelf For they are both of them found- 
" ed in Truth. And as in '■Proportion^ there 
" is ths Equality of a double Ratio ; fo alfo 
" in Virtue, viz. between the Aits, and the 
" Objects of the Mind. For as Perception is 
" to the End; {o is Refolution to the Means. 
" This Proportion is feen, even in poial "Jnf- 
" tice\ whole Ads ought to be proporrion'd 
" to the Crimes puniih'd. — &t We need on- 
" ly, (as Grotiiis again obferves, whole Dil- 
" courfc I have a little interrupted,) we need 
" only confider what JnjUth fays, with re- 
" fpect to 'JiiJ]!ce\, and the Fallity oi his Prin- 
" ciple of Mediocrity^ fo univerfally taken, 
" will be apparent. For not being able to find, 
" in the Paiiions, and their fubfcqucnt Actions, 
" a Pail of Vices in the two oppofite Extremes 
" of Exccfs and Deficiency ; he was forc'd to 
" feek for both in the very Things thcmfelves; 
" about which jufticeisconverfant. Which is 
" ^rifting the Genus-, a Fallacy which Jrif- 
" totlc jullly cenfures in others. Befidcs, tho' 
" in fome Circumftances, where a Man, cither 
" with regard to himfelt^ or thofe who depend 
" upon him, is oblig'd to make the moft of what 
" belongs to him; it may indeed be a Fault 
" to take lefs than his Due : Yet there can be 
" nothing in it contrary to Juftice, properly fo 
" call'd; for that conlifts only in the no^ in\a- 
" ding the Property of another. Much fuch 
" another Miftake as this, is his denying, that 
" Adultery and Murder, when the mere Ef- 
" fects of Luft and Anger; arc, properly 
" fpeaking, Ads of Injuftice. And yet no- 
" thing is more certain, than that the very Ef- 
" fence of Injuftice confifts in violating the 
" Rights of another. Nor is it of any Mo- 
" ment upon what Motive this is done; whe- 
*' ther out of Avarice, Senfualit}', fudden Paf- 
" fion, miftaken Pity, or Ambition; the ufual 
" Sources of all Manner of Injuftice. Nay, 
" 'tis the proper Bufmefs of Juftice, to arm it- 

" felf againft all the Charms, and Efforts of the 
" Paflions ; in order to prevent thofe Breaches 
" they would otherwiie make in the Laws, 

" which are tO lupport human Society. And 

" again, 'tis " in Conlequence of this falfe Prin- 
" ciple, that he found himlclf oblig'd to make 
" Liberality and Frugality to be but one finp-le 
" Virtue ; whereas they are in Fad two dilie- 
" rent Virtues: that he oppofes two Extremes 
" to Truth, which are not equally ccntiary to 
" it; that is to fay, Boajiing, and fal/e Modef- 
" ty : and at length is reduc'd to the Neceflity 
" of impohng the Name of \ ice upon Things, 
" which either have no Exiftcnce at all; or 
" have nothing in 'em, that is any way vi- 
" cious ; fuch as the of Pleafure and 
" Preferment ; and Infenlibility of the Paffion of 
" Ang;r." Let us now return to the Analylis, 
we have undertaken, ot his Syftem of Morality. 
In explaining the diftinguiihing Charader 
of the Habit, or Difpolition, belonging to mo- 
ral Virtue; I mean the Property of a&ijig 
with Choice and Deliberation ; Jrjiotle " takes 
Occafion to treat of voluntary and involiitjtary 
^cis in general ; and what he fays on that 
Head, is for the moft Part well enough digeft- 
ed. He after that enters upon a particular » 
Account oi the moral Virtues; and begins with f 
Fortitude, which he defines to be : ** <^ Medio- 
crity bet-iveen Fear and Eoldnefs, but chiefly ia 
regard to the firft of thefe two Extremes : So 
that, according to him, a Man cf Courage, is 
properly one, li^ho is not ajraid to expofe hi}):" 
felf to an honourable Death ; or to any of the i 
Dangers that lead to it. He had before, in 
the " general Enumeration of all thefe Virtues 
he fpecifies in, oppos'd to this Virtue, on the 
one hand. Stupidity; or the Security cf thofe j 
liho are apprehenfve cf nothing ; a Difpofition, 
fays he, which has no proper App^dlation ; 
and Audacity or Foolhardincis : And, on the 
other hand, Timeroifnefs or Cowardice. Here 
he warns ""', againft the confounding true For- 
titude, not only with the fenfclcfs Fury of 
chofe, who kill themfclves to be dclivcr'd from 
Poverty, or fome Mifery, which they are not 
able to bear; and which rather deferves the 
Name of Weaknefs and Ihameful Cowardice j 
but alfo with five other Things, which fecm 
to have fome Rcfemblance with this Virtue. 
Such is, Firft, Civil Valour, or that of Sub- 
ieds ; who expofe themfclves to Danger in 
V iew of the Honours and Rewards promis'd 
by the Laws : or to avoid the Penalties they 
threaten. Secondly, 'The forc'd Bravery cf Sol- 
diers, and all fuch as are compelled to meet 
Blows and Dangers, at the Command of fupc- 
riour Officers; who threaten to punifli them if 


" See Aul. Gelt. Lib. 4, cap. 9, at the End. And LaBar.t. Infl. tlitin. Lib. 6, Cap. 16. Num. 7, EJ. Cellar. 

ff Grew,CoCn,olog. Sacr. Lib.j, c.7, Seft. 21, ai, 2^ P-73- ^ec Mr. Le Clerc's Bihl. Choif. Tcm. t,., p. 316, — 317. 

ee Grains lihi fupra, Sci£l. ij4.. CroKO-vius haf in his Notes undertaken to refute this Critirifm of hii .'iuthor, upon the Notions 
of .Anfiotle. Bur if we examine we]] what he fiys we Iball only find, that he is one ot thoie, who are refolv'd, cod whar it will, 
to dcfind every Thing the Ant'ents fay ; and fuppoling him in tlie right in fome Things, yet yjri/lotle has a: 'xzR given juft Caule 
fcr tri.^ Ciricilm, by nceolcny expreffirg himfclt in a Manner fo obftrure and confus'd. 

** [hid. .'^eft.43. — '' Lib.j.cap.i, ^ fecj. 

** 'H 'hvlftx, iLieorvi; ic;''fre,1 (fo'ES; »^. Ca/fi). (c. p. jaAAaftaAAov Tipi tol (poCfpa. ibid. C. 12, mit. Kipi'ios JtAsyoi"' lev avSpi'i©-, 
i "Hft TOW faia'ov aSf^ir, Hj Hca ".zia ov Ixi^s'pti iJTro'yt'fa ov]a. C. 9, p.4J'> E, — 
. '' Tav St Cfrei-CaMonToiv, fiiv ryj a^oClcf.. aviovujx'®"' --« 4 i' iv Tui fiajiftjK vxepfi^Miiv, ifarii' i Si tw ftiu ^oSua^ai 0«£pei*?,«V) 

TB ?i "aiipEtu t^A£/■ffill'; ?£lA55. Lib. 2, C.7, p. ip, C,-. 

■" Lib. 3, cap. 1 1, — P-+7, C, — & d. 

^'of the Science of M o r lA'ii'r ^: 62 

they difobey their Orders. Thirdly, The Heat coNj.p in Mtevhj^ onrfches worthy ofrnat Ho- 
of Jngcr-'-, which, by u fudden Motion and murs-^ and in purjuiug 'em, when we re-il!y 
Jmpullc, common both to Man and Beaft, deferve 'cm. He oppolcs to this Viltue on 
pufhcs on the oitended Perlbn to make an Al- the one hand, an unbounded Jmittion or V'air- 
fauitupon thoie, from whom he has rcceiv'd glorioufnefs ; which makes us believe ourfelvcs 
Blows, or any other injury. Fourthly, the Pre- worthy of, and afpire to, great Honours al- 
fumption of thoj'c, who confde in their own though we do not in any wife defcrvc them • 
Strength-^ which they have often made_ Proof On the other hand, a Meannefs of Soul that 
of with Succefs. Fifthly, The Security of thofe, hinders us from knowing our own MeriV and 
who fear nothing, becaitfe thsy know no Dan- makes us deprive ourlelves, either whollr 
gcr. or in Part, ot' thofe Honours, whether great 
Temperance \s, according to Jrifotle"; a or fmall, of which we are worthy. '1 hus 
Mediocrity in rfpecl of the fenfual '^Pleafures this Phi!of:)pher makes that Dilpolition of 
cfTafe and Feeling-^ and in fome meafure, in Mind a Vice, which is, if not the iame with 
yefpea of Grtej too: inasmuch as the tempe- Chrillian HumiHty ^ at leaft a Thino- in itielf 
Tate Man grieves not to fee himfelf depriv'd of very innocent. He goes ftill farther • and. 
Plcafures; whereas it caufes great Trouble and maintains, that this ''■■ Indilierence for Ho- 
Vcxation to the Intemperate. He owns that nours, which he imagines to be more com- 
an litter hifenfibiUty as to '■Tleafure, which he mon, than excelfive Ambition; is alfo worfe 
makes one of the oppolite Extremes of Tem- and. more oppolite to Magnanimity. The o- 
perancc; is a ^^ Thing fear ce ever known in fail -^ ther " Virtue, which has for its Objed Imall 
as being contrary to the very Frame, and Conjii- Preferments or Honours; has * no rix'd Appel- 
tution of humane Nature. There are two Vir- lation. 

tucs which concern the Ufe of worldly Goods He afterwards treats of the Virtue, that pre- 

or Riches; that is to fay, " of Money; and. fervcs a juft Medium, with refped to Jnocr- 

whatever elfe is capable of being priz'd by viz." Maiifitetudeox Mildne(s; which conlifts 

Mone}-. The firft, which he calls Liberality, • in being never angry, but where there is fuffi- 

has for its Objed moderate Weakh; and it cient Caufe; and with fiich only as deferce it' 

confjis in preferving a jtiji Medium ", as to gi- and in a Degree too proportionable to the Nature 

ving or receiving ; but more efpecially as to gi- of the Faff ; on proper Occafmis only; and no 

ving. The Vices oppolite to it, are " ^va- longer than is reafonable. The vicious Extremes 

rice, and 'Prodigality. The other Virtue, which are, on the one hand, unreafonable Tranfport of 

he calls Magnifcence, regulates the Ufe of ^PaJ/ion; on the other, an Indolence, that takes 

great Riches; but it conlifts only " in giving, every Thing without the leaji Refentmenf. So 

or expending. Its vicious Extremes, are, on that, according to our Philofopher """ the 

the one hand, a fordid 'T^arjamny ; and on Contempt of Injuries is a Vice • and Re- 

thc other, a ridiculous and mijiakcn 'Profufe- venge a Virtue : The firft, the Property of a 

iiep- _ _. fervile Spirit ; the other, that of a noble and 

^>'///(9/^/^ then particularizes a Couple of Vir- generous Soul, There are three Virtues 

tucs, which concern the juft Medium to be ob- which take Place in Converfation, or in the 

fetv'd, with relation to Honours; the one is common Bufinefs of Life. The firft which 

'"' Magnanimity, or Greatnefs of Soul; which may be call'd Jff ability, or a reafonable Com- 


" Kai Tsv fiuftjv ?£ Itii Tvjv ccvlpiav i^i^ifVsfJ on ly oi av^fuu, ^uixoii'SeT;- ibiJ. P.4S, E. — I find by the Extrift in t'je Bitl. 

Ckoif. Tom. J. p. 354., — that Mr. Grew, Tending ^Iriflotle too hadiiy, charges him with a Contradiftion ; from which 'ti.'; no 
difticulr Matter to clear the Philofopher. 1 doubt not but he hid in View this Chapter, the' he cites the Tenth, where is nothinp 
to his Purpofc, either in mine, or any of the former Editions. It appears by the Extra£i: here given, that Arijlotle is far from pre^ 
tending, that Courage belongs to the Faculties, deftitute of Reafon. Neither is the other Pafl'age more exaftly cited : For Arijhtle 
<3oes nntjpeak of Courage in paiticular, but of Virtue in gencr.'.l : 'h Zi aperi) -rrit^; tijcvi; a:ipiS'.c;afa nj afiei'viui/ iV- Lib. 2, c.f, 
p.37,E Virtue is more exaft, and more excellent than all Sorts of Arts. 

MtdirvK |:> TTepl viSovi? ^, Ew<])(Joo-ijvv). mtfl ra,- --- Sv 1^ ri. Aojxa tZa. xiaaiet clv^ai S' uirh i(j)ij lu- yebrti;. 

VTOv yap Kj B» 6iJ.oii-K iqt '^ip't TXi AuTa; aAA 6 fiSv a.t6Aaq(l^, tiu /uTEiffSaj. (xSaAov ft Zut on rZv viSfcoi/ ou Tuy^^vEi' 6 5s 

ri$p-.n', TB IJ.-/I A'jTei'trfia/ t>) axoun'oi, sy r£ izix^"^^- ''"^ 'iSs©'. Lib. 3, c. 13, — PS'^' ^' T^' A, — B, j-j, A , B. — 

f" E^Aei'TovTe"; iiirepl rai; liSova;, xjtfrlov ij Su j^ai'pouTe?, a Tai/u yivovr:u' b yip avipm-nuyi i:;'v vi TtKOCum avauff6;1Cl'a.Ibid.c.I4,— 
p. fV C.— ^ 

X(iljfj.xTCi Si AtyjfXiv •s-^i/ra CVwv v) aila vofxiVfxaTi ixirfetTcc'- Lib. 4., c. I, P-^^t C. 

£A6u6£fio'Ti5,- oixsT £iTO( vipl %p>ijj.ura fj-EffoTiij. EvauetTui yi.f 6 »A£u6spiiS" - — vrep) iom x) A^v|/iv' fiaAAoi/ S" Iw rvi 
So'^-si. Ibid. inir. p.j-f, B. 

" 'AviM-Aipix. '.Iffjh/a. C.J. — Ibid. p. f 8, A. 

'H M£>aAaTf£r6ia, 6\i% iTffTfp 5 lAevhepiori^;, SicPi'VU Tip) vxTCl^ rkf iv xpviiJ.aJi rpaUii, aMcc T£p) ri; Sairav^paj (ioi/^v. Iv 

Tuu,oi<; S vTipixi' r^: sAaOtpioTijI©" [xiyiHi Tii^ roiaurm S' s'isaj,-, v; fisi/ j'AA£l^^l;J MmpovfiTeia xaABlrat' i; S' C-zspCo^, Bavau- 

«i'a Zj xTritpoxa?.lx- Ibid, c 4, — p. 60. A, — B, C. 

* " 'H Si MtyaAosi-uxi'f '' £?> (xfyaAa (J-iV x) In tb dvo'iital©' "oixev iivai Soxei" 5s ij.iyaf.oi'vx®' hvai fxEyaAtcu aurii/ aiimv, 

a^(®' uv. 6 yip fi^ xxY a.l!a\i a.u'.i TOiav, v|Ai'?<®' x^uv©-" 6 5' lAa-rlo'i/i'v, Jj a^i®', ftiKposJ-u^gH, lav t£ (xtyaAwv, liiv T£ fj-iTflav, 

iav Ti x) iLixpiv S,i,t@' u,v,'iTi EAarloi/iuv tjti.njv a^ioi, ;^ (xaAcr* av So'^eiev 6 /iEyaAuv aSi®'. Ibid. C. 7, — p.<>l,E, — 63, A, B.~~ 

'.IvTiTiSE'ci Si -t^ iLtyaXo-i^uxio!, ii jj.ixpa-^ux'cc (aSaAov tiJ; xccvvoTxir^. x, yap yiyvelai fiSAAov, x) xelfiv !:?(. Ibid. c. 9.. in 

fine. y>.6j. A,— ' " '^ "' , 
}y Ibid. C!p. ro fer tot. 

* Ibid. See the Greek Summary of cap. 9, and p. 67, D, — F.. 

^^ Tlpxiri^q h Ir! ft.5v |i£(rci'Tii5 T£p» opya; 6 fiiv bv i(p' on; SeI, k) 01^ Se?, dpyiXofXEv©', "ri SJ x, iq Se?, h} ote, x) ecrov X(6viv, 

s'^'aii'slTKi ---fi S' uTEogsAilj, dpyiAoT^S T15 Asyo^T «[v --- •/) 5' sAAEi^'ic, sit' aapyvfaia. ri<; Iqiv, e'iS' 3. T( Sii tote, ■^iyirai. laid. C. 1 1, 
p- 68, A — B ~ C.~ 

O' y^Pf-''"') opy''''(*£i'!" I?'?'; 8=") 'jAi6i;i5o)t8ff(v eivai, >^ 61 (x<i tS^ Ser, fiv<S' oVe, fiiiS'rfi^ Si». Soke? yip bmiiffCavssflaf, BBiAuireMdr^, 
H''-) ipy^ofXEvos T£, a'n hvxi a.a-jvTiKo^. T5 Ss, 7rpoTiiAaKii;o/A£vov ccvix^'^cii, x} ts; diKSnu; irtfiof^i, avSpaToSiSff. Ibid, p. 68, C.~~ 

/ [lO 

^A An Hijlorical and Critical Account 

plairance^ti- keeps the Mean between F/^^?<;- Law''''''. The Natural LavJy is that, which is every 
rv which officioufly leeks to pleaie every Bo- where equally in Force j and depends vot on the 
dv in all Thino-s, and without Referve ^ and particularCo7!jiitntions of each State. The'T^o/itive, 
the Roi'.<^hiiefs or ill Nature of thofe, who are is that, which extends only to Things indiffe- 
always carpino- at, and dcfpifing others \ and rent j and fuch as each 'Verfon might, he- 
who care w(^ whom they Ihock or offend, fore any Ejiablifloment concerning them, have re- 
The Second '\s"' Cavdoar or Sincerity, in gulated as helmnfelf pould thinkfit; but which, 
Thino-3 indifferent '-, that is to fay, fuch, where after fuch Efahltfrnent, do no longer remain in- 
an undifguis'd Opennefs is not enjoin'd by the different. Jrifotle hereupon ftarts the Objec- 
Laws of Fidelity or Juftice. Jnjictle oppofes tion, ufually made by thofc, who inlift, that 
to this Virtue, on the one hand, fenfelefs, and there is no fuch Thing as a real Law of Na- 
ill-'rromided BoMpng; and on the other, falfe ture^ becaufe, fay they, if there was, it would 
Madefy ' by which we pretend an Unwilling- be immutable ; as we fee Fire has in all Coun- 
nefs to 'own, or do endeavour to extenuate tries the fame natural Quality of burning. To 
thofe o-ood Qualities, which we are really pof- which our Philofopher makes this Anfwer '-' ; 
fefs'd of. The third, and lail of thefe \' ir- that perhaps amongft the Gods the Law of Na- 
tues" is an '''''' an eafy and agreeable Humour ture may be abfolutely invariable : But that it 
in Company, and Meetings for Mirth and Di- is otherwife among Men^ in reference to whom, 
verfion. To which are oppos'd, the Bif- as there are fome Things in the Law of .Na- 
foonry of falfe Wits; and the /ower Humour ture, which do not; fo there are others, 
of fuch, as are fcandaliz'd at the moft harm- which do admit of fome Alteration. In or- 
lefs Pleafantry ; and take pet at the moil in- der to diilinguifli the laft Sort from Laws pure- 
offenfive Raillery. As for Juftice, which ly pofitive; Jrifotle, by way of Illuftration, 
is the Subject Matter of one intire Book of produces the following Inftances. 'Tis natu- 
Jnjfotles Morals; Mr. '^ifendorf having gi- rally, fays he, that we ufe the Right Hand 
ven us '" a Summary of our Philofopher's better than the Left. But for Laws founded 
Notions thereupon ; I ihall forbear faying any upon Compaft, and the Good of pmicular 
Thing here upon that Head. But I muft not Communities ; 'tis with them, juft as 'tis with 
foro-er to oblerve, that he diftinguifhes Law, the Meafures for Corn and Wine; which are 
(the exad Obfervation \n hereof, is what con- found to be larger or fmaller, according to the 
llitutes "Jujiice ; as the Violation of it, on the different Places, and Interefts of thole, who 
contrary does Injujtice ;) into Law properly trade in fuch Commodities. Thus the Forms of 
and fwiply fo caU'd\ and Law that is only Government, in different Countries, differ from 
fuch by Jnalogy, or Parity of Reafon fff : each other ; though at the fame Time there 
The firft which he calls Croil Lazv ; is that is but one of 'em, which is conformable to 
which takes place amongft a Number of tree Nature; and that is, the Form, which beft 
Perfons who are Members of one and the ferves to promote the Good of every Civil 
fame Community; in which they live upon a Conimunity. In lliort, this Chapter alone is 
Foot of Equality, cither abfolutely fo call'd ; futhcient, to fhew, that Jrijhtle's Morality 
or fuch, according to a juft Rule of Propor- runs wholly upon the Duties of a Subjed; 
tion. The other, which he calls the OEcono- and that it does not take in the Duties of 
rnical or Domeftick Law ; is the Power a Ma- Man in general, confider'd as fuch. Nor is 
Iter of a Family has over his Children, or his there one lingle Word to be found concerning 
Slaves ; and in fome Meafure over his Wife : the Law of Nature, as it takes place among 
For, fays Jrifotle, this Law is not the fame the Subjefts of different States ; or fuch as are 
with the Civil Law, becaufe the Mafter of a not Members of any Civil Community: And, 
Family cannot ^^^ do any Injufice, properly by his Silence at Icaft, this Philofopher feems 
fo call'd ; to thofe who have their whole Depen- to favour that inhumane Opinion of the Greeks, 
dance on him. Our Philofopher di\ides his Ci- with refpedt to thofe, they were pleas'd to call 
vil Law, into the Law of Nature j and pofaive Barbarians. But he feems plainly enough to 


'" A',x=r ti i u?iuXa>v, TpoffToiiiTixa? rS^v IvSo'^iov hv«i, Xj fxii uTapx,ovTuy, k, fiSuiJuuy ii \nta.f%n' 6 ti. Eipojv avaT«>.v, c,!v 

yiai^ af:.^^iwv,& AjvofiSv" b'S" offa i"; i^ixiav ^ itxccnau-ji^v cuvTilvei. aAA>i5 yap av £iii ravl'_a?er!i;' ahh' o; av n>iSfva; tois'tS S.aCpi- 
povl©-, x) sv Aiya x, iv &.'m kx^r^vi, r'Z rCjv "5i» toist®- Lvai.^Ibid. C. I J, p. 7 I , B,— D. _ ^ _^ ^ ^ 

''''' '6( jxiw Sv Tw T£Ao<a) <,Tr'.fei.\?iOviiq, BioixoAo'x'i SoK^ffiu Lvai Xj (popTix^I ---01 SI iJ.y,r au,ot ay hrrovrtq (xv)6i'; veAoTov, ts*? ts 
hiYint Z-jsxi?i-'vovlsr, 'Ay'fni xj cxA^po) Soxssiv Lvai' o'l Ss iVfieAi? Ta.iovlf?, 'EuTp«T«oi vfocayofivov-rM,- - - "? X«P'£«l£?' Ibid. 

c. 14.. — P'73> A, B. — 

t" ScePufenJorfJe Jure Natiir£(^ Gentium, LW). I, c.y,5ed:.iz. 

fff To riiTB/xevow i(;i ;^ tJ aT^tu? ZUaiov, x, rd rroMriviiv T.Ucuav. t5to It Uiv lt\ Mi\mv Sfa Tp8c t5 tiyai MyrapxEiav, lAEuStpMV 

X "ffoiv, % xttT avaK-oyiav ^ xaT Bpi6,u.3» -"- tJ AeffxoTixav SUaiov x, rb irccTfixbv, sj Tj;ul5 tb'tsk. aA^' oV^iov. Lib. j", c. 10, p. 87, 

A,— b.— „,,.,. -s , i 

gSS 'Ou V^p k'" a?fK''a r:-.i; Tii avra (JtAb? J«3 (xS^Aov -rfii yvviutta. ic: lixr-m, v, -zfdq rixva x, xz..,iJ.arct. yap t<ji Td 

a.xovoaiKav i.'xaiov. iwd. p. 87, D,— e. ..,-,,., ^, , . , ^ - 

'** Tb St co;,(Ti»B SixaiS, TO H£v Ipvaimv l:r'' '^i 55, vsfiix^v. (pucixSi/ (xai-, ri -ravraXK t-)V^-j,>iv iX"" S-v:'.;xej, z, b to doxCtv, 
t ,j,i,- voamJv II, 1$ a?X')« M-s" is'Ss" 5i«$lp6i outoij t, aAA'^j' iTccv Zi SiuTtt,. Sia(J)jpei. Ibid. E. 

of the Science of Morality. 6^ 

declare * in his 'politicks ; all thofe Nations, refers, on the one hand '•", Conthieiicy and 
that have not enter'd into Treaties of Alliance, 'T'atience-^ on the oth&r, luconthieucy and '" 
to be in a State of War with one another. Impatience. On this Occafion he enters upon 
And if we may take 'T> hit arch'?, Word f for it, the Subjed of """ ^Pleafure^ and qPain • which 
he advifed Jlexander to behave himfelf as a arc the two grand Springs of the whole Move- 
legal Prince tovvards the Greeks ; and as a de- ment of the Soul, f'roni thence he paflcs on 
Ipotick Matter towards the Barbarians ; to to Friendjhip "■'■' ; which is, fays he either a 
regard the former, as his Friends, and Domef- Virtue '", or a Concomitant of Virtue • and is 
ticks j but to treat the latter as fo many Beajis belides, a very nccejjary Ingredient to the Hat- 
er Vegetables. Jrijiotle after this paffes on to pinefs of Life. He defines it ^^^ a mutual 
iiitcUecfiial Virtue^ whofe Fundion has for its Benevolence^ whereby '■Perfons defire the P'rc- 
Objed *** Truth: he divides it into five Kinds j fperity and Happinefs of each other -^ and on all 
to wit, Science^ Art^ Prudence^ Intelligence^ and Occafions give reciprocal Demonftrations there" 
Wifdom. By Science^ he underftands '" dcmonfira- of It is founded, continues he either ' 
five Kno%vledge\ that is to fay, a diflind Per- upon Profit^ or Pkafure, or Virtue: but 'tis 
ception of neceffary Confequcnces, Howing the lafl: only that forms folid and perfedt 
from Principles certainly true-^ or from Truths Friendfliip, which is only to be met with a- 
eternally fuch. Art., """" is an habitual Know- mong good and virtuous Men ; while Intcrcft 
ledge of the Rules, which right Reafon pre- and Pleafure can at bell but produce ibmc flioht 
fcribcs, tor the performing of any Operation^ Sort of Union amongft the Bad and Vicious. 
or for the accomplilhing any Work, which Arifotle * divides Friend^jipy as to its Sub- 
the Agent was at Liberty to do, or leave jeds, into that which W between Equals^ and 
undone. Prudence^ is the Habit of difcerning that which fubfijis betzveen thofe., whofe Condi" 
'" what is, or is not conducive towards the tion is unequal ; or, where there is fome ibrt 
governing ourfelves according to right Rca- of Superiority in the one over the other; as, 
Ion, in all the Affairs of Life. Intelligence ""% between a Father^ and a Son:, the Agcd^ and 
is the Knowledge of thofe firft Principles, the Toung ; a Man and his_ Wif-'t a Sovereign^ 
which want not Demonftration ; becaufe they and his Subjefls^ &c. He then proceeds to 
are felf-evident. Wifdom *''', which is com- the Refolution of divers Qucflions relating 
i^o\xndiQdL oi Intelligence^ and Science'., conlills to . Fr ten dfbip:, and prefcribes Rules for the 
in the Knowledge of the Principles and De- better Cultivation and Improvement of it. 
monftrations of thofe Things, which are mofl In the tenth and laft Book, he returns * 
excellent. I might here make feveral Obfcrva- to his Subject oi Pleafure and Pain:, w^hich 
tions on thefe Duiiions; and the Method, in he handles a little more at large, than he had 
^\i\Qh Arifhtle explains thofe Virtues, which done before. He concludes with that of ije^?- 
he treats of under dillind: Heads. But this titude ; which he divides into Contemplative 
will require a larger Difcourfe; they who will * and PraBical. The latter, which he 
give thcmfelves the Trouble to examine into makes to confift in the Excrcife of thofe moral 
the Matter, will ealily difcover the Defefts of Virtues., he had been treating of; is, in his 
this Work. The Author proceeds to treat. Opinion, lefs excellent than the other : which 
*" in a more particular Manner, of the Cha- he grounds, amongft other Rcafons, upon 
radtcrifticks, and feveral Functions of '?'}-?/^e;/c^. this; that' Contemplation, as it is accom- 
After which he (peaks of thofe moral Habits, panied with a purer, and more folid Pleafure; 
■\vhich are imperled:; that is, of Difpoiitions fo has it but little Need of the borrow 'd Aid 
'" towards Virtue, or Vice: and to thefe he of external Things; which are much more 



irs^uKoTEj S.p%i(i(iai, iJLi) Ot/ovrjv. tii (pusei Siy.aiov toxjIov Svltc riti To'A£(iov. Lib. I, c. 8, — p. 405-, C. — See Mr. Noodl, lieUjurii Qr> 
Tcfwrp, lib. I, c. 10, p. 66. 

t Ou yaf ('AAj5avSp©'>) lii; ' ApiqoTihvtr, cvviC6v>iivtv aula, toXc; (xtv "EAAi^ff/v viyfi.ovix.iii!:, t:?,- Ss E^pCap:;.; S£<r'roTi«?j.; ^fifxnrj 
(■KccfiC'/^i') li, rlv fi.iv, di; (piAav ly cixeiuv lirifXEAo'ifisvov, toT? St, a; tdot; ^ ^Jlo?,- Tpoff^pffo'/xfvov, Scc. De Foilita.vel "virlttte AlexanJ, 
p-f86, — o'pu/c. Tom. J, Edit. H. Steph. Et Tom. 2, p. 329, B, Ed. IVech. See alfo Strai. Geogr. Lib. i, in fin. p. 66, 
C, — D. Edit. Varis. 

Eqoi 5>i iiq u.Kvi'iiVii vj v^i^-vj Tui Ko'a^avai % a-7ro(pava<, tsvts tov apiOfx^i/' rS.-Slii 0' t^l, Tfxvil)iTit;-i^fiii, ^pov/ici;, cs^ix, vSuq. 

lib 6, C.3, p. 98, D. 

E^ aiccyx^t; apoc. t^i to sitic^vit^m. aiSiov apa vi (xsu apa tXi^iKXi sqiv iz,ii; aToJfiKTinij. Ibla. E, 99, A. — 

TauTov av Jiv) tjX'"1 'b ^''? y-''^"- ^^t^ aAvjSs? Toiviriiti:. t^i Si rtx'"' ^aja TEfi jsi/fo'ii/, 1^ ri T£%i/aiC£<v, x)9£ap£7v otm?. kv yiw^' 

TM T( TKV EvSfXnf/EVMV H, i'Vaiy X/ flv) £IVai' X, S\l V] UpXi) EK TM TOlbVTI, aWiS fj-ij iv Tw T01«(J.S1/U. luid. C. ^, p. 99, C. 

"•" See Mr. Pifferulorf, Lib. i, Cap. 2, Seift. 4, Not. i. ' 

*"' A£i'x£l«i, voCv iivxt tZv a^yJiiM. ibid. c. 6. — p. loi , D. 

ttV 'h caSfia y z'. bTi£j..'|x>i, rj voC; t3v TifxiwriToiv T>j Sf-j<sii. Ibid. C. 7, — p. 102, C 

»»7 Ibid. Cap.8, ©-/fij. "' Lib. 7, Cap.i, p.iu, B, e^/f^. 

'" 'EyxpaTEia xj xap-citix. Ibid. C. T , — p. I I I , B. & C. 2, — p. Iir, C 

»" 'A.Kfc/.cia., xj fi.a.\xv.ia x) rpvipyf Ibid. C. I. — p. 1 1 I. B. ' 8c C. 2, — p. I I r, C. 

"«" Uhi (upra, Cap. 12, — & fiq. '" Lib. 8, & 9. 

}]y "Esri yxf (li (piAi'a) afsryi ti?, ^ ft£l' a,ff:y,(;' eti 5', a.vayx!ii6rx/'<iv hi; tJv P/ov. Lib. 8, c. 1, init. p. i 5 i, E. 

zzz Aer a(x ((p:'AS!;J I'jvoeiv aAAi^Aoi^, x, fSouAEfffai layixMa. fx^ AavGavovra?. Ibid. C. 2, in fin. p. 134, A. 

Tp(a yap tqiv iiivi tv}; (fiA/a;, /ffapj9(xa Toti; (piAiiToT,,- — it fxtv av 5ia tJ %pi^eni.!iv (piAaii'£? (iAAiiAou;^ ov k«& au 85 (f'' 

AoCsjv, it Si' ii'SovijV. TSAsut i iqh v) Tav aja^Sv $''*■'<* xj "aT aoc-rtiv ofi.iimv' Sixpiivii ovj ii tou'twv ^i>^ix, £a; cai ayoAol 

tdiv. V] S' apETvj (xovifxov. ibid. c. 3, 4, p. 1 34, B, C, p. i 3 j-, B, C. 

Eio) Ss o'uv a( 2ipv|fXEVai (piAi'ai Iv iffOTtfl/. --- "ETEpov Se li;-! (fiAia; £iS®', t3 k.'!;9' u^Epox^iv' ''"^ -rarf) irpi; i!;Ji/, ^ oAa? Tp£if- 
CuTtpm xpj^ v£itT£po», icvifit T£ xpo; ^I'vaiKa. ;^ xavTi ap%ovri xpj^ ap^ofXEvov. Ibid. C.8, p. 139' '^' 

5 Cap. I— j-. ^Cap.7, 8. 

Oio'fxeSa T£ Je^v v]Scvv|v rrapaiJ-inix^at riH luSaifxovi'*' viSi'i^ti 55 -rttv koI' ap£T»jv Ivspys/yvi li Kara rCjv «$rav cfxiAoyoufx/i/oi; J-'. 
ioxcT yovv ^ ffofpia e^uatdcji; v.Sova; £X£iv Kaflapiomri x) roa pteii}). ibid. C. 7, — p.lSl, B. fl3?£(£ S «v a. ti?? Ik'J; Xopvfylxi l»i 

f<xpsy >7 Jt' EAaxlov 5£jc9ai rvj? viCwij;. C.8, p. 183, B. — 

AH^HiJidry^l and Critical Account 


requifite for the- obtaining the other fort .of 
Beatitude: and for that the Pradice oi nwral 
Virtues % docs not at all comport with the 
Condition of the Gods^ who yet enjoy per- 
fedt Felicity. 

This is the Summary of his ten Books ot 
Efhicks to Kicomachns. Jrijiotle does little 
more than repeat, and extend the fame Prin- 
ciples, in his two Books of grai/d Morals] 
and in his feven Books addrcfs'd to Endemiits. 
His <Tc!itkks are founded upon very near the 
fame Principles with thofe of ^lato-, but ap- 
parently more ample, methodical, accurate, 
and, in general, better proportion'd and adapt- 
ed to the Conllitution of humane Aflairs : 
Not that they are compleat neither ^ for thefe 
too have their Defefts. There are feveral 
Matters handled in a very fuperficial and con- 
fus'd Manner. This Philofopher, as well as his 
Mafter, feems to have had too much in \ ievv, 
the Grecian Forms of Government. Nor 

docs he feem to have jufl Ideas of the natural 
Equality of Mankind^ and by fdme'of his 
' Expreffions, he gives Occalion to believe, 
that he thought fome Men to be by Nature 
delign'd for Slaves. He ' is againft bringing 
up Children that happen to be 6ofn with 
any bodily Infirmity j and thinks, fliould the 
Laws forbid the expofing Infants ; Women 
ftould be made to mifcarry, when they find 
themfelves with Child, after having had a cer- 
tain Number of Children, anfwerable to what 
the Intercft of the State requires; for, adds he, 
when w^e fay that fuch a I'hing is lawful, or 
unlawful, it ought to be underHood with rc- 
fpedt to Beings, that have Life and Senfe. 
Thus this vaft Genius of Nature, this Phi- 
lofopher, for whom fuch Numbers have ib 
great aVeneration; proves to be grofly ignorant 
of, and without any Scruple treads under Foot, 
one of the mofl: evident Principles of the Law 
of Nature. 

IvSJ-iuoua^ Li/a.' Tpa^ei? U irolx; aTmr.aoM %ptiv av'.oU. Pag. 183. E. 

c 16 p%07 E—The laft Words are fo read in the Paris Edition, form'd upon that o( Cufauhon: And this read ng is, in my Opi- 
nion.' much better thaathit, which Ur.Per.zomu^ f.liows (in his Notes en El,a>, Var. H>fl. 8, i, p. 4.81, Co!, ij rt yip o»kv. 
r^ TO ,x^ S,^p,c!Mivov. i, Tvj k o%cu, kj ™ t^?.. h'- I could. were it now proper, eafily prove this. 


/SRCE SILAS ", one of the Succeffors of 
/£ l^lato, founded a new Sed, call'd the Se- 
condy or Middle Academy, to diftinguilh 
it from that of ^latc. His Doftrine conlifted 
* in making a Doubt of every Thing; in ar- 
guing both for, and againft all Manner of 
Quelfions, without ever coming to any Deter- 
mination \ and in maintaining, that there was 
no one Thing whatever that could be certainly^ 
known, or comprehended. So that, this Sort ot 
Philofophy'^/'/'^/rc/;7/y teiids^to the utter Stthver- 
fon cf all the Trccepts cf Morality: For, ivho- 
e-oer affirms^ that there is vothiug certain, and 
that all Things are incomprehevjibley does at the 
fame Time declare it to be uncertain, ivhether 
there be any fuch Things as Virtue and Vice. 
Cicero, who was an Academick, but a moderate 
one; has acknowledg'd the Juftnefs ' of this 

Confequence, fpeaking o^'Tyrrho, a Contempo- 
rary of Arcefilas ; and whofe Scepticifm, at the 
Bottom, was the fame with the ' incomprehenf" 
biltty o( the: new Acadcmicks. Carneades ^ found- 
ed the Third Academy; " which *, in ReaHty, 
" did not at all differ from the Second : For, 
bating a few Softnings, which ferv'd only to 
amufc; he was, in the main, as zealous a 
Defender of Incertainty, as Arcefhis him- 
fclf: He pretended to difcovcr it, even in 
the molt evident Notions; infomuch, as * 
that we find him muftenng up all his Subtil- 
ties againft this Maxim : That Things equal 
to, or the fame ivith any one third Thing; are 

equal to, or the fame ivith one another. 

He retain'd ', in the main, the whole Doc- 
trine of Arcejilas : But thro' Policy, and to 
difarm his Adverfaries of their moft plaufible 

" Topicks 



- He flnuriili'd about the hundred and twentieth Olvmriad, three hundred Years before Jefus Chrijl. See Dio^. Laert. Lib. 4, 

""T^^^^^t^l^S^^S^^^I^^'^^''^^^ ,.0. Socrates /.,..,«^^. S,c c....Unre c.,f.. 

amm, neque atlfinfwne efprobare. Cic. Academ. ^afl. Lib. i, cap. 12.— 

'Mr Bav/fr's Dift. in the Text, and Remark (K,) p. 307 — 8c col. 2. — ,■ , zr ■ /- i- 

McCf^HqJ^nt, utad oSicimJenuone,. JJjjfn. Be offic Lib.., cap. 2.- Sec alfo the fame Argument made «fc of 
againft the Academicks, ^fi»i. .^'"Z?. Lib.4, c. 8. /"„i . 

' ' faZy.u See the ArticT^of Pynho, Rem. (A.j in Mr. Baylt-^ Dift p. 2429. col 2.- ?< »4?°, Col . . 

/TllPhi^fopherwasofC,r,../he came to Rome m the Year ypp. from the Building of that City ; a hundred and fiftr 
Y^JbeforrScW. See Pet J. D. T.«^Tom. 2, ,,4- See D:og. Laert. Lib.4, Seft.6.,- e^-/?^ And Ed. C»/.« p 256. 
&X. X,ff ®«<=i_L,b.4. cap.4r- Et Bayle Di£t. p.8.o,_ 8..,- Artie. C.rneade. the whole Art.c.e and Notes. 8c 

'' f¥S^?|p?M;':Sr-^'^^C^^'[::^ ^-^' .-- ^i-ed at th. End OF the Vr^^on. Hyp., of 

Sext. Empiric. E3. H. Steph. Ann. 15-62, p. 220, 221. Et p.+p?, D.- Ed. Genev. 1621 . 
' Ibid. p. 81 1, Col. 1. — 

of the Science of Morality. 


" Topicks for Declamation, and Raillery ; he 
" admitted fuch a Degree of Probability, as 
" mi^ht ferve to determine a prudent Man, 
" which Side of the Quellion to take, in all 
*' fuch Matters as concern'd the Adions of 
" Civil Life. He plainly faw, that without 
" this, he could never anfwcr the moll odious 
" Obieftions; nor clear his Principles from the 
" fcahdalous Charge, of bringing Men to a 
" molt Ihameful State of Inaction, and Quie- 
•' tifm. All Things conlider'd, it amounts to 
" the fame Thing, to fay. That there is not 
*' any fuch Thing as Truth '^ or. That there iSy 
*' but that U'e have no Rule to c/i/fingiti/h it from 
" Fal/hocd." Thus it is that Mr.' Bay /e is 
pleas'd to exprels himfelf. I Ihail not give 
myfclf the Trouble to examine; whether there 
ever has in Pa A been fuch a Perfon in the 
World, as one ferioully perfuaded, that it is 
impoihble for a Man certainly to dillinguilh, 
for Inftance, whether he be alleep, or awake; 
or to difcern a real Diiference between Madnefs 
and found Senfe; or to be politively affur'd, 
that there is a Sun, Moon, Earth, Men, and 
Animals ; that the Whole is greater than any 
of its Parts: And whether we may not fiy, 
with the Author of the yfrt rf Thinking *; that 
the '-Pyrrhonijis are a Ssii oj Liars. But one 
1 hing there is, which to me appears iucontejta- 
hle:,viz. that this Spirit of univerfil Scepticifm, 
utterly deitroys, and overturns the very Foun- 
dations of all Religion, and Morality. Nor 
do I know any Books more dangerous, for 
Men to read, who ha\e not accullom'd them- 
felves to an accurate Way of Thinking, and 
difcerning between Truth and Fahhood; than 
thofe, whole Authors make it their whole Buli- 
nefs, to accumulate DifSculties againft the moft 
evident Truths; without ever refolving them, 
or preventing the fatal Impreifions thereof, 
by a clear and rational Account, of what may 
and ought to be held as certain, notwithitand- 
ing fuch Difficulties; which, however conlide- 
rable, yet can no way leifen, or hinder the Co- 
gency of fuch diredt Proofs, as are really corr- 
viniing. 'Tis true, the antient Scepticks ' did 
not indeed deny., but that a Man ought to con- 
form to the Cujhins of his Country^ to praSlife 
the Duties of Morality'., and in all fuch Cafes 
to be determined upon ' probable Grounds'., with- 
out infixing upon., or expelling., abfolute Certain- 
ty. But then, as Mr. Bayle himfelf owns, 

thy " did., tutder T'retence of only oppofi/jg the 
Reafons which the Dogmattfts tirg'd for the £x- 
i/lence of a Deity, in Efjeci, undermine the Doc^' 
trine itfelj. Their Way ivas, fyji to premiCe % 
that as Jor themfelves., they pretended not to he 
fngiilar in any Thing-., but that follo-juwg the 
comiUon Courfe of Lije., they., zvithout bang ad- 
diBed to any particular SeSt, held that there 
•xere Gods., ivorjhipp'd 'em., and afcrib'd to 'cm a 
•^Providence:, but jor the rafJj Reafonins^s of the 
Dogmatijfs about thefe Matters., 'tzv'as ziihit 
they could not fubmit to: Whereupon theyproduCd 
their ObjeBions ; ivhich were afually fich., as 
did, by difproving a divine ^Providence., at the 
fame Time dejiroy the Exijfence of a Deity. As 
to Morality, there is no doubt to be made, but 
'T^yrrho f taught, "that the Honefty ana f Tur- 
" pitude, Jultice and Injullice of humane Ac- 
" tions, were intirely dependent upon humane 
'' Laws, and Cuftom" Came ides ', after ha- 
ving one Day made an admirable Harangue in 
Praife of JuiHce; did the very next lliew, that 
it was only a mere empty Name ; oppohng it 
at the fame I'ime more ftrenuoully, than'^he 
had before defended it. Thus however excel- 
lent, thofe ' Maxims of Morality, which the 
Academick and 'P'yrrhonijl give out for Pre- 
cepts, may be in themfelves; yet in their 
Mouths, they can amount to no more, than 
empty Sounds, unprofitable Rules, Propofitions 
advanc'ci without any Foundadon, and in 
Contradidlion to their own proper Principles ; 
this too, notwithftanding their Conduit and 
Demeanour be otherwife never fo regular, and 
uniblameable. According to Carn°ades, the 
chief End, orfupreme Good, of Man, confift- 
ed in the Enjopneut of what he call'd ', the 
natural principles-., tTlat is to fay,, in fatisfying 
the^ Defu-es of Nature; without giving one's 
Iblf any Trouble or Concern about Honour and 
Virtue. The 'Tyrrhonijh propos'd to them- 
felves, by Means of their « Sufpenfion of Jf- 
fent ' ; to keep the Mind in fuch a State of 
Tranquillity, as Ihould effedually prevent their 
receiving any Unealinefs, on account of eiia- 
blilh'd Opinions; and likewife in fuch a Stgte 
of abfolute Indifferency for all Manner of 
Things, as ihould keep them from fetting their 
Hearts too much upon any one Objed ; or 
troubling themfelves too much about any Con- 
tingencies whatfoever. 

The firft Difrourfe, p.<>.— See alfo the fixth Chapter of Part 4, p. 419, e^f. Ed. Amfi. i<S8f . 

' Mr. Buyle Did. Art. VjXrh'; Rem. (B,) p. 2430, Col.i.— 
" See U\og. Ixett. -b 9, Seft. 108 — 

* Mr. Biyle's Didt. Arric. Rufn, Rem. (C,) p. i(Sif, Col.i. — 

* S xtas Fmpi'k. Vyrrhon. Hyfot. Lib. 3 , cap. 1 , — Ink. & Ed. Fabric, p. :i8.— 
' H:ille, Dift. Art." Pjrr/^o. in the Text, p. 2433. — 

* 'OuSsv yip 'i^xiM.i'j are KaA3i/. bte auxpJv, bVs STxaov, are ciSixov. k, ofxoi'u; Ixi »«i/1ui/j |U,^S^v en/ai T9 M^^ele^, v6iJ.11 ii, 1^ s5f» 
T-avIa Toi<; aufpuTou; rrpir'siA Diog. Laert. lib. 9, Seft.di. — Et Ed. Col. p. 669 

' Lacixiit, h:[iit. Dhi/i. Lib. f, cap. 14, n.3, 4. See the Subftance of his Reafons sgainfl: Virtue, reported, and confuted by 
Mr. Pitfend. Lib. i, cap. 3, Seft. 10. — n. — 

' SeeC/ccr. ile Finib. Lib. 2, cap 18. — 

» CttrneaJi, frui frincipiis naturalibus, ejjet extremum. Ibid. cap. 1 1, — in fine. See Mr. Bayle's Di£t. p". 814, col. 2, & 8 ' yj 

«ol.I.— « 'Etox.,. __ 

» See Viog. tatri. Lib.9, Se&:.6y, — 6?, 108 Et Ed. Co!, p. 672, — 674,— • 69;.— Sti>i, Serm.uS, & 120, p.6oi _^ 

609. Sext. 'Empiric. Vyrrhon. Hypothef, Lb. i, cap. I2,~" & Edit. Fabric, p. 8.— 



An Hijlorical and Critic al Accmnt 




£<J'ICURUS% Cotemporary oi Jrce/ilas, 
and chief of the Seft that bears his own 
Name ; * admitted thcfe two Principles of 
the antient Atheifts : " That there is m other 
" Siibjlavcc bcjides ' Body ; and, that Body hith 
mthliig elfe helo^iging to it bat * Magnitude, 
Figure, Site, and Motion, ■without Qn_aiities.- — 
However he profefs'd the Behet of a vaft 
Number of Gods.-— He plac'd them in cer- 
tain Spaces which he called ' Intermiuidanc ; 
which he believ'd to be void, and to lie be- 
tween the fcveral Worlds, of which, ac- 
cording to him, the Univerfe was made up. 
He held /, that the Sovereign Felicity of the 
Gods, conhfted in having nothing to do; 
and in being free from all Manner of Care.-- 
And tho' they did not, in his Opinion, any 
way intermeddle in the Concerns of Man- 
kind; and tho' Men had nothing either to 
hope or fear from them ; yet, faid he, they 
ought to have fome Worfliip paid 'em, on 
Account of the Excellency of their ^ Na- 
ture, and Felicity. There needs not much 
Penetration to difcern, that all this Divinity 
of Epicurus was but mere Chimera; fince 
'twas diredly contrary to the Principles he 
himfelf had laid down ; by which he ac- 
knowledg'd no other Beings, but fuch as were 
made of Atoms; and confequently corrup- 
tible. But Gods he gave out there were *; 
out of pure Policj-, and to avoid the Odium 
which an avow'd and open Atheifm would 
othcrwife have drawn upon him. For which 
Rcafon Tojidoniusy the Stoick, faid ', that 
Epicurus believ'd no Gods at all ; and that 
it -d-as to avoid Odium, that he faid zvhat he 
did of the immortal Gods. — He introduces, 








" fays ' Cicero, by laay of Ridicule, tranfparent 
" Gods ; Gods -which might be dij/lpated with a. 
" ^uff of Wind\ dwelling as it -were between 
" two Worlds, for Fear of being fome Time or o- 
" ther buried in their Ruins. Bu': kt us fup- 
" pofe Epicurus to have been never fo Ic- 
" rious in thofe Matters; yet, with ' Gajen- 
" dus'^ good Leave, he will ilill neverthelefs be 
" an Atheift for all that ; as long as it lliall 
" appear, that he held the JVorld to be form'd 
" 'Without the Difpojition of any " Jgent ; or 
" the Concurrence of a blcjjed and immortal Be- 
" ing; and that the Univerfe, with all the in- 
" telligent Beings therein, ow'd their Original 
" to the fortuitous Concourfe of Atoms. — -- 
" " The God of this Philofopher is, in his Syf- 
" tem, like a Piece of Building without the 
" Clear; and which may as well be fuppos'd 
" not to be at all, without making any Altcra- 
" tion therein." Yet, with all thele his impious 
Principles; Epicurus has neverthelefs gi\cn us 
a Syllem of Morality, in many Things, juft 
and beautiful enough. "HisDocb-ine " touching 
" the Sovereign Good, or Happineis, was very 
" liable to be mifundcrftood, which prov'd of 
" ill Confequence ; and in effedt brought an ill 
" Charafber upon his Scdb: But the Doftrine 
" was in the main a very rational Dodrine; 
" nor can it be denied, taking the Word Hap^ 
" pinefs in the Senfe he us'd it ; but that the 
" true Happinefs of At an confifts in Plea- 

" fure. '' Almoil all the antient Philofophers, 

" who have treated of humane Happinefs, 
" fix'd their Notions upon fomething external; 
" which is what has occalion'd amon^ll 'cm fo 
" great ' a Variety of Opinions: Some pla- 
" cing the true Happinefs of Man in Riches, 


* He was born in the third Year of the hundred and ninfh_ Olympiad, three hundred and forty two Years before Jefus Clirtjl, 
and died a?ed feventy two Years. See Du Rondel, tie -vita ©• moribus Epkiiri. 

* Extraftfrom Mr. CaJ-aorth, in the Bibl. Choifie. Tom. i, p. 14 — c^ feq. See CuU. p. J-p-— ^°'~ &'- 
' See, Sea.39,_40. Et Ed. Co/, p. 732.— & Lucnt.Uh. i. Verf.4;o, & feq. 

<" D/c^. Z,.im. ibid. Seft.44. — Et Ed. Co/.p yjj".— , r o t •>. r r, 

' Intcrmundia. See CUer. dt Nat. Beer. Lib.i, cap.8.~ & T)av. i. I. 8c Lucret. Lib. j-, verf.147, & leqSc Lib. 3, verf iS. 

&fcq. In the firft Book of Cicero, of the Nature of the Gods, cap.25-,_ &c. this ridiculous Notion of Epwurui's Gods 13 

turn'd into Ridicule. c v 11 • t 

/ Kos autem bent am vitam >'» animi feciiritaie, ^ in omnium vacatione muncrum ponimus. Thefe are the Terms ot Velleius the 
Xpicurean. whom Cicero intioduces; Lib. I , cap. 10.— de Deor. See too cap. 30 — Omnis enim per fe Divum naiura r.ecelfe eft 
immortali avn fumma mm pace fruatur, Semotn ab noflris rebus, fejur.aaque longe ; Nam privata dotore omni, privata fericlis, Iffa 
fuiipolkns opibris, nihil inMga nofiri. Nee bene pro meritii capitiir, nee tangitur ird. Liicret .Uh.i , verf. 5-7. (y/f*?. Ediz.Creech. 
S Habet tnim venerationem iufir-m quulquid excellit. Velleius apiid Ciccr. de Nat. Deor. Lib. i, cap. 17- — 

* Tliis was the Opinion of feveralof the Anticnts. ^iiamquatn lideo nonmiUis viJeri, Bpic-.mim, ne in opnjiontm Athemtnfmm 
caderet, verbis reliqiiijfe Veos, re fiifttdiffe. Cicer. ibid. cap. 30. 

• i ylpud Cicer. de Nat. Deor. Lib. I, c^ip.^^, — fixe ulrim. . , ., , . 

* In tlie Extraa of the Bibl. Ckoif. Tom . i , p. 1 7 ,— thefe Words are afcrib'd to Vofidonius ; but they are Cicero s, Lib. 1, de T)ivi- 
»«. cap.i7:_ Decs cnim ipfos jocandi catija indiixit Epicurus perliicijoi, (^ perfiabiles, & habitantes, tanquam inter duos Uicos, fie 
inter duos mundos, propter vnetum ruinarum. . 

t Be vita Epicuri, lib. 4., ccp. i, & feq. Mr. 5/. Evremond, who is not fufpefted to bear any ill Wil! towards Epicurus; judges 
more fincerely and juOly of this Matter, in his EITay upon the Morality of Epicurus; Cbefore the fifth Vcume of his Milceiianics, 
Ed. .^OTy?£r</. 1706.) where you may fee too his Opinion about E/)/V«r/«'s P/fafwrf/. 

» Dccuit enim nos idem, qui atera. [Epicurtii} natiira effeclum efiimundum; nihil opus fuijft fabrica;- -- quod--- quemadtr.odum 

■Mtttiira cfficere fine aliijua. mente pofflt, non -videtis. Velleius apusl Cicer. de Nat. Deor. lib. i, Cap. 20.— Ex h:s [corpufcuiiij 

tffecltm effe caelum, atque terram, nulla, coj^ente naiura, fed concurfu quodam fortuito. ibid. cap. 24. 

* The Words of Mr. Le Clerc. in his Bibl. Univ. Tom. 10, p 5'3i. — 

* Mr. BiT./c's Did. in the Text of Article, Epicure, p. 1133. — 

i> Ibid. Rem. CG. ) p. 1 133, Col. 2. _ . ,• 1 r 

t See Ai'.gujlin. de C/V.Def.Lib. 19, cap.i, — Tom. j-, col. 1137, C,_ O'f. Here Mr. B/y/ccautions us not to believe what fo many 

tell us, ^i^.. that, acccrdinp; to Varrt, there were 288 different Opinions about the Nature of the Sovereign Good. 'Tis only a 

Piece of Plcaiantr}' ot that learned E^man. 

of the Science of Morality. 


" fome in Science, fomc in Honours, and others 
" in Virtue, ^c h io plain, they fix'd the 

■*' Idea of Happinefs to that, which they 

" thought capable of producing in us a State 
of Felicity; without ever telling us what that 

" eafe them here; and by purfuing all that de- 
" light them ; wherein it will be no Wonder 
to find Variety and Ditterence, For if there 
be no Prolped: beyond the Grave, the infe- 
rence is certainly right. Let us eat uiiddriiik^ 
let us enjoy what we delight in, for Tc-njor- 
row ive jhiill die." Thus moll ot the autient 

" State of the Soul is, in which its Happinefs 

" conlilts. Epicurus has not run into this Mil- 

" take. — He faid, that Man's Happinefs con- Philofophcrs, not grounding their Morality 

" flits in his being at Eafe, and under the ac- upon the Suppolition cf the Immortality of the 

" tual Seniation of Pleafure ; in a word, in ' ' 

" Contentednefs : This no way proves, the 

*' Placing of the Happinefs of Man in good 

*' Cheer and Vcnery ; tor thefe can at molt be 

" but efficient Caulcs; which make no Part of 

" the Matter in Quellion. When an Enquiry 

*■'• into the efficient Caufcs of Contcnteancls, 

" comes to be the Matter in hand; you will 

" then find the very bell of 'cm mark'd out to 

" you: On th; one hand, you will find luch 

" Objeds as are bell fitted for the Prefcrvation 

" oi^ a good Conllitution ; on the other, fuch 

" Occupations as are moll proper to prevent 

" Unealinefs of Mind: You will then find pre- 
fer! b'd to you Sobriety, Temperance, and a 
refolute Oppolition to all thofe tumultuous 
and unruly Paliions, which oull the Soul of 

Soul; and looking for their Simminu ifjuimt in 
this Life; did vainly enquire, " Whether it ' 
" coniilled in Riches, or bodily Delights, or 
" Virtue, or Contemplation? vUid they mio-ht 
" have as reafonabi} dilputed, whether the bell 
" Relifh were to be found in Apples, Plumbs 
" or Nuts; and have divided thcmlelvcs into 
Seds upon it. For as pleafant Talles de- 
pend not on the Things themfeh es, but their 
Agreeablenefs to this or that particular Pa- 
late, wherein there is great Variety; fo the 
greatell Happinefs conJilts in the having thofe 
Things which produce the grcatell Pleafure* 
and in the Ablcnce of thoie whi>.h cauie any 
" Dillurbance, or any Pain. Now, thefe to dit- 
" ferentMen, are very dirtcrent Things" Since 

therefore £/i;(r//T//j exprellymaintain'd, that the 
its State of Happinefs; that is to fay, of that Soul dies with the Body; and made this too his" 
fvvcetCompofure and Acquiefcenceit has in its Realon he us'd. to "recover Men from the Fear of 
prefent Condition '. Thefe were thePleafures Death; he could not promife moi-e than a Hap- 
in vi\i\z\\ Epicurus made the Happinefs of pinefs of fliort Duration ; and his Morality niuft 
" the Soul to confill. An Outcry however was in the Nature of it be the Concern of this Life on- 
" rais'd againft the Word ^/e^///rf; thofe who ly. In this he no way contradids his Principles * 
had been before debauch'd and corrupted, and Mr. L^ C/f>r has very julliy obkrv'd, that 
made an ill Ufe of it; and the Enemies of " his_*' Morality has two enormous Dcfeds • 

the Scd took Ad\antage of all this; thus 
the Name of an Epicitreau became extremely^ 
" odious. All which is neverthelefs merely 
" accidental; and ma; as well betal any other 
" Dodrine." Thus it is that Mr. B.iyle jul- 
tifies the fundamental Principle of Epicurus. Jt 
mull however be acknowledg'd, that, (tho' E- 
picurus in the main might reafon well, in keep- 
ing to the general Idea of Tranquility, or. Con- 


" Defeds too,which make the laudable Precepts 
" it contains, of litdeor no Eited;' whatever may 
" be faid by thofe, who have undertaKen his 
" Apology, to the contrary. The firll is, that, 
'' its End propos'd being only the Attainment 
ol an eafy and quiet Life; it can engage us 
to purlue its IVIaxims upon no other View, 
but the prefent Advantage, that accrues from 

that Manner of Life it prcfcribes. Wi 

tue : And that 'tvvas eviin impoffible for him, 
in puriuance of his own Principles, fo to do. 
It is certain, that the Soul of Man thirlls after 
perfed Happinefs; which, 'tis evident, beyond 
Contradidion, can never be attain'd to in fuch 
a Life, as this we Mortals lead on Earth *. All 
the Happinefs we can reafonably afpire to here 
below, is an agreeable Tranquility of Mind ; 
produc'd by the View of that perfedly happy 
State, which we hope to enjoy after this Life 
ended. " If Men (I make ufe' of Mr. ' Lot/^ 'sown 
" Words) in this Life only have Hope ; if in 
" thisLife they can only enjoy ; 'tis not llrange, 
" nor unreafonable, that they fhould feek their 
*' Happinefs by avoiding all Things that dif- 

us happy in this Life; as the latter has in 
" many Places made appear. This being then 
" an ellablilh'd Principle, put the Cafe a Man 
" fhould find himfclf under a Government, 
where Vice was rewarded, and Virtue pu- 
nifh'd; what mull he do? Suppofe a Man 
" liv'd in Japan., and that a confiderable 
Party there treated the Superllitions of 
that Country, as ridiculous, and perni- 
cious to Society ; and that himfclf alfo 
was of their Opinion : If the Emperour of 
Japan fhould raife a Perfecution againfl all 
of that Pcrfuafion, ought he too with the 
reft voluntarily to fuifer Perfecution ? No cer- 
tainly, according to Epicurus] for, in his 

" Opinion, 

f'lf^^ ^%- ^'!ff. Lib. io,Scft.ii7, izS, & feq.'E.t'Ei. Colon, p. 790,©= feq. NotwitLlandingthisravourablerrer-retation 

ot the fundnmental Principle of the Morals of Eplciirm; this Principle is neverthelefs dangerous to Civil Society. S e what Mr. 
I'enzar.iui fiys, concerning the Reifons why the Epicureans were drii'en from fevera! Places; in his Notes on E a i, Vw. Hift, 
Lib 9, cap. ,a, Not.i See alio Not. 4, of the fame Commentator, on Lib.+, c. 13. 

^ See the Uibl. Cha,r. of Mr. U Clerc, Tom. 11, p. 507, 50S. — 

'^ f-jpiy on humane Unde'fianMng, Book 2, chap. 21, Sedt. f j-, p. 1 7 i, — Ed. Lond. iyo6. 

' Mr tofi-, ubi fupra, p. 171.— " Dio^. Lam. lib. 10, Sca.114,— 1 z ^. — Ettd. Cohn. Aibir. p.-j:6,~ & d, 

* Biil. Umzerf. Tom. 10, p. 283,"~ (^ /eq 

An Hijlorkal and Critical Account 


'' Opinion, Virtue is of no Eftimation hut for the 
'' prefcnt Advantage it brings with it. As to 
'' the Suppofition, that Vice may be rewarded, 
** and \irtue punifli'd; 'tis by no Means the 
'' Suppofition of an ImpoffibiUty; 'tis what is 
*' aauallypradis'd throughout the greateft Part 
*' of the World, Thus all the Arguments 
'' dra^vn from the prefcnc A-.dvantage, which is 
" found in the Exercife of Virtue, are very 
" weak, efpecially if they Hand alone; and it 
" is highly probable, that had the Jthenutns 
" ofFer'd to have treated Epicurus^ as they 
" did Socrates ; the firll would not have 
" thought it an Honour to die a Maryr tor 
" his Philofophy, as the fecond did; who, 
" when they would have hinder'd him from 
" Philofophizing, anfwer'd. That it was better 
" to obey God^ than Mau" We have even at 
this Day fome of the Maxims of Epicurus ; 
among which there is one, wherein that Philo- 
fopher exprcfly fays. That ' lujiiJHce is not 
evil in itfeij\ and if ive ought to refrain from 
doing ivrong to another, and jrom violating the 
Laws ivhnh forbid it', 'tis purely thru' Fear of 
being difcoier'd^ and expos' d to 'T'nni/hri/ent '^ 
for, adds he, tho' we may have efcap'd a thou- 

find Times, we cannot always he ajjur'd, that, 
what has been committed in the darkeji Corners, 
and with the greateji '■Privacy, will not, before 
we die, come to the Knowledge of the Minijlers 
of yujiice. " ^ The fecond Defeft in the Mo- 
" rality of Epicurus is, that, in what Manner 
" foever that Philofopher liv'd towards the lat- 
" ter End of his Days ; he did not prohibit cer- 
" tainPleafures, which molt certainly do difturb 
" humane Society; and would caufe infinite 
" Diforders, if all Men were of his Opinion. 
Horace may, in Mx.^Dacier's Judgment, be 


" efteem'd a "'■ rigid Epicurean ; and jet his 
" Writings are full of the Marks of a Licen- 
" tioufnels, which one would not care to call 
" by its true Kame : And if he exclaim'd a- 
" gamft Adultery, for Example, as he does 
" in his fecond Satyr ; 'twas only on account 
" of the Danger there was '* in being furpriz'd 
*' Y/ith a married Woman. This is likewife 
" conformable to the Maxims of his Mafter ; 
" who was againll the Enjoyment of that Plca- 
■" fure '", which brought with it n.ore Harm 
" than Good; as he alfo would have d-fpia'd 
" the Virtue, whi'. h would have brought upon 
" him too much trouble and Vexation." 

;i«vf:i:.vj n=y^) r*P ■<»r>.^P»4'ii.- aS^^'" I' ^>^«'- DffJ. !■««. U J. I o, Scft 1^1 ~ Et Ed. Co.or,.A!tol>r. p. Hoi — 
'^ Bio .U.iiverf uhi Upm. p. iS^ — .... 

" Remarki on Horace, Tom. 7, p 540, & j'q. in the laft Edition, printed at P^r/j. Etp.571. Edit. </f Vnris, 1709. 
** This alfo was the Real'on why tpicur/isti.d, that me ought to ahfi.iin from our Neighoour'i Wife : At ieaft if w- may pve 

Cedit to Origen agamft C.elnu. Lib. 7. P 37+.— cited by Mr. Mena-e, p.469. Col. z.— on Diog. Laer:. Lib. 10, Seft. i iS. 

Et p 7S1, — 'Edit. Colon. AUobrogum. - , „ . . ■ 

Lib. 10, Scft. 141— Et. Ed. CoL p.797-~ 


ZEA^OtheCypriot, ofC/Y/rtff?,Cotemporary " other Parts, more fubtil and elaftick, made 

of£p-!Cff?"rtJ,ioundedtheSc6tofthe5'ro/c^j; " the Gods in the Sun, and Stars." They paid 

aSeftdiredlyoppofitetothatoftheDifci- religious Worfliip to thcfe inferiour Deities; 

pies o^ Epicurus, hisCotcmporary '. ThcStoicks^ but s they believ'd, that the Gods themfelves, 

imao-in'd the World to be an' Animal; vvhercof the fuprcme God only excepted, would one 

theTuprcme ' God,they{aid,vvasrheSoul,orthe Day be deftro}'d by Eire, with the reft of the 

aclive'Trincipk; and Matter, the /)//^/-t;i?'-?r/;/ a- World; which, in their Opinion, w^as to un- 

fi/^. That '' eternal intelligent Being, which pro- dergo feveral Conflagrations; each whereof 

duc'd all Things, and direfts them by his Pro- would happcri after a certain Period or 

vidence ; was, in their Opinion ', " nothing Re\ olution ot a fix'd Number of Years. 

" but a fiery Subftance ; or, as it were, ^ an They held, that the Souls of Men were, after 

" operative mechanick Fire ; whereof fome Death, reunited to that ' fubtil y^ir, from 

" Parts animated Plants, Beafts, andMen; whilft whence they had been taken; but they believ'd 


" He died eight Years after Bficurtis. 

* Z5ov cc:a. i K6«i^<&: Dw^.Laert. Uh.7, Sea.i^-}.— Et r. j-if,— Ed.Cfl/. See Cuer.Je Nat Beor. Lib.i,— rap.ii,— ej. f.q. 
' AcjtfJ i' a.v'.oXc, Ufxc^i ?'"«' "riv foiov Suo, ri iroioCv x, rb •^'iffX"- to ij-zj ovv Tcicx^v, hva, ■;y)J x-tolov cvelav Tyfj Tajiv" to H-mouv, 

riv Iv i.vTii A^yov.'iav Hiov. Diog. Laert. Lib.7, Seft. i H~ Et Ed. Cel. p f '5 — 

* ToCrovyip fvV a.'a.ov, lik itic^i av'vi,' (S'a^i;) SiifX-oupv^f* sW^a.- - D/o^. /.«cr/. Sedl. i 54,— ubilupra. OeSv Si, £<va, JSci. iSiualov, 
Pioyixav rimiv, ;■; v3£^Jv iv Ii/Saifiovi'a, x.-«xou ■^xv^h^ aveTr/SixTOv, Tpovov)TixJ'./ y.k;M T2 k, tov Iv y.6^t>.'S fi^j tivai ,ifv tci x-A.m-Ka -o?- 
$51-, Ibid. Sea.147.— Etp.j-i5-,_j-i6~Ed. Cff/. Stt Cu. ile iUt . Deor. Lib.i, c.6, &c. wnere this whole Matter is treated of 

at li'ge. i_ I r I J T • ^ 

' The Words of Mr. Baylf, in his Com'mtiation ties Penfees diverfes, ci^.e^. See what he lays there, and a lo p. sio. o' feq. 

on the Abfurdity of that Hypothefis of the Soul of the World 

f AoKsr Zi aulcT,-, t^v ,xiv (fucrj iivai^S? texvixSv, 65co /BaS.'Cov li; ylv£<r.v, "xif l:r' Tv£C:(xa TvpouV^g y^ texvoj.Se,-. Dtog. Laert. 
ubi fupra Seft If6.— Et Ed. Col. p. 5-34 — Ze>io igitur it.i natumm Jefinil, tit earn dicir, ijnem rffe anipciojnm ad g!g>.C)id:im pro- 
gredientem vU. Cic. Nat. Dior. Lib.i, c.12.— Atque hac mundi Ji-vmit.ite perfeila, Iriiiiendt eft Jideribui eadem divm-.tai: ^tu 
ex mobihffi>napiiriJj;raaque ^therii furti gigttmtur. IhlA. c.\S' — V. Davis, i. I. _ , , , , - 

Jf 'O- (©£3-) S^ alpeapTo; hi X. u.yiW^r@f, S^fiioupyi? ui» ri?.; limr^cfj-iciai, xax '/.fovcov TOiS:^ Tspa'Souc, avax.Vxuv ti,- s^t-jj/ t-^^u 
^x«,«v'w,W. .; T«A.. H l:.ulou;£v.;v. Dwg. Laert. Se^..^— Et Ei Col. p.fl>— See C«-._r/. .V...'. De.^- Li!, _i, c.46.- 

Senec de ConfoUt ad Marc. c. i6 in fine. And the Remark (U on Arcio. Chryjpp. Bay-e s DifV. As alfo the D.ilertanon de 

Stoica r„,m'dl J. ThO'»aflm, V,f. 167*. And DilU-rt. the tenrh of the Ame Volume, with the feventh. 

*Or yE'her %^zGx-i''r nn ^li'cis Antonmus, Lib. 4, Seft. 1 1 , p. i 59. Col. 2,— ??•£. Et Lib. 7, bctt. j-o, p, 179. cnl. 2, 
lin li. In the latter of thcfe PaiTaKS, the Emperor expteffis his Thoughts by fome Verfesof EurifiJes, taken ojt of a Tragedy, 

T' noiv 

of the Science of MoraliTY.^ 7 r 

cm '.corruptible^, and made 'em to fubfifl: no_ Nature ; or that Light of Reafon, by the Kelp 

longer,'' at Yarthcit, than the Conflagration of -.of which we difccrn what is truly futable to 

the World; nay, fortic of 'em did not allow our State and Condition; others meant univerfal 

even this Privilege, but to the Souls of their Realon, or the Will of God; which forbids 

Sageij ■ TThey l*'.acknowIedg'd "an itievitable us every Thing, that is contrary to our natu- 

Dcftihy or Fate V^o which the)- fubjedted the ral ConlUtUtion; and prefLribes to us every 

Gods thcmfelvds, v\ ithout excepting even their Thing that is agreeable thereto ; and others again 

fupi'dnfe 'Deity. '■^' Nor has there ever been, meant both thefc join'd together. They laid* 

<!' !{iniongft all the Philofophers ', yet extant, T\v'iX i 'Jufiice^ as fiich, is uot from the hifti- 

<'iiany who have fpokc in Itrongcr Terms of the tutton of Me//, but from its o-iv/i Nature- as is 

*^nfatkl Neceflity of Things; or who have more alfo Law at/d right Reafon ; a//d that the D/f- 

<' -magnifj-'d " the Liberty of Man, than the ference of Opi/jio//s, that prevail amon<r '^Philo- 

« Stoicks." Thefe Principles, I mufl own, are fophers, ought not to difconrage us fronrthe Stti- 

morilh-ous; and the feveral Philofophers of that dy of ^h/lofophy^ for, if that Reafon was of 

iktl have, each in particular, added thereto Weight enough to divert or dijffiiade us from any 

fomc new Abfurditics. However, bating fome Thi/ig, we ought to leave the World', there being 

certain Things, nothing can be more beautiful nothing in it, about which Men are not divided 

than their Morality, conlider'd in itfelf; which, in their Opinions. They confider'd the World 

by only corredting a few of its Maxims, with as 'a Kingdom, of which God is the King; and 

fome fmall Difference in their Explanation ; as aTotal,to the Intereffc and Utility of which, 

might be eafily reduc'd to a Syllem of Morali- every Perfon, as a Part thereof, ought to con- 

t), very near approaching to that of the Gof- cur, and dired all his Adions; w^ithout ever 

pel; to that, I fay, which alone is entirely con- preferring his own private Advantage to the 

formable to the Didates of right Reafon. common Concern. They believ'd, they were » 

The great and fundamental Principle of the born, not every one for himfelf alone; but for 

Morality of the Stoicks is, That we ought to live the Good of humane Society: this was the dif- 

' coiformahle to Nature; and that the fovercign tinguilliing ' Charadter of their Sed; this the 

Good of Manconlifts in Virtue; which is no- Idea they » gave of the Nature of Jultice and 

thing clfe, according to them, but " a Life con- Honefty. Ihere was never any Sett of Phi- 

fcrmable to Nature; yor, fay they, iVWrtre /e./is'.j lofophcrs, who fo well underllood, and fo 

lis to Virtue. By this Nature v, fome of 'em ftrongly prefs'd thofc indifpenfable Duties of 

meant diredly the Conftitution of the humane Humanity, which Men, precifely conlider'd as 


now loft , call'd Chryfipput ; where he {ays, that vnhi^t was born of ihe "Earth, returns to ^xrth ; and that whkh had an itherid Ori- 
gin, returns to the CelejiUl Polei. But, as Mr.Le Clerc has very well oblerv'd, Eibl. Choii. Tom. 6, p. :j.j., ^ feci, that Poet 

hat! other IJeas, than tliofe of the Sioalis; ard believ'd the Immortality of the Soul. E»npidss repealed the rirll Words of thofe 
Verfo, in another Tragedy, which is now loft ; whereof C/«ro has given us a Tranflation; ReJdenda efi terra tern.--- Tufc. 
£;ii-ifi. Lib, 5, Cap, 25-,— Edk.Grcn. and not Tufc. ^usfl. Lib. z, as Mr. Sayle has cited i^, in his Dia. An. Amphiams, p. 208, 
Col, 2, — Rem, (K.) There is another Fault too, in this Article, but chargeable upon the Printers of the Edition, he mace ufe of. 
He criticifes, p. 208, col. 2,— upon Amiot, as if, in turning the Faflage of Eurifidei, reported by Plutarch, (Cono!. ad ApoU. 
p. no, — III, EA.M^cch. Et 1^1,^ Steph.) he had rendet'd the Words, 'o xafai za touitiJ 'A^CiipsM,-, by Amphiarims en tm 

po'eme: but in the fine Edition of Genev. in Folio, 1604, by J. Stoer, I faw it was, as it fhould be, en un poe'te, p. 25-1, A. And 

'tis likely that the other cortcft Editions read fotoo. 'Tis fo Edit, ibid. An. 1627, p.2;-i, A.— 

' AiS itj H'liJ-a. iivai (ri,v -ivxiiv,) k, fttla %i.)iaiav IriaEVuv, $6a?T>)v 5i J.vai. t-:\v Zi tuv oAojk, aip^apov, !i<; fxtfvi Itvai rxi Iv to?^ 
ZitOi; — KAsai/S-.)? fitu ai/ Taaci; iTiSia.asi'eiv (xlxf r^^q ixTrvpianscii;' Xf uCiiTr®' St, rcc^ vuv joifuti (iavaiv. Dio^. Laert. lib. 7, Seft. I j-6,— . 
1^7. — Et Ed. Colon, p. ^34. — 

* See the thirteenth ot the Differtations I quoted laftj and Rem. (U) on the Artie, of ChryfippHSy in Mr. Bayle's Dift. p. oir. 
Coll, — &c. 

' Mr. Bay /e, ibid. p. 92 f, — in the Text. See the fecond Diffcrtation of Mr. BW</fK/, de erroriCits Stokorum, ScEk.^, 9, 10, 
amongft his AnaleBa Hifi. Vhilofoph. which were publifhed in 1705. It will not be amifs to join the three other Difiertations of 
that ingenious Man on the fame Subjeft, to what I have here laid, on the Principles and Errours of the Stoicks. 

" Thofe Books which remain of the Stacks, are full of Sentences on that Subjeft, carried fometiraes even to a very hich 
Degre-of Piefumption. "^ 

" nfir®' 6 Z-.ivt)v — T5A®'£iT£, Ti ofiDAoyoufisvMi Ti5(J)i/V£< l'*)"!/. T/itg. Laert. ubi fupra, Sedf. S7, — Etp.490, Ed. Co'.Cit/n 

ergo hoc jit extremum, congruenter nature con-uementerque iivere, 8cc. Cicero, under the Name of Cato, the Stoick, de Fin. ion. A> 
tnal. Lib.?, Cap. 7 — 

" "Ox£p ^Vi xal' i;£lv)i' E^". ayei yap -rpjj rxvlviv -/ifiS,; v| cpuaii;. D:og, Laert, ibid. 8661.87. — 

' HiiAiv S iffov Iq-i' ri y.ccl apsTijv ?!)« tio xxl' ifi.T!iifia,J raiv ^isst (rupi,,Saivo/1aii 'C!\'j' w; (^VjH' YifxicnT^ Iv tw irpdrta Tt£f)TiKaM. aiiv) 
yaf iic^v at >i(X£Tfpai (fvaa; ri?; Th oAou. Sioxep T£A®' yiVelai rh axoPiu'dai-; t^ (pvuei tvji/. J-rep Iq-! xaT a.f£rijv kulov Ki xcc>x tvjv tmx 
oAajv, c)u?iv Ivepyavla? cav axayopEUEiv uui^ev i6f).<^ 6 K0IV05, oWep l:jiu 6 c'pSi,; Aoy®' 5ja Tavlcau Ipxo'^xEv®-, a.v]b.; iv ra &{i ttcAmc- 
fjto'w tb'tu) t^; twv o'vitov SiiiKyjffe trj<; Svli. bivsu 5' oiulj tbto r^v tb luSii/xov®- afiT/jV, k, 'ivfoiav /3ia, oruv vav^.ct ■afo.r'yjra.i ruv 
ffUfilpcoviav TB Tap' txx^'a lxi(j.ov<Sf «pj; Ti^v tb oAB Sioixitou /SaAilffiv. /xsu bv Aioysvs)? tjA®* (pvin'l ^jiloD;, ri luAoyi^tTu i\i ryj txd 
Kii'ii (pu'ffiv IxAoyv;. ApyJ^yit-'-®' Ss' to irai/la tk xa^xov^a Ix^eAbi/ra tyjv. (pvdiv Si Xpuo-iirx©- (litv l?«Ka'£i>>j a^toAouSuj; Sei' Zpfv, ti^u 
re Kciv>iv, Xj /?,'«; Tijv a'jOp'j'-zi.-.iv. 6_5i K,A£iiv9^)5 Tvjv KoivJji/ (xovvjv exSe'j^irai <pu<"Vj >i axoAouScju Set, iSxirt Ss 1^ T)j« ditl fxlpou^. Diog. 
Laert. ubi fupra, Seft.S?,^" 88, ~" 89. p.490, — 491. Edit. Col. 

• 3>u3-£i T£ ri V.xcwiv e ivxt, j^ ft^ 6j(Te(, 105 Xj vSfjtov z, t5v dp6dii Aoyov, xaix tfyiei Xpufi'S'it©^ iv tiS T£pJ hkAb. ioxet Ss aulc?^- (xiiT^ z>,j 
SirtlpBviav a^iVaffSai (piAotrotf/.-*?" c'tsi tm Ao'ya TBTaj -xpoAEi^eiu oAo» ihv /5iov, lo^ ly lioseiSiiivi'Q' (pijriv Iv roj^ TpoTpcTiixcjj. D/Vj. Laert. 
ubi fupra. Scff. 128, 129, Et Ed. Colon, p.^ij^, 5-16. 

' Mundum autem [Stoici] cenjent regi numme Deorum, eumque ejfe (juitfi comrrmnem urhem (^ civitatem Hominiim, & Deo- 
rum i ©1 tKumqitemque noftn'im ejus mundi ejfe partem : ex quo illud naturd confeqai, ut commuiem utditatem riojlra ameponamus, 

Cato apud Cicer. de Fin. hon. 0> mul. Lib. j, cap. 19 

, ' KoivwviKo? yip ^(icii y.j Tfax-rix6i, W«j. Laert. ubi fjpra, Seft. >2^,-_ Et Ed. Col. 'p.fll. — "On yip ■^foi xiaxviav yeyova,- 
?i£v, Si'Sii-xlai. Mure. Antonin. Lib.f, Seft. 19. — There are on tiris Head many beautiful Faftages in the Refledions of that 
Emperor. See C(c«r. ^/e F/n. Lib. 5, Cap.20, — & feq. 

'Thus Ltttsm charadferizes it, in fpeaking of Cato: Hi meres, h&c duri immot.x Catonis Sect* fuit, fervar: modum, f.nemqin 
tintre, Haturamque fiqui, patrisque impendcre vitam; Hec jlbi, fed toti genitum fe credere, Lib.2,v, 380, ^ feq. 

Aixaiciv ?s, ort •joij.ji Ic-) ffu'jt^Dvov, ^j x'.ij'mIco; ■7!ci>\Tixiv, Diog. Laert. ubi lupra, Scft. 99. p,497. 49^' Ed. Col. ^uicqitid 

dqiium, jujiti:nqiie' ejfet, id etiam honejlnm [cenfent Stoici] : viajjimque, quicqatd effa honejittnt, id jufiiim etiatn, atque dquiim jore. 
Cictk, de lilt, ion. ©> mal. Lib. s , cap. 2 1 . 

L^2 J 

An Hifiorical and Critical Account 

7 2 

fucb, owe to one another. A learned Englijb- 
man ', in the Preface to his great and inltruclive 
Commentary on the Kepecltoiis of Marcus An-^ 
toiiinns^ has given us a iTiort Summary^ ot 
the molt lliining Precepts of the Morality ot the 
Stoicks\ taken chietly from the Writings of that 
Emperour, Epicietiis^ and Sei/eca'^ who are the 
only Philosophers of that Sedt, whofe Writings 
we have left. I am perfyaded, it will not be 
difplealing to infert it here^ iince this will ferve 
to let us fee how far the Light of Rcafon 
alone, tho' not exadly follow 'd, and in ibme 
Things too a little defac'd j has carry 'd thofe 
among the Pagans, who have thought fit to 
coniiilt her. 

The Stoicks then fiid, " That we ought a- 
bove all Things to honour > and ferve God : 
to call upon him in ' all our Adlions, to 
have our "" Thoughts always fix'd upon him, 
to** raife up our Hearts to him, to like " 
his Condudb in every Thing, and to '''' praife 
and give Thanks to him tor all Things: to 
obey him alone abfoiutcly ", and without 
Reierve: to receive with a ready Submillion, 
and with Complacency -^z, all that he is 
pleas'd to fend vas; to reft alfur'd, that there 
is nothing ^^ better, no hing " more fit, no- 
thing " more advantageous, nothing "more 
fealonable, than that which he ordains to 
come to pafs, whatever it be; to follow him 
without hefitating or murmuring ", wherever 
he is pleas'd to lead us; couragioufly to de- 
fend, and with Conftancy to guard the Poll 
he hach affign'd us, whatever it be; and to 
'" fufter a thoufand Deaths rather than aban- 
don it." 
As to the Duties of Men towards one ano- 


ther, thcfe Philofophers taught, " That &ach 
" Man in particular, ought to love the ?eft of 
" Mankind "" with all his Heart; to take •• 
" care ot 'em, and to intcrell himfelf in every 
" "^Ihing thatconcerns'em; tc'' bear with 'em; 
" to do 'cm no »' W'rong, and to believe, that 
" all Injury and InjuiHccis aSort of Impiety; 
" to '• exercife his Bounty towards 'em ; to live 
" in fuch a Manner, as will con\ ince the World 
" of his being thoroughly perfuaded, that we 
" were not ' ' born for ouriel * es alone ; but for the 
" common Good of humane Society; and to do 
" good «" to all Men, according to our Strength 
" and Abilities : to be " fatisty'd with the ha- 
ving done a good A6tion, and with the fa- 
vourable TeiUmony of a good Conlcience 
thereupon ; and e\en, in fome meafure, to " 
" forget it, inftead of feekiug for ** Witnelfes; 
" or propoling to himfelf any """ Recompence, 
" or*** adingwith aView to his own particular 
" Intcreft; to "' go on from one good Adion 
" to another, never growing weary of doing '''''' 
" good; but continuing, thro' the whole Courfe 
" of his Lite, to accumulate "' good Anions 
" upon good Aftions; without fulfering the 
" leaft Interval or Vacuity to be between them ; 
" as if in that alone conlifted all the Advantage 
" and Plegfure of Life ^■^^; to think the Op- 
" portunity of doing a good Olfice to another, 
" a fufticient Reward for the doing it; and to 
" cileem himfelf oblig'd to thole, who Ihall 
" have furnifh'd him therewith; looking up- 
" on it, as a Thing *** that redounds to his 
" own Profit and Advantage; and confequcntly 
" not to feek beyond himfelf "'■*, for either 
" Profit, or the Praife of Men. As to our- 
" felves; we ought (fay the Stoicks) to make 

" the 

* Thomas Gatxker, Prolog. ** ;, p.4. — 

» Ti- S' ."m.o ("apxEl) tt ^iv-i (isv c'ituv, k, ljif-<ii.!rv a-AfM-no-jc %\ iu TO'tTv. M. Anton'm. Lib. J", Seft^?; — But I fTiall not report 
at their full Length the Quotations of Gataker. wit'ont mjking fuch Correftions and Additions as I ftiall judge expedient. See 
alfo a beautiful Paffage in Sinecu, on the true Worlhip of God. Epift.97, p. 3)-+; — wliichi have cited, iuftni. Lib. 2, c.4,Se(ft.3, 
Not. r. ^ MArc.Antonm. Lib. 6, Seft. 1 ^ — 

"'Idem, Lib.(S, Sea.7._ ** Idem, Lib. 3, Seft. i3._ 

" Tcrj Oeor? itufi.ipui'ov' Tn'^iqiv, sTaivsvIa 'ica lasrvoi SiavEfiSffi kj ^utrfaxacN. Idem, Lib. 6, Seft. 16 — Eya eit i/xtp airavTug 
TBTMv Tpo^ TB,- av9piiTov< a7roAoyii<ro(xai . Arri.xn. EfiB.l.xo.i, c. 16, p.217.— Ed- Cantab. 

^* 'Ei yuf vav "I'/ofisv, aMo t> eSei r, mtuU Xj xoiviji 1^ ISio^, ii ift-vsTv ri hiM, Xj |j$>)(isrv, xj iTtifp'X''--'" fi^ %h>-^c.:; vx. 
V'Se, »; axaxlvla-, ^ ipav"'*;. fj) i'cteiov'a;, aSsiV t3i/ uftvov Tav s'k tJi/ Ofo'v ; i/i'S. V'prt. Lib. i, cap. i(5, p. 127.— Sec alio, c. 6.— 
& L.b 4, C.4 p. 386.— ' _ 

" ,Sce £/i/(^. Diflerr. >4mVin. Lib.4, cap. 12, p.426. And M/irc. .rf«on. Lib. 4, Seft. 33.-^ 

// ' Aurcccifx^Mm fiJv >• oAv); Ty^i ^l'UX'^? ■'■'' <'i'f»Ciii'ov''a Rj axovefiifiEva "KMTU.. M*rc. Anton. Lib. 3, Seel. 4. — See alio Lib, 4, 
Scft.25-. & Ep'.a.ArriAn. Lib.2,c.i7.— lib. 3. c.26,p.367.— lib.4, c.7, p.401.— 

^^ KptlTow yj.f iiySiiCiL o 6 Qeiq dihu, ij 3 iyi- l^'^. ibid. p. 4.02. — 

** Kat TcvE ffufxC^spf', ?T£ ^■■'■im (pipei. ** T' l«P aprxoSiiirepov ; M. Anton, lib. 7, Seift. f 7 — 

" Si.(x$Epe< ixiqx, i (pjpE. Ixi^iJ v] tSv oAwv (fJuiri;. Idem. Lib. 10, Sea. 20.— 

" Otiimhm tji--- Dtum, quo nuHore cur.cin frortmum, jnie murmurarwne tomitari. Mains miles ejl, qui Imperatorem gftnem 

fequitur. Stnec. Epift. 107, p. 402, — Edit. Cionov. See the Prayer of Cleemthus, which Semca. there trar.flates into L«/m Vcrfe, 

related by Efihtiiu. in his Manual, Chap.77. or the hft but two, Ed in the Diprt. AnUn.Uh.i,Cap.tT, p.221.— 
& 23 p.iyi _ Lib.3,cap.22, & 321.— &.Lib.4. cap 4,_p.3S6.— t -/r i 'k r 

"" '■Hv av yiiixv li tu'-iv sy%'ifiisy)c, --- iJ-vfiMig a.-zo^a\/ Tforefov, vj raulv^v !yxa''a!itt-i''ji. Epicl. Dijjert. Lib. 3 , Cap. 24, 
p. 24.2.- Senates had fiid the fame Thing in the Apol. of PUto, p. 28._ 29 — Edit. H. Steph. & p. 363, F. Ed, Lugdun. 

" "OuTa It'o xa,5>'a? (pAJr? riz i.flpcJTou,-. {"t pir effet) M. Anton, lib. 7, Scift 13 — 

" 'A;iAa X y.i{^(c^ai fau'Sv In.) Mem, Lib.p, Seft. 3 — ' ti -j 

tt Ka< a.vix<:«^s.i &.<?'iv. Idem, Lib. f, Seft 33 — '? Kal axj'ifEaSa.. Ibid, 

r- 'o aSixiv^ffeff Idem. Lib.9, Cap. I.— •" See .ibove, Lett. ( y.) 

»» .See:ibo7e, Lftt.(v (/.) And Matc. Antonin. Lib.7, Seft.j-j-.— & Lib.8, Setk.j.— 

" Kal oTi K^iSEffCai /jlsv mkvm Mfdj-rav, xa'i -rifv ra aAfixu (putrii/ l?i'v. Idem, Lib, 3, Se(ft.4, p. 1 7. — Edit. GatakeK 

"'EaijTcJ iisKfrsOiii S.xa<oTpa-,oCv1. Idem, Lib.7, Sea. 28.— , , ., r n. ^ — fir c ^ i. -1 r. 

1> Se ile.'l'Jp, J'lm dat, cb.itu, tfi. Senec. di Bcnef. Lib. 2, cap. 6.— See Mam Antonm. Lib.j", Wc hnd the -ke Fr- 

^''^'z^u'^^„''lmn,bfs]aJ!'T'e]).ori 'tefle, movenmur. Cicero ie fin. Lib.2, cap. ^6.~. The PafTage of M. Ant. which Gataktr citei 
kre taken from Lib. 3, Seft.^-,— has anothei Senfc, according to which he himfelf explains it in his Commemary,p. loi. col. i, 
lin.rV See rather Ro'k 9, Seft. 29,— wi'h the Notc_if that Commentator, p. 340, col. I. lin. 14, &d. 
'««« cpj. pluta'ch de amore prol'n Ton 2, p-49)"' ^- Ed. Ftancojurt. 

**» .SceiW. .rfnro'ii". Lib,9. infirc, p. 13— , , ^ . t4 .« t ;u >: e«/i 

'" 'E-.; TfpT« V, Tfoiravairaua, tu Urhmfaliai KO;VOT>Ki?«(*^TaE.^.'«<v iz)Tp2?iVK0ivo)i'i;<v,v, cri/v(iv;,nv, pj^u. lacm., i.a. 7,— ' 

tiai^'iiJ.x aitoh.iniiv, IJcm, L;b. 12, 


of the Science of MoRALiTr.' 


and principal Care; fevcral particular Philofophers of that Sed have 
ill: excellent lart oi us; been charg'd with; I'hcle arc pcrfonal F"aults, 
' -^ TT . *** _„:_ and extend not to their Dodrincs : 

« the '"■ Soul our firfl 

" to honour ir, as the mo 

" to have nothing lb much at Heart ""', or in ana extend not to their Dodrincs: and I lliall 

" lb great Elkem, as Virtue and Honefty; ne- here, as l do every where elfe, only conlider 

" ver to fuller ourlelves to fvvcrvcfrom ourDu- the Opinions, as they are purely and fimply in 

" ty '"., as tar as we can attain to the Knovy- 
" ledge of it; either through theDelire of Life, 
" much lefs of any other 1 hing ; ""'" or through 
*' the Fear and Dread of lorments or Death, 
" much lefs of any Damage or Lofs whatfocver."^ 
'1 his is the beautiful Side of the Morality of 
the Stoicks; and it mult be further acknow- 
Icdg'd, to their Praife, that they ftopp'd not at 
general Notions; and indeterminate unapply'd 

themklves. Ihe idea then, which the i^toicks 
torm'd of Virtue, how magnificent foever it 
may at firfl appear; is, in lomc Refpeds, if 
rightly coniider'd, not altogether julf, or com- 
pleat ; not intirely founded on its true Prin- 
ciples ; nor exen}pt from Errour. Virtue, fay 
they, is the fovereign Good ; nor is there any 
other Good befides Virtue : The Sage is ftill 
happy, tho' in the Midfl: of the moll cruel 

Maxima: But on the contrary, to judge of the Torments. But, belides that Virtue is only the 

Matter only by thofe few Writings, we have '•' efficient Caufe of Happinefs, and not Hap- 

Icft us by the three Perfons above mention'd, pinefs itfelf ; they laid no Foundation, in the 

with theFragments of others, and the Writings Hopes of another Life, for the Recompcnce 

of thofs who have reafon'd upon their Princi- and Confolation of Virtue: nor indeed could 

pies; it may be truly affirm'd, that of all the they, as not properly acknowledging the Im- 

Philolophcrs of Antiquity, they are the Men, mortality of the Soul ; or at leail '" fpeaking 

w ho ha\ e gone the farthell into the Particulars of it but in a very confus'd and ambiguous 

of Morality; and have the bell appl) 'd its ge- Manner. Inlbmuch, that Brutus^ who was a 

neral Preceprs to the feveral States of Life; and Stoic k, fecms """ not to have been fo much out, 

the diHerent Exigences of humane Affairs, as fome would imagine, in thofe dying W^ords 

Jrijh ox Chios, who thought it fufficient :o el- of his '■'''' : Wretched Virtue, hciv have I beeit 

tablilh ""' in general the Nature of true Wif- deluded in thy Service'. I thought thee a real 

dom; and to Ihevv wherein the fovereign Hap- Good, .and as fuch have I always devoted myfelf 

pinefs ot Man conlills; without entering into to th^s'j but thou^ alas I art only an empty 

any particular Explication of the Duties be- Name, a Fantom, an ahjeci Slave expos' d to the 

tween Husbands and Wives; Parents and Chil- Inpilts of Fortune. And in truth, if the Idea 

dren; Mailers and Servants: This Philofopher, of Rewards and Punilhments in another Life, 

1%',-'-- ' ■ ' *••■'' u.c„...:™.,.„ u :„:_.j .. .u_ T, ^. r.r. „. .y 

/,who departed a little from the Sentiments^ be not join'd to the Pradice of Virtue; " both 
of his Mailer Zeno, form'd indeed a kind of " Virtue and Innocence may be rank'd >» in 
Seft, but it did not lall long: And Seneca has 
prov'd againll him, that ijarticular Precepts, 
as well as Maxims, or moral Retledlions couch'd 
in ihort lively Sentences ; are extremely ufetul. 

j4riJio laid, it was the proper Bufinefs of Peda- 
gogues, and °°' Nurfes, and therefore ought to 
be left wholly to them. A fine Reafon indeed, 
anfvvers f^" Seneca: as if the Sage was not the 
^''edugnguc of Mankind .' " Cbryfppus even con- 
" defcended to give fhort '" Precepts about 
" the Education of Children: which as it is a 

the Number of thofe Things, on ^vhich So" 
" lomon has pronounc'd his definitive Sentence: 
" Vanity of Vanities, all is Vanity ! To rely 
upon Innocence, would be to lean on a bro- 
ken Reed; which will not fail to pierce the 
Hand, that rells upon it. God, as he is 
the Difpofer of Events, the grand Almoner 
both of good and bad Succefs; has here on 
Earth, made Virtue and Innocence no lefs 
fubjed to his general Laws; than Health and 
Riches." Belides, to fay that a Man who 

Thing in itfelf of no fmall Importance to fulfers for a good Caufe, is really happy, altho' 

" Mankind; fo this Condefcenlionof CV^rj^/zp/ja^ 
"_ cannot but deferve Commendation." But ha- 
ving done Jullice to the Stoicks, as to what we 
find^ laudable; let us now fee what there is to 
be found in that Sedl which may be juftly ef- 
teem'd blameable. I have nothing to fay, as to 
the Vanit}-, Hypocril}-, and bad Lives, 

TiJK IV ffoi To Kf-iTicov -riaa. Idem. Lib, J", Se£l.2i. 

he hath no Reward to exped: after Death; is 
to advance a Propofition equally contrary 
to^ right Reafon, and to every Sentiment 
of Nature. But this is not the only Thing 
on which the S.oicks form'd extravagant: 
and chimerical Ideas. Every one knows, 
what '^^'^ a Jell the World has made of their 

Sage ; 

See Lib. 2, Sea. 15.— 


*'* liem, Lib.3, Sea 6.— Lib.6. Sc<a. i6.— "' idem, Lib.S.Seft.ii.— Lib.7, Seft. if.— Lib.S, Sefl. f .— 

""■" Idem, Lib. 7, Sea.44.. ex PUtou. Apot. See above, Lett, (mm.) 

"" 'iTido Ch\us ■ - ' Moralem, qiiam foUm reliquerat, c.rcumcidit. Nam eum locum, qui monitiones conttnet, fitfluUt; (^ VdJa- 
gfgi eji dixit .^ r.on Vhilofophi: tanqttam quidqiiam aiiud fit Jftpieiis. quam hum irii generis PiUigDgus '. Senec. Epili.Sg', p.i9<5. — Rd. 
Gronov. Earn partem I'hUofipIii^, qut dat propria cmqite perjtnt. pmcefita, nee in univerfum componit homir.em, jed murifo fnader, qiio- 

niodo e gerat edverfus tixorim: putfi, qiiomodo educe: uberor, domino., quomodo jervos regat ; Arijio StotcHs, levem exiflimu, 

(^ qui non defrendat in p'ffm ufqiie: at illam, tun habentein precept a, piurimum ait proficere ; ipfaqite decret* PhiiofophU, co'iflitu- 
tionem eff' fummi honi , qu. M qui bene intellexit c? didicit, quid in qiiaque re fetcienditm jit, jM ip/e pracepit. Idem, EpilL94, — it 
the Heg nning, p. 327. — Ed. Gronov. 

°°° See •textus Empiririu, adv. Mmhem. Lib.7, apud Metiag. ad Diog, Laert. Seft. 160, p. 33 i. Col. i. — 

Iffl^ Ubi lupra, Epilt.89, p.ipfi,— Ed. Gronov. 

ii3 Sce_Mr. Bayle'i D;aionary, Artie. Chryfipt- Rem. (R,~) p. 929, Col. 2.— & ^(intil. Injl. Or.i:. lib. i., c. I, p. tf._ 
C-J. Ti, o. CIO, p. 61. —,p.6iS, E'.iit.O.Vfl». 

^ec Ciccr. ?.irj.dex i, 2. Diog. Laert. S^ifir.iiS."^ and the Books oi Cicero, de Fin.bon. ©» nial. or ^'"i/l- Tnfcitl. 
>ec what lias been laid before, concerning the PrincipJes of the Morality of Epicurus, SeH. 16, p. 67, col. i. — 
*^<e G.^taker on Marc. Ar.tonin. Lib. 4, Seft. 21, — p. " 59. col. 2, hn.i2, 0> feq. 
""' Did. of Mr. B^:le, Artie. Brutus, Rem. (B;, p.7i<5, col. t. — 

'" Ibid. Rem (B '. See rluturch, in his Life of Br.-(f;«. And de Sitperflitione, inic. And Dio. lib.4.7, fub fin. Plnttfuh^ToWi^ 
joo3. B — &. d.Toni.2, p. 16,", A,— Edir. Franco/. Dw. Caj. p. 40 (5, B. — Ed. H. Steph. ^ 

111 yiT.Bayle, ubi fjpri, Rem./-C,j p.715, C0I.2.— 
zzs s-e utrace, Lib. i, Sat. 3, Verf.uj-j & feq. Cicer. Orat. fro Mitrena, cap. 2^, &f'%. 

Jn HiJioricaJ and Critical Jccount 


Sage; ' whom, on the one jliand, they deve fe- 
ed of even the ^010^ 'innocent and mode- 
rate Paffions, nay, in a Manner, of Hu- 
manity iti'elf; whilll on the other, they 
made him to vie Hiippinefs with the very Gods 
themfehes. They held all iins to be equal. 
They faid, that, Virtue excepted, all other 
Things were indiiterent '; that is to fay, nei- 
ther good nor bad; but of thefe imiiffirent 
Things^ fome were eUgible^ and others rejccfaik, 
Mr. and Madam Dacier have undertaken the 
Apology of the true Stoicks, on all thcfc 
Heads. '" " If thefe Philofophers, fay they, 
" have mix'd fomething of Auilerity \^ith the 
« Sentiments of their Mafter Socrates ; 'twas 
" not fo much the Eftcdl of a Savage and mo- 
« rofe Difpofition ; but rather an Expedient, 
« which Prudence fuggefted to them : for be- 
" ing well acquainted with the natural Imbe- 
*' cillity, and Supinenefs of Mankind; they 
" have thought lit, in pref^^ribing Rules of 
*' Duty, to prefs them to a greater Degree of 
" Pertedion, than they are capable of; that fo 
*' by exerting their utmoil Endeavours to come 
" up to their Precepts, they might at leall 
" come to fix in a State of Mediocrity; as 
" Trees which Hand bent one Way are fet 
" right by a contrary Flexure. Thus when 
" Ze//o^ for Example, faid, that all Crimes were 
" equal; his Intent was to reclaim Men from 
« an unhappy Opinion, which they are but too 
*' apt to give into; that provided they keep 
« clear of Crimes of the firft Magnitude, they 
*' are not oblig'd to be fo much upon their 
" Guard againft the Icffer or more venal Tranf- 
" greffions ; now his Delign was to perfuade 'em, 
« that the leaft Sin, if neglected, becomes in- 
« curable; and that in the Eye of God, who is 
" the very Eifence of Purity; there can be no- 
" thing found in us, that is'linful, but what de- 
" ferves Death ; unlefs we dilarm his Juftice by 
" a due Atonement and Repentance : But then 
" comes a Chry/ipp!/s, who grofly miftakin^this 
« Precept; maintains, that there is no Ditfe- 
*' rence between the Stealing of Cabbages out 
*' of a Garden, and the committing crt Sacri- 
" lege; between the cutting one's Father's 
" Throat, and the killing of a Capon; which 
*' two Adions he will have to defervc one and 
" the fame Punilhment : This indeed is fo far 
*' from retraining; that it rather encourages 
" and proiupts Men to the Gommiffion of the 
*' greateft Enormities. When Ze/zo faid, that 
*^ the Sage ought to be void of CompalTion; 
" his Aim was to ihew, that the Sage does not 
' " confine hisBeneficencetothofc Succours alone, 
« which Pity and Compaffion extort from him ; 

" biit thiiilcs himfelf oblig'd to ai^ an^' alTifc 
" his Neighbour, though he be^ under V.6 iucli 
"Emotion: Though a Cbryjippns fliall tjxkq 
" Occafion from hence, to break afunde^|al| 
" the Bands of Society ; and trample under 
" Foot that merciful Difpofition, which is one 
" of the moft efiendal Characters of the Deity. 
" When Zevo fiiid, that the Sage relies on him- 
" felf alone for all Things; he only meant tq, 
" flievv, that our true and real Happinefs could 
" not depend on the Actions of _ other Men ; 
" and to encounter the fupine Lazinefs of thofe, 
" who, on Pretence of committing therafelvcs 
« to Providence, exped every 1 hing imme- 
" diately from Go^/; without ever leeung to 
« obtain his Favour, by their own honeft En- 
" deavours and Induftry. Befides, as he taught, 
" that the Soul was a Part of God, nay, God 
« himfelf; fo this Precept, that Men ought to 
« rely on themfehes for all Things, was in Et- 
« fed the fame as to fay; that we ought in all 
" Things to rely on the Providence of (jc//, 
" that go\erns us. But then comes a Di ft i pie 
" of his, full of Ignorance and Pride; and in- 
" tirely perverts this Precept, by drawing from 
" it this pernicious Confcquence; That the 
" Sage is above even God himfelf; and is, in- 
" dependently of that fovercign Being who 
" created him,, the fole Author of his own Hap- 
" pinefs. Of almoft the fame Nature are all 
" thofe other Paffages, which have at any Time^ 
" been made Ufe of to bring the Dodrine of 
" the Stoicks under Odium and Difcredit." 
Not to examine, whether thcfc Expofitions arc J 
as well grounded, ' as they are ingenious^; or ' 
whether they do not rather fa\ our of a Com- 
mentator, extremely prepolfefs'd in Favour of 
his Author, and in general of all Antiquity; 
and whether too they are not worthy of thofe, 
who, to inhance the Merit of the anticnts, 
and keep up their Charaders; make 'em to be 
as cnlighten'd as the Prophets and Apoftles; 
find out ^ ery ^reat Beauties in the moft inlipid 
and ridiculous Palfages; andwreft the Senfe of 
the cleareft Exprellions, even to the expound- 
ing figurativcl)- the Mctanpfychojh of '^Pythago- 
ras: I foall content my felf with taking Notice 
of two Things, which to me feem incontcfta- 
ble: The one is, that rigid and o\er-ftrain'd 
Maxims are not at all proper to infpire true 
Notions of Virtue ; and fo far is the demanding 
more of Men than their juft Duties, from being 
the proper Method to induce 'em to a due Per- 
formap.ce thereof; thatExperienceplainlylhews 
us, that to require too much, is the rcadjWay 
to obtain nothing at all. The other is, that 
'tis the Part of a true Philofopher to rcjed, fejp 


^CnmcHt tertuybatknem anin.i iUi Uupcrmes Hilofofhi'] ex homlne non tollerent, nalur^iie & conJolefiere, etconcuflfcert, et ex 
tlmefcere, et effern Ut,:id Mcerent ; fed ea cor.tmhfrent, m angHJiHrr.que Je^ucerent :_ hie [Zeno] omnjo,-.,^ ^[''J1"X '""'...' '1* 'rl 

Cicer. Academ. Qusft. Lib. i. Cap. lo.— See Diog.Laert. Lib. 7. Seft. lii," 

Dicg.taert. ibid. Seft. 120.— Et Ed. Colon, p. 

yere Snpientem 
£d Colon . 

* 'Apt cxEi re auToT?, *»« \\yeU'iiu to; ijxcpTi^fiaTa. 

Qusft. Lib. 4, Cap. 4;,— 44-~~ & ^^ F'"'^- Lib.;, Ccp.14. — 


£: p. j-i2,-r &Jeq. 
5" 10. — See Ci'^r Aca^. 

Im ne^fj- 



ilico n. ^ ,, ^.. -, .- , J , ^ , - , , 

26.~ Scealfo, Lib. 3. Cap. 17." & I^'og- Laert.THi fupra, ScS. 102, & M- 

4 Preface to the Tr.:infiation of the Refleaions of Afarr . ^woK/n. • A 3 , p. 2.— „j AflJo^. P„,,^rv v 

? The Reafons. for Example, that Ctcero brings to cftablidi the Equality of ciirainal, as well as of good Adions, Pa^'^^'j^^^^' 

of the Science ^/ M o r a L i T r. 

pecially wheii he is treating of Morality, all 
Ibch Maxims as are ambiguous, or fubjc(ft to 
Milconllrudtion. So that, even fuppoling that 
thefe Maxims in Queltion are capable of the 
Mitigations contended for bj thofe, who are 
fo bent upon jultifying the Antients, what 'ere 
it coll; yet we cannot fairly avoid cenihring 
the Paradoxes of the Stoicks\ together with 
their vain Subtleties, " their concife and rough 
Stile, their Arfedation of new coin'd Words, 
their frequent Logomachies, the Contradic- 
tions ' charg'd upon 'em, and their Opinion as 
to obfccne I'erms; whKh s they inlift, may be 
made ufe of without any Manner of Scruple. 
Nor is this laft Particular to be much wonder'd 
at in Men who contend, as the Siotcks do, that 


all Women ought to be had in common a- 
mong the Sages. There were alfo fome among 
them, who_ maintain'd, that '° the Cyincks 
Way of hying was the (Jjortcji Cut to Virtue. 
Uoryjippus taught, that there was no Harm 
incommittmg laceit with one's Father, Mother, 
Son, Daughter, '' Brother, or Sifter ; or in feed- 
ing upon human Carcaaes. What the '^ Stoicks 
faid about the Love of beautiful Boys ; is at 
Icaft liable to very odd ConftruCtions. In fine, 
thefe Philofophcrs believ'd, that their Sage 
might abfolutely difpofe '•' of his own Life, 
and put an End to it whenever he thought lit; 
and this Opinion, as falfe and dangerous as it 
is, was, as is univerfally agreed, the Senfe of 
the whole Scd. 

leave us little Room to doubt, but that \.]\e.Stoicks underflood this according to the Letter. See the Reafon given by Hh" .Zaert . 
lib. 7, c. 1 10. — And p. 5-10, — Edit. Col. and reported by Mr. Pufendorf, Lib. i, Cap 8, Seft. i , n. i. ^ 

Stoiconim aJftricitor efi oratio, dtqiiandoque contmBior, qu^m aui-es populi requiriint. Cicer. m Bruto, Cap. ? i. ©unmaft/aa 

ex omiiaui ehiiofophis Stoid plurima "ovui.erHnt. Zeno qiioque eortim pnnceps, non lam rerum invemoi- ftii:, noro urn verbo- 

rum. Idem, Ue Fmib. Lib.3. Cap.2. Nova verbn fingunt; iteferunt itjitata: piingiint, qiiaji aculeu, saterroiMiiiHi:ut:i an- 

glints: quibus ctiam qui ad/enliuntiir, nihil commutantur ammo, et iiiiein abeunt, qui venerar.t : ra enim (ortaffe ■vera certi travel 
■i.oiiita rraBantiir. Ht d'bint.fedaliqiianto rjiimtius. Ibid. Lib. 4, Cap. 3. — ' ' * 

' i-ee_Plntarchy in his Treatifes, de repugriiim'tis Stoicorum, and, de commtinibus mtitiis contra Stoicos. 
'O co^hq li.'6i'(5p;^(i£i)v e5>). Ctcer. Ep. ad Famil. ]ih.^, Ep. 2i — See the whole Letter. 

Afisxit Si uvroTc, xat koiv«; itvai to.; yvvaixa^ cT'e"" Tapci. tois ao^oT^. Dog Laett. §. I j I. — lib. 7. p.ri7. — Ed. Colofl. 
Eivai yap riv Kw^ofi-i-j fft'vTofiov It' ape-T-ijv cSo'v I id. §. III. — p. fn, — Ed. Colon. 

Ev Si Tio Tsp) xoAiT£i.-j5. xa, |xv)rpaffi Ae'vei avvifxea^ai, ual ivyaTfiasi, kz) uoTs xai ra? aioOavo'i/ras xarccBieiv KE/tuav; 

DfcLam. ibid. §. 1S8. — p. ff6.~ Ed. Colon. 

"■ "^ee Sexr. Empir. Pyrrh. hypnth. Lib. 3, c.14, p. if?, A — Et Ed. F.ibric. p. 178. — 

'3 '>ee Diog. Uert §. up — p fj6,~ Ed. Colon. ©. rjic. Tui. ^u^fi. Lib. 4. 0.33," 34. — 

EWo'yaj TE (paffiv l«a?£iu txvrbv ts Si'y tov cnSf'av, xiti uxjp Tarp^Sj; xxi urtip 4)i'aiov. xa.v |, q-iK-yipiTspx, ysv-^rru a.\y^'S6vi., vj tv)-' 
P!tff£(fiv, V) vdffoii; cui&Toiq. Diog. Laert ubi fuprk, §. i?o. — Ed. Colon, p. ^-17. — See Cic. de Finib. Lib. 3, c. 18. — & M. Amc- 
n:n. Lib. 3, §. i. — ibinue Gataker, p. S5, col. 1, lin. j-j, & d. ' ' -' 


FTER Epic air us and Zetio^ we find not, 
among the fucceediug Phiiofophers, any, 
who let up new Schemes of Morality. 
Each Man betook himfelf to that Se6t, where 
he found what moft fuited his own private Sen- 
timents. The Roma/js, who had their Philo- 
fophy, as well as the reft of the Sciences, from 
the Greeks ; took this Courfe. In the Reign 
of Jugiiftus, a Philofopher oi Alexandria^ cal- 
led ' ^otamo^ introduc'd a Manner of Philofo- 
•phizing, which they called Ecletltck'^ becaufe 
It conlifted in coUeding from ail the Tenents 
of the preceding Philolophers, fuch as appear'd 
moft reafonable; out of which they form'd, 
each Man his own Sjftem of Philolbphy. G- 
cero^ who, as I faid before, was a moderate 
Jcademick ; does for the moft Part purfue this 
Method in his Book of Ojficcs ; * where he is 

fometimes a Stoick-^ fometimcs a 'T'eripateticL 
That excellent Work, fo well known to the 
World, is without Difpute the beft Treatife 
of Morality, that all Antiquity has furnilh'd. 
us with ; the moft regular, the moft methodical ; 
and wh;:t does the nearcft of any come up to 
a full and exait Syftem of Morality. I Hiy, 
what comes the iiearcjl : For he Would be 
much out, who Ihould imagine it to contain 
a ' Compleat Body of Morality^ fuch as defcends 
to the utniojl Degree of^articularity^ and where 
every Thing is digefted into the very beft Or- 
der, and Method poffible. Many Things are 
there wanting, which naturally come within the 
Plan of that Science; and, for the Generality, 
the Topicks he there goes upon, are but very 
faperficially handled; as might be ealily made 
appear. We there alfo find fome "* Decilions 


nuiv. Diog. Laert. Prooem. Seft. 11, — p. 14 — See M'nage thereupon p. u, col. 2.— 

Sed tamen „oftra leges, nor. multum a. Peripateticis diffidentiat quo •mm utrumque, et Stoici, et Peripatetici, ejfe ■volumus. De Offc. 
Lib. I. Cap. I.— V. Gr-TV. i. I. p. 4, col. i, — Scd. 'Tis thus we ojght to read that PafTige, partly according to the Conjeflureof 
Crono-mi the Fathtr, and Gr^vim ; and partly according to Mr. Le Clerc; See Ars Crilica, Fait. 3, Sea. i. Cap. 16, xNum. 12, 
Tom. 2, p. 1S6.— Edit. id. J c 3 3 > r 

' This is wha- his laft Tianflator into French, in his Preface, pretends to aiTerf. 
You mav iee Ryamnlr. fr^„<-h K,,ri, io ^l,„ t„v. ._ i ivr l .;._ „._i ', Tranllation of Pff/Wor/. See there thcIndeX 

^ You may lie Examples enough, both in the Text, and Notts ot Mr.Baroeyrac's 
or Authors. -' 

Jn Hiftorical and Critical Account 

too ricrid ; or fuch as plainly ihew, that Cicero 
v;as not thoroughly acqiminted with the true 
Trinciples, on which tfte Rclolution of fome 
certain Cafes depends. 'Tis great Pity his 
Trcatife of Government is loft; ot which the 
few Fragments remaining give us a very noble 
Idea. His Difcourfe of La'-^^s, which we yet 
have, though imperfeca; contains many ex- 
cellent Things. Cicero there particularly ap- 
plies himfelf to prove at large, that there is a 
natural Law, independent ot any ' humane In- 
ftitutioni and which deriv.&s its obligatory 
Force from the Will of God. This he proves 
/ to be the Foundation of all juft and realon- 
able Laws. He lliews the Uletulnefs ot Ke- 
lio-ion ^ in civil Societies. He follows the 
erand Principle of the Stokks, that Man is 
born for Society ; and from thence deduces 
all the reciprocal » Duties of Mankmd. And 
though he acknowledges it ueceflary to admit 
all this, for one who intends to build upon 
vvell-chofen and well-conneded Principles S 
" yet he expcfts not that all the World will 
" approve of them; he promifes himfelf only 
« tlie Approbation of the antient '■Vlatomjh ; 
" and that ot the <7'ertpateticks and Stotcks. 
" As to the Epicureans^ he is under no Con- 
« cern about- th:m; they profelfedly retir'd 
« from all politic j1 Affairs; hetheretore leaves 
« them to philofophize, in this their Retreat 
« as they Ihould think fit: But tor Jrcejilas and 
" Carneades, he asks ' a^^rter of them ; and 
" fears, that, fliould they come to point their 
« Batteries upon him, they would foon niakc 
« praaicable Breaches in this his fuppos d im- 
« pregnable Fortrefs : He perceives not in him- 
« lllf Courage enough to repulfe 'em, wilhes 
" therefore not to be expos'd to their Indigna- 
« tion; is delirous to appeafe 'em, and prevent 
« all Ads of Hoftility." He has been, and not 
without Rcafon too, charg'd with not adhc- 
rin- ftedfaftly enough to his Principles; and 
with being too much an ' occaiional Kca- 
foner. I cannot forbear adcHng here Mon- 
tage's Opinion of this great Orator s Way of 
W^riting. As to Ctceru, %s he ", Thofc oj his 
Work^ that arc woji ufejiil to my Defign, are his 
phihfophical Tra^s; particularly the moral: But, 
to fpcak my M,nd freely — Ms particular Way 
ofmnivu vuth all others of the f aim kind, is 
to me very tedious. For his ^rejaces, Definitions 
Divi/wns, and Etymologies take up the greateji 
q>artofhis mrk. Whatever there is of Lije and 

Marrow., ' tis fmother d and loft in the Tedioufnefs 
of the '^Preparation. When 1 have fpent an Hour 

in reading him, and come to recolleSi what I 

have thence extraBed oj ^fnice and Suhffance ; 
for the moji "-Part I fnd no}hing but Wind: Fcr 
he is not yet come to his main Arguments ; or yet 
ready to produce theflrong Reafons. ithich are 
to do the Bujinefs, and clear the '■Pant, I ivant 
to be refolv'd in. To me, ^vho only defire to be- 
come more difcreet, not more learned or eloquent; 
thefe Logical and Ariftotelian Rules and Ordi- 
nances are of no Vfe at all. I %vould haxe a Man 
begin firjt with that, which is of the laji Ccnfe- 
quence. I know well enough what Death and 
Pleafure are, there is no Occafwn tojiand ana- 
tomizing oJ 'em to me. I look for good and folid 
Reafons at frji Dajh; fuch as will injirucl me 
ho-w toftand the Shock of 'em, and make a brave 
D fence. Tour grammatical Niceties, fine-fpun 
Argumentation, and delicate Turns, are nothing 
to this '^urpofe : I am for Difcourfes that give 
their frji Charge into the very Heart of Doubt ; 
his only beai about the Bupx They are proper e- 
noiigh for the Schools, the Bar, or the 'TJpit ; 
where we have Leifurc to nod, and may a- 
wake a <Jluarter of an Hour after. Time enough to 
find again the Thread of the Difcourfe^ It is very 
requijite to talk after'this Manner to Judges, we 
have a Mind to gain, right or wrong, to favour 
our Caitfc; to Children and common 'T^eople,where 
every Thing is to be urgd, in order to fee what 
will take with them. I want not any one to make 
it his Eif/incfs to Jiir up my Jttention, and cry 
out to me fijty Times, O yes, as our Crjers, and 
Heralds do. The Romans /'// their religious Ex- 
crcifes began with. Hoc age : as we in ours do 
with, SurfumCorda; which are fo many Words 
hjl to me. I come thither already fully prepar'dj rom 

my Chamber ; injiead of whetting my Jppetite 

by thefe '^'reparatives and4^reludes,t hey quite fpoil 
my Stomach. Would but the Licentioufnefs oj the 
Times excufe the ftcrilegious Boldnefs; flljonld 
even cenfure the Dialogifms of Plato himfelf, 
as languid, and cumberfome to his Matter; and 
regret' the great Lofs of Time, fpent upon long 
and needlefs '■Preliminaries and Interlocutions ; 
by one -who had fo many, and fo much better Things 
to fay. My Subjc<5t now naturally engages mc 
to give the Reader here, what Montagne lays - 
immediately before the lail-cited Paflage. " ^ht- 
" tarch, fays he, inAScneca have both this great 
" Accommodation for one of my Humour; 
" that the Knowledge, I fearch for, is there 
^ " deliver'd 

"■% Ibid. Cap. 7^ Sec rhe P.fl-age cited bv Mr ff;^'y;;^;,i;;^^-:^i^^;j'{f^,^:f^M PJu C.r.ns, ,M V.etns; uii 

I enuro,jir,i. inflniaa, & comfotta vulenmr; mmm eUet rumas : quam quuiem e^o i'ima f j 

jfjui^fent 111 luCftJ'''^ J"'" r" J ' 

- Efl-ays. Lib.i,, p.zpf. ^9^. And p. .64. Ed. ulum. Fag. .62, &^. 

t)f the Science of MoRALiTr, 

'^ deliver'd 5v,t in Parcels. Such are the 0- 

"" ptifctila of ^Plutarch:, and the Epiltlcs of Se- 
« iieea-^ which are the moll beautiful Part of 
« their Writings. — Thef; Authors, as they do 
" for the moll Part concur, in all their ufcful and 
" true Notions^ fo they both happcn'd to flou- 
" rirti about the fame Age; were both Tutors 
" to two " i^o;////;/Emperoufs; both Foreigners, 
" both rich, both great Men: Their Dodrine 
"■ is the very Cream of Philofophy; and dcli- 
" ver'd after a plain and pertinent Manner. 
" '!P////^rc/::' is more uniform and conllant: Seneca 
" inore various and wavering. The lall toils, 
" fcts himfclf, and bends his whole Force, to 
" fortify Virtue againll Frailty, Fear, and vi- 
" cious Inclinations : The other feems more to 
" flight their Power; difdaining either to mend 
" his Pace, or Hand upon his Guard. '^'InUirch's 
" Sentiments • arc <Thnomck^ gentle, mild, and 
" accommodated to civil Society : The other's 
" are Stoical and Epicurean^ more remote from 
" common Pradice; but, in my Opinion, better 
" fitted tor private \5k^ and more determin'd. 
" Seneca feems to lean a little to the Tyranny 
" ot the Emperours of his Time. --- 'Tint arch 
" every where fliews a Spirit of Freedom. Se- 
" tieca abounds with furprifing Turns, and 

I T-lf^" °^' "^^'^7 Plutarch with Things. 
Ihe fiVll warms and animates; the latter 
^^ gives more Content, and fuller Satisfadlion. 
« Z^*^ ^""^ guides us, the other pulhes us on.~ 
" There are, (fays the fame Author in another 
** Place '') in '■Vhitarch^ abundance of Dif- 
*' courfcs, well worth our Perufal, where he 
*' is even prolix : --- but then there are a 
" thoufand others, where he but glances up- 
" on Matters : Where he only points with 

' his Finger to direft us which Way we may 

*^ go if we will; and contents himfelf fome- 

tnnes with barely touching upon what is 

^^ molt material. Thcfe then are to be re- 

\^ 'Ppv'*-^ out of their Obfcurity into a clearer 

Light." Mr, and Madam Dacier confefs % 

"Ihat III the Morals of Plutarch, there is 

fcarce any Thing that is thoroughly dif- 

A f ' '^"^ .f"^h made out ; and that all 
the Matters there treated^ a few only excepted^ 
are hut very fuperficially handled. As for 
hcncca, his Treatife de Beneficits is, in my 
Opinion, the very bell Piece he has; but there 
too he obferves as little Order, and Method, 
as in the reft of his Writings : a Defedl, 
vvhich IS, more or lefs, to be found in almoft 
al the Authors of Antiquity. 'Tis own'd •■, 
I hat he has join'd to the Virtues of the firjl 


Stoicks, all the f ride and Uatightinefs: of their 
follower s: i\nd indeed, we may eafily dilbo- 
ver , that this haughty Stouk never Laks of 
Virtue "Without Vamty. Notwithftanding all 
vvhich, he may he read i^ith tnfimte Jdvan^ 
tage , // r^e do but join to his q>r,cepts two 
IhmgSj which arc there wanting: The one is 
that God has commanded as to apply ourfelves 
to Virtue', the other is, that he will reward 
with eternal Happinefs all fuch as ihall 
have faithfully adher'd thereto. The fame 
IS to be laid too of Epiaetus, and Mur~ 
ciis Antoninus. We have of the firll be- 
fides his Manual, fo well known to' the 
World; fome Difcourfcs that have been pre- 
lerv'd by Jrrian. Ihat Philolopher, in the 
Opinion of Monfieur and Madam Dacier - is 
more unaffected, folid,and pure than Seneca: But 
ts without any great and noble Views, is want- 
h/g in Extent of Genius, and Elevation of Thought. 
Antoninus has all thefe ^luaUfications, with a 
Soul more vaji and capacious than his Em- 
pire. Hf contents not himfelf -with the hare 
receiving, and folidly explaining the Trecepts 
of ^is^ Majiers ; but frequently correSis, and 
gives 'em i:ew Strength, either by the ingeni- 
ous and natural Manner in which he has pro- 
pos'd 'em; or by the new Difcoveries with 
which he has iynprov'd 'em. But however it 
muft be own'd, that he retains fo much 
of the ill Principles, and Maxims of 
the Stoicks-, as to require a Reader of no 
fmall Caution and Judgment. IBeiides the 
Obfcurity and Hardnefs of Stile, common to 
all of that Se^' ; is jiill greater in the 
Re/lea ions of that Emperour ; who of en ex- 
plains himfef hut by Halves ; hecaufe he 
wrote only for himfelf Nor would ?.ny Thing 
lefs, than the Ability of his lall Tranflators, 
have ferv'd to make that Work be read with 
Pleafure in our Language. 

T he Roman Lawyers, of whom the p-reatelt 
Part were Stoicks, contributed very'' much 
to the perfecling that Part of Morality, which 
may be call'd Natural Jurifprudence y. The 
Study of the Law having under the Empe- 
rours, become a principal Step to Prefer- 
ment; the Men of the greateft Genius, and 
Parts among the Romans, continu'd to ap- 
ply themfehes to this Study, for near the 
Space of two Centuries. It were to be wifli'd, 
that we had had the Writings of thofe famous 
Lawyers intire; they would no doubt have 
aftbrded us very great Light. But the Em- 
perour Jupnian, having been pleas'd to a- 


w\or?S^'^£,M^?f ^'^fT ?""■"'' '■" "^^''-P^^f^^ t° th^ Tranflation of fome of VluurM,,) that he was 

He had f> under rhc Philofopher ^mmomus, at Delpho,. ' ' 

' f'V' ^^P,^f' Pag-PS. And Ed. ult. p. 267.— 
' 'n their Preface. See Vies df Pl^iar. Dae. Tom. i, Pref. p.41.— 

.*« 5 p.,;"-!: '" '^"' ^''^'"^ '" ^^'"■^'- ^«<""«- * A 7, pDg. 2.- Edit. Haje, ,691. See what G.taker fays in his- 

• Refleftions on good and bad Fortune in Lotteries, by Mr. Le Clerc. p. 229. » Ibid; 

•'Vo,f,ifra. P,ef. to M,rc. Amonm. * A 7, p. .0.— " ibid 

J See what Vufendorf lays in his Sfuimm Controverf. £cc. Chap, i , Se<ft. 3. 




Jn Hiftorical and Critical Account 

fcarce known in the Weftern Parts of the 
World, till towards the Eeginning of the 
fixth Century. The celebrated Boetius^ by 
tranflating fome of that Philofopher's Wri- 
tings, laid the firft Foundations of that pro- 
digious, and truly deipotick Authority, which 
the Peripatetick Philofophy became after- 
wards poffefs'd of; and which, even (o this 
Day, in many Places, it ftill maintains. The 
Arahians^ in the eleventh Century, grew fond 
of it ; and introduc'd it into Spain. From 
thence fprung the Scholajiick '^hi]ofcphy j 
which fpread itfelf all over Europe^ and with 
its barbarous Cant became even more prejudicial 
to Religion and jMorality, than to the fpecu- 
lative Sciences. The F.thicks of the School- 
pten ", is a Piece of Patchwork ; a confus'd 
CoUedion, without any Order, or fix'd Prin- 
ciples ; a Medley of divers _ Thoughts and 
■ Sentences out of Jrijfotle, Civil and Canon 
Law, Scripture, and the Fathers. Both good 
and bad lie there jumbled together ; but fo 
as that there is much more of the latter, 
than the former. 'The Cafuijfs of the fuc- 
ceeding Centuries, made it their fole Bufi- 
ncfs to out-do their Predcceffours, in broach- 
ing of vain Subtilties; nay, 'what is worfe, 
monftrous and abominable Errours; as all the 
World knows. But let us pafs by thefe un- 
happy Times ; that we may at length come 
to that Age, wherein the Science of Morali- 
ty was, if I may fo fa}-, rais'd again from the 

bridge the Roman Laws; of which the De- 
cifions of thefe Lawyers, were the moft con- 
fiderable Part; their Works hereupon grew 
out of Ufe; fo that we have novv left oi em, 
only fome Fragments in the Digeft. Trtho- 
r.ian the Lawyer, to whofe Care the Empe- 
rour had committed this Work; has lett us 
a very Chaos S full of Obfcunty and Co^" 
tradidions; which afford a vail Field for 
Chicanery; and which have, in the latter Cen- 
turies, produc'd that prodigious Number ot 
fenfelefs, and confus'd Commentaries, it ap- 
pears by this Colleaion, and fome Hiftori- 
cal Remains, that there were, m the Roman 
Empire, Seds among the Lawjers " ; who, 
upon feveral Points, foUow'd different Opi- 
nions ; in the Manner we fee praftis'd among 
Philofophers, and Divines. However, not- 
withftanding all thofe Diviiions, and the vain 
»* Subtleties, that were the common Source 
from whence they fprung; we may find a- 
mong thofe few Fragments, feveral conliderable 
Principles of natural Equity, that may ferve 
to decide many difficult Cafes ; but they lie in- 
termix'd with a far greater Number ot Laws, 
purely pofitive- 

The ^latonip^ who became famous in the 
third and fourth Centuries ; fuch as <J>htim!s^ 
^raeliiisy Porphyrins, Jav^blichus, 'J>roclns, 
Sec. apply'd themfelves mi;ch more to explain 
the Speculations, or rather chimerical Con- 
ceits of the Founder of their Seft ; than 
to cultivate his Morals. Jrifioth had hither- 
to, had but very few Followers: He was 

* See the Anti-Tribontan of Tmnch mmm; the LM\n Verfion of which was reprinted at UM in Saxony; and at I.,>y?.t, in 
'''''^^'^'$:i'^tl^^';T^i^^^ in thePnWfu 7«W..C,'.,7.of Mr. V.n Ec,, ProfeiTor ..Wr.U; 

"See Mr. B«rf-/f«^, in his Abridgment of the Hiftory of Philofophy, Cap. j-, Sect. 9. 


of the Science of Morality. 




THE famous Chanccllour of England^ 
Frajicis Racou^ who liv'd in the End 
of ihe Sixteenth, and the Beginnhig 
of the Seventeenth Century; was one of thcfe^ 
* who molt learnedly dif'cover'd the Imperjeclion 
of the prefetit State oj ^Philofvphy ; which he la- 
hour d vtgoronfly to redrefs j and laid down 
moji excellent '^Plans for its Reformation. Pof- 
teritj will be eternally obliged to him, for the 
great Light and noble Projctls he has fur- 
nilh'd the World with; towards the general 
Rcllauration and Advancement of the Sci- 
ences. We have Rcafon to believe, that 'tv/as 
the reading of the Works of this great Man, 
that inipir'd Hiigo GrotiaSy with the Thoughts 
of attempting the firft to compofe a Syltcm 
of the Law of Nature; whieh he afterwards 
undertook, at the SoUicitation of the cele- 
brated Nuholas de 'Tlerefc^ Judge of the High 
Court of Parliament for "Provence. ' Tis pre- 
tended, that Melancthon had already given a 
Sketch of fomcthing of this kind, in his E- 
thicks ; and they tell us too of on; Benediii 
Wmckler^ who publilh'd in i6i^ a Book inti- 
tled, '^rincipia yans ; wherei.i he intirely de- 
parts from the Method of the S. hoolmen ; and 
maintains againft them, amongft otherThings*; 
that the Will of God is the very Fountain and 
Foundation of all JulVice. But'cis acknowledg'd, 
that ' the latter of thefc two often confounds 
the Law oi Nature with that which is poli- 
tive: And that neither the one, nor the o- 
ther has alFordcd any more than a i fmall 
Gleam of Light; not fufficient to diffipate 
thofe thick Clouds of Darknefs, in which 
the World had been fo long invelop'd. Be- 
fidcs, Melancthon ' was too much prepolTefs'd 
in favour of the Peripatetick Philofophy, ever 
to make any great Progrcfs in the Knowledge 
of the true fundamental Principles of the 
Law of Nature, and the right Method of 
explaining that Science. Grotiiis therefore 
ought to be regarded, as the firft who broke 
the Ice ; and moft certain it is, that no 
Man could be better qualify'd, for fuch 
an Enterprize. Extraordinary Clearnefs of 
Underftanding ; exquilite judgment ; pro- 
found Meditation; univerlal Knowledge; pro- 
digious Reading ; continual Application to 

Study, in the Midft of a great many vexatious 
Obftacles, and the neceilary Duties of fcvcral 
conlidcrable Employments ; witn a jinccrc 
Love for 1 Vuth ; are Qualifications, which no 
one can deny properly to belong to that great 
Man, without wronging his own judguient; 
and bringing his Charader in Danger "^cf the 
Imputation cither of bafe Envy; or grofs !?•- 
norance. " If (as has been very righciy ^ ob- 
" fcrv'd) he was not thoroughly acquainted 
" with the Art of Thinking jui^-ly; tne Fhi- 
" loibphy of his Time, being iti'll very dark 
" and obfcurc; he has fuppl/d, in a great 
" meafure, that Defed, by the Force of his 
" good Senfe. If, without the Help or Art, 
" he has Ihewn fo much Delicacy of Tafte, 
" and true Difcernment ; what would he not 
" have done, had he been intire Mafter of 
" that Art of rcafonir:g juftly, and oi rightly 
" methodizing his Thoughts, which is now, 
*' and has been for fome lime, to be had ? " 
His Book was firft pubiilhed at 'l^aris in 162^, 
and dedicated to Leivis X!i[. 'Tis laid he 
at firft 'defign'd to have entitled it. The Law 
of Nature and Nations ; but he chofe after- 
wards to give it the Title it now bears, of, 
the Law of War and ^eace. What he ' had 
chicfiy in View was, to fet forth thofe Duties, 
which the fcvcral ^ Nations of the World, or 
their- fovereign Powers, that govern them, 
owe one to another ; and how the Dilferences 
arifing between 'em might be juftly termina- 
ted. For which Purpofe, he takes into his 
Work the principal Subjed Matters of natu- 
ral Jurifprudencc, and Politicks ; and lays 
down alfo Principles fuificient to eftablilh the 
moft conlidcrable Duties of private Men. He 
* himfejf owns, that he is far trom havino- ex- 
haufted fo copious a Subjed; and wilhes that 
others may fupply what's wanting; to the 
End; that Mankind may one D^y be furnilh'd 
with a-compleat Syftem of this Science. Ne- 
ver had Book a more univerlal Approbation. 
Numbers of the Learned -' have wrote Com- 
ments upon it : It has been publickly read and 
expounded in the Univerfitics : And the Au- 
thor, but fifty Tears » afer his Death^ had an 
Honour done him^ which was fiot paid to any of 
the Ancients^ till after a long SacccJJIon of 

Ages : 

' See Mr. Bayh'i Di6l. p. 417. — See alfo the Specimen controuerf. of Vufendorf, Cap. i , Si&.f, 

Lib. I, Cip 5. 4. 
' SeeGronra,'!/ B-.hl-oth. Jitr. Gent. Lib.;, cap. 4, Sefl.p. And J. Irid. Liiaovic. Delineatio Hift.j. i^at. 5cc. Sect. 14. 

Mr. BiuJfus, in his Hiftory of the L^no of Na:ure, Seft. ij. 
' S.c his .Article, in Mr. Bayie'% Diil. Rem. (K). 
' ?Arrhii,'!iina, Tom. i , p. 546. — ■ S See his Preface, Num. i . — 

* Ihiil. Num. 51, — & fccj. 

^ See the Names ot the chief of them, and a very juft Account of their Performance, in the Hijf. dn T>-ci: Nat. by Mr. Euddeui, 

* Mr. BijU Dift. Rem. (O}, p. i-j-o;, Col. 1. — See the reft ot this Remark. 

[L 2] 

An Hijiorkal and Critical Account 


J^es : I meafiy his heing publip'd cum Com- 
menrariis Variorum, at Francfort -' on the C- 

dcr, in 1691. . - , . 

Some Time after the Publication of this 
Work of Grotius, John Seidell, a celebrated 
EiigUlh Lawyer, enter'd the Lilts ^ ^'^h^^' 
ther through ]ealouf>v or a commendable H^ 
mulation^ form'd a Syftem of all the hebrezv 
Laws, relating to the Law of Nature^ which 
he feparated from thofe, that concern d the 
particular Conftitution of the Je'-^ifr Repub- 
lick. He gave his Book the Title, ot the 
Law of Nature, and Nations, according to the 
Boanne of the Hebre-d;s ; wherein he is cxcel- 
fivcly lavifh of that vail Erudition, which we 
find in all his other Writings: But is tar e- 
nough from eclipfing the Trcatife or Grotins. 
For, belldes the extreme - Diforder, and Ub- 
fcurity, for which Se'.den'a Manner of Wri. 
ting has been jullly cenfur'd ; that Author « 
derives not the Principles of the Law of Na- 
ture from the pure Didates of Reafon ; but 
from the feven Precepts given to Noah; which, 
as to their Number, are very uncertain ; and 
folely founded upon a doubtful Tradition, 
though perhaps ancient enough : He very of- 
ten too contents himillf with barely reciting 
the Decifions oi the Rabbins ; without giving 
himfelf the Trouble to examine, whether they 
are well or ill grounded. 

Not long before the Death oiGrotms, another 
EniltOj Au'thor appear'd, of a Charaaer quite 
different from that of Selden, I mean ' Thomas 
Hobbes ; a great Mathematician, and one ot the 
moft penetrating Genius's of his Age. It is great 
Pity he fufler'd himfelf to be mifled by the 
Indignation he had concciv'd againft thole, 
whom he look'd upon as the feditious Diltiir- 
bers of the Peace of his Country: Had he 
philofophiz'd without Prejudice, and with a 
fincere Regard to Truth only ^ he would 
doubtlefs have done her very fignal Service. 
He publilh'd at ^aris 1642, his ^ 1 reatile ^e 
Croc; wherein, amongft other dangerous tlr- 
rours, he endeavours to eftablilh, and thiJt too 
in the Geometrical Method, the Hypothehs 
of Eptciirits; which makes Self-Prefer\'ation 
and Self-Interelt, to be the original Caufes 
of Civil Society. He builds upon this Sup- 
polition; That all Men have the Will, as 


as the Strength and Power to Mif- 
chief one another ; and that the State of 
Nature is a State of War, between each 
particular Perfon, and the reft of Mankind. 
He gives an unlimited Authorit) to Kings ; 
not only in Affairs of State, but even in Mat- 
ters of Religion. Hobbes created himfelj by 
this Work many Enemies ; but, as Mr. Bayle 
fays ?, the more difccrning and judicious '^art 
of Mankind wereforc'd to acknowledge, that no 
one had ever yet penetrated fo far into the ionn- 
dations of Civil '■Policy. Lambert Velthnyfen, 
a famous Philofopher ' of the united Provinces, 
boldly undertook the Defence ot this Treatile 
De Give, as far as related to Hobbes's Manner 
of demonftrating the Laws of Nature. I he 
fame Year this Defence appear'd, Hobbes pub- 
lilh'd his Leviathan ; the Sum whereot is : 
" That, without ' Peace, there is no Safety 
" in a State ; and Peace cannot lublift, with- 
« out Authority ; nor Authority, without 
" Arms^ and Arms avail not, unlels put into 
" the Hands of one Perfon : and that the Bear 
" of Arms cannot incline thofe to Peace, who 
" are pulh'd on to Hoftilities by an^ Fvil, 
" more to be dreaded than Death itfelt^ that 
" is to %, by Dilfentions about Things ne- 
" cefliiry to Salvation." In this Piece he lays 
himfelf much more open; for he here roundly 
maintains, That the Will of the Sovereign a- 
lone conftitutes, not only what we call jull and 
unjuft; but even Religion alfo ; and that no di- 
vine Revelation can bind the Confcience, till 
the Authority, or rather Caprice, ot his Le- 
viathan; that is, of the lupreme arbitrary- 
Power, to which he attributes the Government 
of every Civil Society ; has given it the Force 
of a Law. If thereupon we fometimes_ find 
in his Works, fome feeming Contradidlions ; 
'tis probably, becaufe he durft not truft the 
Reader with the whole of his Notions ; and 
was willing to provide for a Retreat, in cafe 
he lliould not be able to ftand the Shock of his 
Adverfaries. He had feveral of 'em; but ' 
they did not all fucceed alike. He pals'd 
for an Atheift; and perhaps they were not 
very much out in their judgments, who 
thought him fo; for he admitted none but Cor- 
poreal Subftances. 

Mr. i?ay/t, in hisDiaionary, p.irr,'- .... .- ► l- t? ;«!« Pnift (?lS ~ d o,-i col i 

of his 0^7«- N-'«;/ f7,^f^^^;^7.„^i,,,d, ^;j2„i;,^ ViJfertMio, de pmcifiis j.fli & decori, continens ^,oIo^>. pro tr^.^itu da- 


cf the Science of Morality. 



TH E Number of Commentators upon 
Grotius daily increaling, infomuch that 
there was now fcarce any Thing elfc 
m nded, belides Difputes about the Senfe of 
his Words ; and the barbarous Terms, and ri- 
diculous Subtleties of the Schoolmen, of which 
Grotius had purg'd his Work, being again 
brought upon the Stage ^ a Gennan had the 
Courage to lliake off the tyrannical and per- 
nicious Yoke of Cuftom; and bravely follow 
the Footftcps of that great Man : I mean the 
iilnjirions Samuel -Pufeiidorf"'^ who has there- 
b\ acquir'd an immortal Reputation : a Repu- 
tation, whofe Luftre not all the Eiforts of his 
en\ious Competitours will be ever able to et- 
face. He purfu'd the Genius and Method of 
(^rotius : He cxamin'd and weigh'd Things in 
their Originals ; and making the belt Ufe he 
could, of the Difcoveries of thofe who had 
gone before him, he then added his own ; 
which foon gave very great Hopes of his ac- 
complilliing that Work, which as yet was but 
in E.nbryo. The Principles of the new Phi- 
lofophy, which he exceedingly relilh'd, but 
without blindly adopting all the Opinions of 
the Cartefiam ; together with the Mathema- 
ticks, which he ftudy'd under * a celebrated 
Profellbur in the Univerfity of Jena ; did not 
a little contribute towards the perfefting his 
natural Qualifications ; and rendering him 
more capable of fo vali a Work. We are be- 
holden, for the firil Sketch he drew of it, to 
the Leifure an unhappy Accident, he had the 
Misfortune to meet vvith, gave him. He had 
been fent for into Denmark.^ to be Governour 
to the Children of a certain Lord, who was 
then Ambafladour of ' Sivedeu to the other 
Northern Crown. A little after his Arrival 
at Copenhagen., the War fuddenly breaking 
out again with the S^jcedes., (who attack'd 
that City, but were after fome Time oblig'd 
to raife the Siege ; ) Mr. '^iifeiidorf was made 

Prifoner ', with the reft of the Retinue of the 
Ambaffadour; who was himfelf but a few Days 
before, gone to take a Trip to Sweden. Du- 
ring this Confinement, which lafted eight 
Months; as he had no Books, neither was 
permitted to fee any Body; he took a Refo- 
lution ' to meditate on what he had read in 
Grot ins and HobUs:, and having collected his 
Meditations together, he compos'd a lliort 
Syltem out of what he lik'd bell, which he 
turn'd and explain'd his own Way ; handling 
fuch Matters as thofe Authors had omitted ; 
and adding to the whole fome new Thoughts 
of his ovvn, as they occurr'd. Not that he 
intended, at that Time, any Thing more, 
than to divert himfelf in his Solitude : But a- 
bout two Years after his being fet at Libert}", 
he went into Holland ; where a Friend of his 
getting a Sight of this Eiiay, advis'd him to 
review, and publifli it. He did fo ; and the 
Work was printed at thcHagne, in 1660 ; under 
the Title of Elements of Univer/al J-nrifprn- 
dence. He owns in his * Preface, that, be- 
fides Grotius and Hobbes., the Profellbur 
in Mathematicks mention'd before, had af- 
forded him fome Light. His Method is, 
in fome meafure, that of the Geometricians : 
For he firlt lays down his Definitions and 
Axioms ; afterwards he explains 'cm ; and 
then draws out the Confequences they con- 
tain. And though he himfelf prov'd after- 
wards dilfatisfied with this Work of his, and 
publickly own'd it to be the imperfedt and pre- 
mature Fruit of his more juvenile Studies ; 
yet as the Publick gave it a very favourable 
Reception ; fo it ferv'd to make our Author 
known to the World, in a very advantageous 
Manner, The Eled:or Palatine, Charles LewiSy 
to whom it was dedicated ; was not fatisfy'd 
with returning him his immediate Thanks for 
it, in a very obliging Letter ^ j but fent for 
him the Year following to his Univerfity of 

Heidelberg j 

* He Was original!)' of the Mnrcjiii/ate o£ Mifnia, in Saxonv. ant3 a Lay Man, tho' fprung from the Clergy ; for his Father, 
Grandfather, hi? Undes. both on the Father's and Mother's Side, were Miniftcrs of the Lutheran Communion. I learn'd this from 
One of the Pieces, which compofe that Colleftion, intitled, Eris Scandkn, p. 149, ifo. The Viihge, whereof bis Father was 
Minider, is call'd Fkh, near Chemnitz. ; and in all Probability he was born there. His Brother at leaft, Ifniah Vuiendorf, is a Na- 
tive of that Place; as Mr. Gunding teftifics, in his Hifi. Phiief. Moralis, Part ', cap. 5, Seft. j-. Note 10. See alio the jiiia lErudi- 
torttm of Leipfc, .An. 1708, p 185-. 

* Z'hsirdHeighel. He was with that Profeffour in 16 fj, during the whole Year. See I-ris Scandica, p. 116. 
' Mr.Coysl: This happen'd in i6y3. Eris Scandic-i, p. 126. 

* One of his Letters, to the Bxron de BoineSurg. is publifh'd ; wherein he fays, that the Pretence for detaining him was; that 
his Brother was fettled in Swtden. See jf. Grcaingii 'Biblnthec. fur. Gent. Lib.;, cap. 9, p. iSi. 'Twas that Brother, to whom 
he dedicated, in 1675-. his Diffirtationes Acidemia SeUHiores. He calls him [JMnh de Pufendorf, Knight. (Ecjues .Awatus,) and 
Chancellour to the Yi'ngOi Sweden, in the Dutchiesof Bremen and Verden. He fays he had been lent to the chief Courts ot Europe, 
about the Affairs of that Prince. See the Place before quoted, Lett. (.1}, in fvlr. Gundimg'% Book. 

» 'Tis what he fays himfelf, in the Letter above cited; but which, as well as the others which follow, is full of Errata; which 
in many PLces fo fpoil the Senfe, as to make 'em unintelligible. 

*P-er.* p. 5,_ 8c d. 

f The Dedication is dated the Firft of September, 1660, and the Eleiftor's Letter the 29th of the fame Month. The Letter is 
printed in the SM. fur. (y Gent.of Gronmgius, Lib. 5, Sap. 10, Seft. i. And in the Delinentio Hift.Jnr. divini, &c. of Jf. £rid. 
Ladovic. publiihed at H<?i/ in 5(jz«B_y, 1701. Sed 4/. 


An Biftorical and Critical Account 

HeHclben\ where, on his Behalf, he founded 
T^MorlHp in the Law of Nature avd ha- 
Sc«./'^rhus, that great rnnce, at the fame 
Time thatheconferr'd on Uv fufan/orf io 
hish a ]\iark of Dillinaicn and Favour ; ie- 
cur'd to himfelf the immortal Glory, m ha- 
ving £rft fet the Example to all, who Ihould 
hereafter publickly caule to be taught this 
noble Science; a Science lo neceffary tor \ outh, 
and indeed fol- all Mankind j but which no one 
had as yet bethought himlelt ot introducing mto 
the publick Univcrfitics. As our new Protellour 
conllandy made it his Bulinefs to explain the 
TreatifeofGK.m^^i fo this gave him the Op- 
portunity of obferving, more and niore eve- 
rv Dav the Neceffity there was ot compofing 
Oi'ng in that Jnd, .that i^-uld be more 
complete! The Sollicirations too ot the Ba,o,i 
deBoiuebonrg, then Chancellour to the Elec- 
tor of Mentz ; might alfo contribute very 
much to engage him therein That Minifter 
was extremely dcfirous, to have fome Bodv 
fet about the compiling a methodical Bod> ot 
natural Turifprudence ; and had in v^ain en- 
deavour'd to perfuade feveral learned Men to 
undertake it; and amongft the reft, Bceclc, 
Connvgius, and Kachelms. ^\e may eahly ima- 
gine that after havir^ read Air. ^ujcudorj^ 
\lemeuts of Vniverfal fimfpradeuce, he could 
not fail to apply to hiii for tha excellent Pur- 
pofe, judging him more capable^ than any 
Sthe'r, ^ of^ executing that -ble Defi^^. He 
found him accordingly intirely difpos d to fo- 
tisfy fo laudable a Delire. Mr ^ujevdorj 
kid before him a Plan of the Syftem he de- 
fign'd : He reprefcnted to the Baron, that^the 
due Execution thereof would require (tnefe 
are his own proper Terms) great ^enetratto,, 
of MM; an cxqafitc Judgment', and free 
from all Manner of Prejudice; amimerousLt- 
brary, great Letfure', a fettled Correfpondence 
-with feveral learned Men; who would, upon 
all Occafions, freely communicate then Thoughts 
to him: Jl I which Things, adds he, Iwant. 
However, he promis'd to do all that lay in 

his Power; but without hurrying himfelf; 
neither would he engage to pur. iQi his \\ ork, 
till he had brought it in fome Degree to an- 
fwer his Expedation. Thcfe Particulars I 
have from a Letter, he wrote '" Answer to 
the Baron de Botneboiirgs, pubha.d about 
four or five Years ago, with two Letters ot 
Boeder, and one of ^^™''\^'^;i;^«" ' ,!° 
whom that Minifter had fent Mr. 'Tujendorj s, 
to have their Opinions upon the Matter. 
Conrinm^ and Bceclcr were too m^uch pre- 
poiTefs'din favour of Antiquity; and too un- 
experienc'd in the Bufmefs ot clear Reafon- 

mss to weigh and examine rightly the Pro- 
ied and Ideas of our Author. 1 his plainly 
appears by their Anfwers : Connvgms s is in- 
deed a very civil and obligirg Letter ; but tis 
rem-rkable, that Boeder in his dilcovers an 
extraordinary Uneafinefs at the growing tame 
of Mr. ^ufendorf; and an extreme Delire to 
leflen that Efteem, the World had conceiv d 
of him. This happen'd m the ^ ear 160? 
About the Year 1667, C/We5 XI, King ot 
Sweden, defigning to eftabhili an Univeriity 
at Lunden, in the Province o^ Schonen ; re- 
folv'd ' to invite thither our Heidelberg ^ro- 
felTour. The Eledor Palatine was very loth 
to part with him ; but did not however think 
fit to lay his Com.mands upon him ; and at 
length confented to his accepting the more 
profitable and advantageous Poft, offer d him 
in Sweden. But oblig'd him that fame \ear 
to beftow fome Hours extraordinary on the 
Eleaoral Prince his Son ; who had his 
appointed Preceptors befides. Mr. ^ufn- 
dcrf went into Sweden; and w^as, in 1670, 
there eftablilh'd in the new Univeriity at Lun- 
den in Quality of chief Proteflour in the 
Faculty * of Law ; and with a Salary more 
confiderable than any of the ether Proteffburs. 
Two Years after, he pubhlli'd his Law 0/ 
Nature and Nations : And in 1684 he reprinted 
it at Francfort on the Main, augmented above 
a Fourth Part. 

' Ens ScanMca. p. 117, 1^8. o c ^, , r- v.Amn Qnmp Years after his having executed that Chnrge, 


of the Science of Morality, 


SECT. xxx;l 

I Shall not here enlarge in Tetting forth, 
in a pompous Manner, all the particu- 
lar Excellencies of this Work. Nor 
do I think myfelf under any Obligation to 
follow the ellabliflT'd Mode; which will 
have " every Tranjlator to pay^ his Original 
the Tribute of l^rcfercnce ; neither does the 
Office of an Interpreter necellarily oblige 
me fo to do : I Ihall content myfelf with 
fpeaking here hiHoricalljr; with the fame 
Indirterence and Impartiality, as will, I 
dare fay, every where fhew itfelf in my 
Notes upon this * Author. There is no 
fuch Thing as abfolute Perfection in Books, 
any more than in any other humane Pro- 
dudions ; And Mankind has, without any 
more ado, a Right to treat as Mountebanks, 
all thofe panegyrical Writers; who, to fet 
off the Authors they tranflate or comment 
uoon, or rather themfelves and their own 
Performances; begin with alFuring the Rea- 
der, that it is an intirely accomplilh'd Work 
in its Kind; a complcat Model, the ut- 
moft Effort of human Ingenuity : Always 
ready to fay as much, in four Days Time, 
of any other Author, who fliall firffc 
ha\e the good Fortune to fall into their 

Firft then, I fliall obfervc, that this 
Work has had a very general Approbation. 
The vaft Number of Editions it has had 
in Sweden^ Germany^ and Holland^ within 
the four and thirty Years fmce it was firft 
publifli'd; do fufficiendy declare, in what 
an advantageous Manner, it has been re- 
ceiv'd by the Publick. At the fame Time 
that I was tranilating it into French^ I was 
inform'd, by the Nonvelles of Mr. Bernard^ 
* That Dr. Kennet of Corpus Chrifti in 
Oxford, with fome \ others, had travjlated 
it into Englifti : I fliould have been very 
glad to have met with that Tranflation ; 
to have confulted the Introduction, and the 
II ample Notes, with which it was faid to be 
accompany'd ; and at the fame Time to 
have fccn, if thofe feveral Hands have been 
able fo to carry on fuch a Work in Concert, 
as that the necefTary Uniformity thereof has 
feceiv'd no Prejudice: But, for our Author 
himfelf, as there are certain fmgle Suffrages, 

which alone weigh more than Multitudes 
of the common Sort; I fliall here produce 
two of that Kind, which are of very great 
Weight; and to which all Men of Judgment 
will, I am pcrfuaded, pay a very great Re- 
gard. The firft is that of the illuftri- 
ous Mv. Locke, that great Philofopher; whofe 
Lofs the Republick of Letters ftill laments; 
and whofe exquilite Judgment, profound 
Penetration, and extraordinary Abilities, e- 
fpecially as to what concern'd Matters of 
Keafoning ; all the World is fufficiently ac- 
quainted with. Let us fee what he fays, 
in his excellent Trcatife of Edacaticn : 
When ' \^a young Lad'] has pretty well di- 
gcjfed 1 uUy's Offices, und added to it Pu- 
fcndorf de Officio hominis & civis, it may 
he feafonable to fet him upon Grotius de 
Jure Belli 6c Pacis, or, ivhich perhaps is the 
better of the two, Pufendorf de Jure Natu- 
ral! & Gentium; •wherein he will be in- 
Jirucled in the natural Rights of Men, and 
the Original and Foundations of Society, 
and the Duties refulting from thence. The 
other Suffrage, is that of Mr. Le Clerc ; 
concerning whom I fliall, though with Re- 
gret, forbear faying what I think ; for 
fear I fhould offend his Modefty by Enco- 
miums, which no reafonable Perfon re- 
fufes to give him ; and which, in my Mouth, 
would be of no great Weight. His Ap- 
probation falls not diredtly on my Original ; 
but is not therefore of lefs Force; feeing 
it regards the Abridgment of it, which the 
Author himfelf made, a Year after he had 
publifh'd his principal Work. Let us fee 
then what he fajs, in the '' 'J^arrhafiana ; 
when he is treating of the general Know- 
ledge, which one ought to have of the Prin- 
ciples of Civil Policy : The Books of Hugo 
Grotius de Jure Belli ac Pacis; and that 
of Samuel Pufendorf, intitled, De Officio 
Hominis & Civis ; are admirable for their 
general 'Principles. More efpecially the Se- 
cond ; which, as it is more concife, ejla- 
blifhes with great Clearnefs and Order, the 
Fhndamentals of Morality, 'T'oliticks., and 
yurifprudence. Whoever reads it carefully, 
will there find 'Principles fujfkient, to folvc 
moji of the principal (^ejfions in thofe Sci- 
ences ; 

* Sitcy, in his Preface to the Tranflation of the Letters of Pliny the Xotinger. 

* Mr. FufmJorL tie fii. Goit & Nat. ^ April, ijo^, p.^Cy. , . rV, - -i u 
-f The piincipal TranQitor, in liis Preface, names Mr. Veraial, and Mr. Xtchiner, who tranflated tne tihh and e.'glitft 

H Thefe No'es are only tiie Quorarions of the Author himfelf. 
' Sect. i85,~ of the fifth and fi-xth Editions, in 8vo, prnued in 170^-, and 1709, p. 334)- 

* Tom. 1, p. 1 17, I iS, 



An Hiftorkcil and Critical Accomtt 

euces ; ivJjicb can of uny Debate. 
Since th£n the Abridgment is, in Mr. Le 
C/erc's Opinion, fo uieful ; what muft he 
think of the Book itfelt? But that I may 
give a more particular Idea ot the Work 
iticlf, and that every one may know the 
juft Value thereof; 1 will in a few Words 
draw the Parallel of it with that of Gro- 

To begin then with the Style ; if the 
Quellion be about Purity of Language, and 
Accuracy of Exprellion, I readily give the 
Preference to Grams ; who had an Erudi- 
tion incomparably more vaft; and who, from 
his Cradle, if I may fo fay, wrote with mar- 
vellous Facility and Elegance. But then 
even his Style is too concife ; he very often 
fpeaks out" but half his Meaning; and fup- 
pofes his Reader to know many Things, 
which require very great Study and Appli- 
cation ; lb that his Work is of little Ufe 
but to the Learned : Whereas Mr. ^Viifsii- 
dorf's is much more within the Reach of 
common Capacities. As to what concerns 
Order, and the Difpofition of Particulars ; 
the general OEconomy of the Work of 
Mr. ^/ifendorf is by far the beft : But, in 
the particular Ranging of the * Materials, 
that compofe each Chapter, he has fome- 
times let flip feme Inaccuracies, which are 
■jtiot to be found in Grotitis ; from which I 
have endeavour'd, as much as poifible to 
difengage my 1. ranflation : As to the Sub- 
ject Matter, I have already taken Notice, 
that Grotius pretended not to give a com- 
pleat Syliem; which might be eafily fecn, 
though he himfelf had not declar'd it. 'Tis 
only occafionally that he touches upon e- 
ven the greateft Part of the principal Sub- 
jedt Matters of natural Right : So that, 
though his A'iews had been more extenfive, 
and lefs imperfcdt, than they feem in ma- 
ny Things to have been ; his Plan did not 
lead him to a full DifcufTion of them ; it 
was enough for him to handle 'cm fo far, 
as might be fufficient to decide the Quef- 
tions, which cdncern'd the principal Sub- 
jedl of his Book, In a Syliem of t-he Law 
of Nature, an Author ought, without Dif- 
pute, to begin with inftrudbing his Reader 
in the Nature of moral Entities or Beings; 
in the Principles and different Qualities of 
humane A'dlions ; and what it is that makes 
'em imputable either as good or evil; in 
the Nature of Laws in general ; and their 
different Kinds, i^c But we meet with 
fcarce any Thing in Grotius., relating to all 
thefe Matters; which compofe the firll Book 
of my Original. Grotius faw what was the 
fundamental Principk of the Law of Na- 
ture : But he does no more than jull point 

it out in his « Preface; and that in fuch i. 
Manner too, as gives us Reafon to con- 
clude, that his Ideas on that Head were 
not altogether clear ; nor enough difen- 
gag'd from the Prejudices of the Schools; 
And when he handles any Mat er particu- 
larly, he docs not always fticAv the Connec- 
tion it has with its firft Principles. On 
the contrary, my Author eftablifhes, and 
diftindlly explains the fundam»cntal Max- 
ims of the Law of Nature ; and from 
thence deduces, by a regular Train of Con- 
fequenccs, the principal Duties of Men 
and Subjedls; in whatfoever State and Con- 
dition they are. As Grotius omits fomc 
important Matters; fo he touches upon o- 
thers that might have been very well ijaar'd y 
as when he examines Qucftions relating ra- 
ther to Divinity, than to the Science of na- 
tural Right ; or elfe enlarges on fome cer- 
tain Subjedts, more than is rcquilite in a 
general Syliem; as, for Tnflance, on the 
Subjed of War. On all thefe Accounts, 
his Work is very much inferiour to that oJf 
Mr. 'Tujendorf:, who belides fcarce ever 
borrows any Thoughts fi-om Grotius ^, but 
what he improves, an-d explains more dif- 
tindtly ; and draws from 'em a greater 
Number of Confequences. In fine, Mr. 
^ufei.'dorf often refutes Grotius^ and that 
too with Reafon ; as may be feen at one 
\ iew by running over my index of j^uthors : 
and, to be convinc'd, that Grotius had, as 
to feveral Matters, even falfe, or at leaft 
very confus'd Ideas; there needs no more, 
than to examine one fingle Notion of his, 
which runs through his whole Syftem ; I 
mean that pretended Dillindtion of his, be- 
tween the Law of Nature^ and a certain 
Law of Nations'^ which he conceives to be 
founded on the tacit Conlent of the People 
of thofe feveral Nations. 

From all this, I think, I may boldly, 
and without any Fear of being fufpedcd. 
to ha\c too great a Tendernefs and Affec- 
tion for my Author; infer, that his Work, 
take it all together, is far more ufeful than 
that of Grotius, I have no Defign to de- 
rogate in the leaft from the Glory of that 
great Man, who is far above all my Enco- 
miums. We fliould not, perhaps even at 
this Day, have had any tolerable Syftem of 
the Science of the Law of Nature, had 
it not been for the Light he has given 
us : And had Mr. '^Pufendorf been in 
the Place of Grotius, and Grotius in the 
Place of Mr. '^ufeudorf:, the Work de Jure 
Belli ac I' acts would ^ in my Opinion, 
have been much more imperfed: than it is ; 
and the other, De "Jure Gentium S Natur,i; 
much more perfeft. 1/ fay it once again, 


• The learned Journalifts of Leipfich, in that mod obliging Extradl they gave of the firfl: Edition of this Work, fur.. T707, 
p. 55", — make me fay quite the «»htrary: In fpeaalwribu! pertraB.inMs accwatiorem e(fe Grotio fiitat. Perhaps this is 
only an F.rrour of the Pr-fs, (Grono for Grctium : ) though I do not find it mark'd in the Errata of that Year. 

' V'otegom. Num.7, ^ ''eq. particularly. Num. 11, l%, 13, 14. 

f For which Reafon I have taken care to cite in the Margin that learned Man, in a great many Places, where Mr. Fufen- 
dorfhiA forgot to do it; fo that by Means of my Tranflation, one may perpetually confront Grotius with my Author. 

of the Science of Morality. 

tiiat I never entcrtain'd a Thought of di- 
verting any one from reading the Book of 
Grotius : But very far from it, I am hear- 
tily forry, out of the Good-will I bear to 
the Republick of Letters ^ that this excel- 
lent Work is fo wretchedly tranflated into 
our Language. If the Truth may be fpo- 
ken, Mr. de Court Iv^ who is the Author of 
this Tranflation, undertook more than he 
was able to perform ; and it is furprizing 
that a Man, %vhofe Employments particu- 
larly engag'd him in the Study of the Sub- 
jed Matter of this Book ; lliould fucceed 
no better in a Defign of this Nature. I fhall 
fay nothing of the Barbaroufnefs, Rarfli- 
nefs, and Obfcurity of his Style : This is 
obvious to every Reader upon the firft O- 
pening of the Book. But there are too a 
great Number of eflential Faults, which 
make Grotius fpeak quite befide his Mean- 
ing ; and the Tranflator fometimes trips in 
Places fo plain and eafj^, that he difcovers 
a great deal of Ignorance, both in the Sub- 
'ed: Matter ; and in the Latin Tongue, 
"^he Notes too, which he has infertcd in 
his Index, in order to explain the Terms, 
and fometimes the Thoughts of Grotius ; 
make the Thing yet more apparent. His 
Explanations are for the moil Part either 
falfe, imperfed, or {o confiis'dj that in- 
ftead of clearing up Matters, they ferve 
only to render 'em fiill more obfcurc. I have 
here advanc'd nothing, but what I can very 
eafily make appear. And though I have not 
confronted this Tranflation with the Ori- 
ginal quite through ; yet I have noted 
down, as I have at fevcral Times confult- 
ed it, fo great a Number of fuch Sort of 
Blunders ; that I may, without the Impu- 
tation of Raftinefs, pals this Judgment up- 
on it. When the firfl; Edition of my Pre- 
face appear'd, I immediately fent a fmall 
Lift of them to one, who had taken Of- 
fence at this judgment of mine on the Per- 
formance of Mr. de Court in j but the Par- 


ty had nothmg to reply to me as to thofe 
enormous Faults, ot which I had taken 
my Inftances almoft at the very liril Open- 
ing of the Book. But the bell Way to 
convince all Mankind of a Thing, of which 
I think no judicious and impartial Perfon 
can have a Moment's Doubt ; would be to 
publilh a new Tranflation oi'Grotius's Book : 
which I may * perhaps fomc Time ch- other do,' 
fliould I find Leifure enough for it. I fliould 
follow the fame Plan as in my Tranflation 
of ^ufei/dorf-, in fuch Manner as to refer 
from one to the other, both in the Text, 
and^ Notes ; and to make the two Works 
join'd together ferve as perpetual Supple- 
ments to each other. There would then 
appear fo great a Difference between the 
two Tranflations, that every one at firft 
Sight would conclude, that one or other 
of the Tranflators muft have been ftrange- 
ly out of the W^ay. I am not igno- 
rant that a learned German Profellour 
commends this Verfion of Mr. de Cour- 
ting as an elegant, char Verf.on, that -luay 
ferve injlead of a Conment ; he adds too, 
that the Tranflator has in an accurate /;;- 
dex, given his Reader an Jhridgment of the 
•whole Work. But, in all Probability, this 
learned Man has rely'd upon fome Body 
elfe's Judgment in this Matter; or perhaps, 
being better acquainted with the Latin, 
than our Language ; he has concluded this 
Tranflation to be a good one, bccaufe the 
Author fpeaks Latin in French. It has 
perhaps *, been reprinted thrice, or it may 
be oftner; but this only Ihews what Cre- 
dit the Original itfelf of Grotius has in the 
World; and the great Want there is of 
Books of this _ Nature. So that, admit- 
ting there was, in the main, no great Dif- 
ference between my Original, and the W^ork 
of Grotius ; this Tranflation at leaft of 
the latter, could afford no juft Caufe, why 
I fhould have defifted frortl tranflating the 

* Th]!; he has fince perform'd, and his Tranflation printed at Amjlenkm, An. 1714. 

* Mr. Budileus. hereroFore Profeflbur of the Law of Nature and Morality at Hull in Snxonv; and at prefcnt Prcfeflbur in 
Divinity at Jena. See his Hiftory du droit Natitrd, Seft.4. 

* Tlic lafl Edition I know of, is that of the Hague, in 170J. 




An Hiftorical and Critical Account 


MY Delign .in this Tranflation, has 
been to do Service to two Sorts 
of Perfons. The firft, are fuch 
young iMen, as are deftin'd for publick 
Employments, as well Eccleliaftical, as Ci- 
vil. We fee 'em every Day afpire to, and 
iidually obtain thofe Employs ; without 
having the Icaft Tindture of the moft ge- 
neral Principles of a Science, fo univcrfally 
necehary, as is the Science taught in this 
Book: In fo mtich that, even though the 
Paflions fliould not otherwifc intrude thcm- 
■felvesj we need not wonder to fee Affairs 
fucceed fo ill in the Hands of Men, wj;io 
fit down contented under fo grofs an Igno- 
rance of their .Dudes. It may perhaps be 
faid, that they can read this Book in Latin, 
and therefore have no needofmyTranilation. 
But, not to mention at prefent the Regula- 
tions and Amendments I have made in the 
Text of my Author, and the Notes I have 
added to it ; an exad Knowledge of the moft 
neceflary Languages is belides a Thing ge- 
nerally very much negledted ^ and there are 
vail Numbers in Offices, who either do not 
underftand Latin at all; or elfe fo little, 
that they cannot, with Pleafure and Im- 
provement, read a Book in a Stile like 
that of my Author. Befides 'tis my No- 
tion (if I may be allow'd to venture a 
Thcfught, which is perhaps peculiar to 
inyfelf ; but I believe well enough ground- 
ed: ) that we ought, as much as poffibly 
we can, to begin our Studies of the Sci- 
■ cnccs with Books written in that Lan- 
guage, which is moft familiar to us. How- 
ever able we may be to read with great 
Eafe, and Readinefs, Books wrote in a 
dead Language ; yet our Mother Tongue 
IS always bell underftood : neither is it 
good to divide the Mind by Iharing our 
Thoughts between the Attention, that we 
ought to have for the Things themfelves ; 
and that, which we are oblig'd to give to the 
Underllanding of the Terms, in which they 
are exprefs'd. " 

The other Sort of Men, I intended to 
fcnc by this Tranflation, arc the illite- 
rate or com.mon People ; among whom, 

it is not at all to be wonder'd at, if wc 
find the grofleft Ignorance of the Things, 
ccntain'd in this Book ; feeing thofe, whom 
I have juft now mentioned, have but very 
falfe and confus'd Ideas thereof. I know 
by Experience, that even the Term, Laiv 
of Nature, is as -much unknown to them, 
as is the Terra jduftralis incognita \ for 
which Reafon, I thought myfelf oblig'd 
to explain it in the Title Page. The Peo- 
ple of this Rank, when they heard talk of 
the Tranflation I was then upon ; imagin'd 
at firft, that it was a Book thick-fet with 
the Querks and Subtilties of the Bar ; and 
therefore to be left to the Lawyers. I 
own 'tis not within the Reach of a Pea- 
fant or a Day-Labourer. But how many 
Men are there, who without making Learn- 
ing their Profeffion, might with Profi- 
ciency read fuch a Book as this \ if they 
would but give the fame Attention there- 
to, as they do to their common Aifairs ; 
or to the Reading of other Books far lefs 
ufeful ; nay, fometimes pernicious. I lliall 
not flop here to fhew 'em the Neceflity 
they are under of being inftrudlcd, at leaft 
to a certain Degree, in the feveral Points 
of Morality, Jurifprudence, and Politicks, 
treated of in this Work. If they will 
take the Pains to read carefully the ' 'J'ar- 
rhajiana, they will no longer doubt there- 
of; and, if they have their true Intercft 
at Heart, they will fpeedily apply them- 
felves to the making a proper Ule of thofe 
excellent Leflbns, the Author there gives. 
I did intend to have faid fomething in 
this Place of the * Defedls, and Imperfec- 
tions in the Generality of Books and Dif- 
courfes of Morality ; of the Method to be 
obferv'd in treating of, and ftudjing this 
important Science ; of the Conformity of 
the Duties, right Reafon teaches us •f' , 
with the Maxims of the Gofpel ; and of 
fome other Things of the like Nature. But, 
befides that this Preface is already fpun out 
to a very great Length, the Matters I hava 
handled having led me further than I ima- 
gin'd ; the Printers allow me not Time e- 
nough, to digeft thoroughly what I had 


* Tom. 2, TSg 5-+, & f'l- 

* S.e what I have faid in a few Words about one of thefc Defefts, in my Preface to the Trait^ du feu, printed in 1709, 
pag. 17. &feq. 

-j- I have fince handled th:s at large in my Treatife «'« Jeu, Lib. i. Cap. j. 1 have no more Lcifure at prefent to undertake 
the reft, than \ had, when the firft Edition of this preliminary Difcourfe waspriiited ; which is belides now confiderably in- 
larg'd, by fcvcra! Additions in tliis new Edition. 

of the Science of MoRALixr. 



to fay on thofe Heads. I fliall therefore 
content myfelf with obferving, in a few 
Words, one Thing, which we feem not c- 
^nough to refled on. And that is, that 
/'Revelation was not given to Men , to 
teach them abfolutely and fully all that 
they ought to know. On the contrary, it 
fuppofes in 'em the Knowledge of fome 
certain Things ^ which Knowledge they 
either adtually have, or which 'tis intire- 
ly in their Power to acquire : And the 
Faculty of drawing Confequences from 
Principles known, either by the fole Light 
of Reafon ; or by Holy Scripture. T.'he 
Exiftence, for Inltance, of a Deity infinite 
in Power, Wifdom, and Goodncfs, the fo- 
vereign Legiflator, and Author of humane 
Society ; is a Principle evident by its 
own Light : Therefore we find that the 
Sacred Writei's do not fo earneltly ap- 
ply themfelves to the eftablilhing of itj if 
they fpeak of it, 'tis as of 
a Thing manifeft to all Mankind. They 
even exprefly tell us, that that which * 
may he knozvn of God^ was manifeji a- 
mciig the Heathe/JSy God havhig Jhewn it 
to them ( by the Light of Reafon ) '-, 
for that the itroifible Things of him, his 
eternal 'Tower and Godhead, -were from the 
Creation of the World, clearly feen, he- 
iijg nnderjhcd by his Works ; fo that the 
Heathens ivcre iv.ei^cufable : Becaufe they 
did not give that Attention to 'em, they 
ought to have done. Thus too it is with 
relped: to the true Principles of Mora- 
lity, which are founded on the general 
Notions of Religion. The Sacred Wri- 
ters affure us, that, ' when the Nations, 
which have not the Law, (written, like 
that of Mofes'^ ) do by Nature (that is to 
fay, without Revelation ; ) the 'Things con- 
tained in the Law ; thefe having not the 
Law J are a Law unto themfelves : And 
jhew, that the Commandments of the Law 
are written in their Hearts ; their Con- 
fciences alfo bearing Witnefs, and their 
Thoughts the mean while acctijing or eAcU' 
jmg them. The Manner, in which the Sa- 
cred Writers propofe the Maxims of Mo- 
rality, does alio manifeftly fhcw, that they 
did fuppofe, in the Minds of Men, cer- 
tain Notions, which, though imperfcft, 
are neverthelefs moll true ; and that they 
were fatisfy'd with fupplying what was 
therein dcfedive ; or with retrenching what 
ill Habits and Cufloms had perverfely 
added thereto. They have not left us a 
methodical Syftem ; they do not exact- 
ly define all the Virtues j they enter not 
into Particularities ; they only give, as Oc- 
cafion reqnir'd, general Precepts ; from 
whence we muft draw many Confequences, 
in order to apply them to the leveral 

States and Circumftances of particular Per- 
fons, and Cafes \ as it would be cafy to 
fliew by many Inftances, if the Thing 
was not evident to all who read, with 
ever fo little Care, the Holy Scriptures'. 
And from thence it appears, to mention 
it only by the By ; how far we ought 
to rely upon the Expedient of thofe, who, 
after having made it their Bulinefs to ruin 
and deftroy the Certainty of the Light 
of Reafon ; refer us to the Light of Faith, 
for the refolving of our Doubts : As if 
the Light of Faith did not necelFarily 
fuppofe that of Reafon ; and as if the 
Proofs we have of the Truth of thofe 
Fadts, on which Revelation is founded; 
or of the Senfe and Meaning of a great 
many Paflages in Scripture ; were more 
evident, than the Maxims of right Rea- 
fon are, with relation to our Duties, and 
their true Foundations : not to mention 
how far thefe Gentlemen carry Hijiori- 
cal 'T^yrrhonifm. On the contrary, 'tis 
certain, that the intire Conformity of 
the Chrillian Morality with the cleareil 
Dictates of right Reafon ; is one of the 
moft convincing Proofs of the Di\ini- 
ty of the Chrillian Religion : as has 
been acknowledg'd by all, who have 
wrote with any Solidity on that Sub- 
jedl. We are afjtird, fays a * famous 
Englijh Divine, that God can never re- 
veal any Thing contradiBory to the true 
DiBates of oar Reafon. Nay, what ought 
chiefly to perfuade us, that the Holy Scrip- 
tures are the Work of God, or of the Au- 
thor of Nature ', is, that that Holy Book 
illuftrates , confirms , and every vohere lets 
in new Light upon the Laws of Nature. 
And if we duly weigh and confider it, 
we Ihall find, that this is the Proof, 
which of all others is the moll affeding ; 
and the bell proportion'd to the common 
Capacities of the Bulk of Mankind. I 
have no Defign, in any Refpedt, to dimi- 
nifh the Certainty of thofe Fads, that arc 
the Foundation of Faith : There is no one 
Fadt to be found, in all antient Hiltory, fo 
well prov'd, as thefe are found to be; and it 
has been very juftly obferv'd, that they afford 
when well confider 'd, a Demonllration as 
incontellable, as thofe of the Mathema- 
ticks ; though of another Nature. But it 
mull be own'd, that the Generality of Man- 
kind are, by their State and Condition of 
Life, reduc'd to an Impoffibility of fuf- 
ficiently inllruding themfelves, in all that 
is necellary, for the apprehending the Force 
of this Demonllration. They m.ull under- 
Hand feveral Languages, and read with Ap- 
plication a great many Volumes ; which 
we well know, they have neither Leifure 
nor Means to do. They are therefore ob- 


* Rom. i. 19, 10. Seealfb A£lsXvii. 27, 28. 

' Rom. ii. 14, ij-. 

*■ Richnrd CumierUnJ, de teg. Natur. Vroleg. Seft. 27.— 

88 An Hiprical and Critical Account, &c. 

lia'd to refer thcmfelves therein to thofe, 
AN^ho are in a Condition to make fuch il.n- 
quiries: And, though they may be able to 
draw a very ftrong Proof, in Favour of the 
Gofpel, from the Unanimity which they 
obferve, as to this fundamental Pomt, 
among all Chriftians, though otherwife lo 
very much divided about particular Opi- 
nions • Yet after all it muft be own d, that 
there is ftill fomething wanting to pro- 
duce in 'em an intire Conviaion. But when 
they come at length to confider the H^van- 
gelical Morality, and find it intirely coii- 

N B. The Thirty third j or laji SeBion, 
'indexes of Mr. Barbeyrac'j French T; 
omitted, as of no Vfe to the Englifli 

formable both to their true Intcrefts ; and 
to all thofe Principles, of which every Man 
has by Nature the Seeds in his own 
Heart ; they cannot then help concluding, 
that the Author of it muft neceffarily be, 
that very Being, who has given 'em Life, 
and brought 'em into this World only to 
make 'em happy; provided they will not 
be wanting to themfelves, but contribute 
on their Part, all that lies in their own 
Power, towards the Attainment ot their 
own Felicity. 

relating 'wholly to the Text, Notes, and 
■anjlation of Pufendorf ; is here pir^ofely 


Chap. I. 

O F T H E 






Containing the preliminary Parts of that Knowledge. 


Of the Origin and Variety of Moral Entities, 

The Contents of every Paragraph of the firft Chapter. 

xir. The Divifions of fingle Perfons. 
xiir. ^nd Compound. 

XIV. Some Precepts about moral Perfons, 

XV. Feigned Perfons. 

XVI. Moral Things. 

XVII. The Divifion of moial Modes. 
xvni. Titles. 

XIX. Power. 

XX. Right. 

XXI. The remaining moral ^alities. 
xxii. Moral ^lantities. 
XXIII. How moral Entities periflj. 

I. The IntroduSlion. 

II. Man's Life is govern'd by moral Entities. 

III. What are moral Entities, what is their Caufe 

and End. i 

IV. The Way of poducing them. Their Infiitii- 

tion. Their Operation, and from whence. 

V. Their Divifion. 

VI. Their State what. 

VII. Their natural and adventitious State. 
viii. Peace and War, and how manifold? 

IX. Determinate States. 

X. States having refpecl to Time. 

XI. Certain Precepts concerning States. 

T was the Bufinefs of 
the/;/ and highcftPhl- 
lofophy ", and that by 
which alone it could 
folly anfwer the De- 
fign of its Name, and 
Inilitution, to deliver 
the moft comprehen- 
five Definitions of 
Things, and to rank 
them agreeably under their proper Clafles, fubjoin- 
mg the general Nature and Condition of every 
Sort of Beings. Now as the Series of natural 
'ihmgs = hath been fairly enough regulated by 
thofe, who have hitherto apply'd themfelves to 

the adorning of that Science, fo it is evident, that 
Men have not been equally felicitous about confli- 
tuting the Entia moralia, ox moral Entities, nor 
treated them with thatRefpeft which their Digni- 
ty requir'd. Many Authors ft-em never fo much as 
to have thought on them-, others only touch them 
lightly over, as idle Fidions, of no ufe or mo- 
ment in the World. When, at the fame time, it 
was highly expedient, that they fhould be fully 
underfloodby Mankind, who are endu'd with the 
Power of producing them ' , and through whofe 
whole Lives and Conduds their Force and A61:i- 
vity is diffufed. This Refledion obligeth us to 
premife fomewhat on a Part of Knowledge gene- 
rally neglefted -y fo far as fliall feem requifite to il- 

Mr. B ARBEYR AC'S iVOr^^" o» Chap. I. §. i. 

he>-s U)tof only l^fscience nf F^""' ^'^ """^ "^".''^"u"^- "^3'^^"* P^'"^'^' becaufe i: comprehends fas fome Philofo- 
alTheoloa" .°?L* ^^^"""?^^"^e"^'" ?5""al, their chief Properties, and moft eminent Species; but alfo Natu- 

phershold) not onlv hp Sri /r^""' ^ our Author's Phdofophia becaufe it comprehends (i 

ral Theololra°d In Account of th^"'" '" f f "'' '^'^ '^'^^ Properties, and moft eminent Specie! , „ _.. 

I _ A^ u an Account ot the N.iture ot Spirits 

the beginning" of th?cha|t'er! ^'^'"^'°" °^ f^'J''^'"' ^"'l ^^^^ Entities to the next Paragraph, palTes it over here io 
' How this is done, fee §! 3. and 4. following. 

2 luftrate 

2 Of the Origin and tie Variety o/moral Entities. B o o k I. 

luftrate our principal Undertaking : Efpecially left printed on them. Th.k Properties we now ufually 
our Defini ions of moral Things Aould, either up- call natural, fmce the Term A^./«r. hath been ex- 
on account of their Obfcunty, or of their Novel- tended fo far, as to denote not only the general 
tv prove a Stop to the Reader, who perhaps in Mafs of Things, but alfotheModes and Aasflow- 
7oi" Treaufes hSh rarely met wit'h the^ike ing from the '"--^Force o their^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Terms And here, if thofe who have been bred up by which is produc d that infinite Vauety ot Mo- 
i; the nicer Delicacies of Letters, fhall difdain our tions which ^^^^T^.^^^^^^ 
Endeavours of this kind, and caft a cenforious our World. Thofe Things which exercile their 
Frown on Words unknown to antient Eloquence ; Operations, either without any Senfe at a", or with 
we on y petition them for this Favour, that as we pure down-right Senfe or with fuch as is affifted 
often pirdon the Impertinencies of their over-fcru- by ver)^ inipertea Reflection, are gtiided by the 
m loufExaanefs fo they would be pleas'd to gnmt fole Inlhna of Nature, and a.^ unable to govern 
S the ?;Terat on^^^^^^^ be Polit? ", whilll we their Adion^by any Rules or Modes of their own 
profefs a clofer Regard to the flrid Severity of Inventio.^ But Man, who befides h.s excellent 
Thngs, thfn to diemerior Ornaments of Speech. Form and moft accurate Contexture of Body, fit- 
For fo'w to exprefs ourfelves with more Advan- ting him for the nobleft and the qu.ckeft Offices of 
Le about thefe Matters, we are yet to feek > un- Life and Motion , is endud %yith afingular Light 
ef by tediou ChS le would leave of Underftanding , by the Help of which he is 

hem more obfcure and more perplex'd than we able moft exaftly to comprehend and to compare 
found Siem. Againft the Charge of Novelty ^ully Things, to gather the Knowledge of Obfcunties 
himfelf will be^our Advocate : Ncv Nances (fays from Points already fettled and to judge of the 
^hc{ar7tok,pplfdto new Things, nor is this to be Agreement which Matters bear to each other > and 
•^^fJlly^Man of ordinc^yKno'.kdge^.vhen hath alfo the Liberty of exerting fufpending or 
/.. confers, thati ever Art andCraft, not vulgar- moderating ^'sAftions without be,n^^^^^ 
h underdood there is a Variety of Terms coined for any neceflary Courie and Method . Man, we lay, 
L;J£i1::^.k And thenVing Exam/les i^ J^her invefted with the l-^^^^J^-^^l^^^l 
in the liberal and mechanic Arts, he concludes j and applying new Helps to each Faculty, for die 
A Phtlofopher of all Men bath an efpecial Right to more eafy Regulation °^ '^^. J^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^o 
this PriJlege ; for Philofophy is the Art of Life, contiderwhatiuimberlefs Modes ^f^J^J^}^^^ 
and he that would undertake to explain its Rules, can- been introduced for the Affiftance of the ^^jde^P^^^ 
not, from the common Currency of Words, findStock ing, and for preventing the Confufion jvh.chm.ghc 
enough to a>^cr his Occafions ' ' . But he that can arUe from the undiftinguifh d Vaftnefs of its Ob- 
upon no account digeft fuch Harflinefs of St.le, is jefts, is the Pro^^nce of another Sort of Enqui- 
leVt at his Liberty to turn out of thefe rougher »f^-OurBufinefsis, to declare, how, ch^fly for 
Trafts, and to pafs immediately to aField of more the Diredion of the WM, a cemm Kind of At- 
Smoothnefs and Pleafure tributes have been impos'd on Thongs, and their 

II All the Beings ^ which compofe this Uni- natural Motions > whence there fprings up a pecu- 
verfe, as they confift of fuch Principles as were by liar Agreement and Conveniency in the Adions of 
the moft wile Creator temper'd and fitted for the Mankind, a grateful Order and Comdinds for the 
producing of each particular EfTence^ fo they have Ornament of human Life^ And d.efe Attnbu 
?very one of them their particular Properttes, ari- are call'd moral Entttm, becaufe the Manm s and 
fing from the Difpofition and Aptitude of their the Actions of Men are judg d and temper d with 
Subftance, and exerting themfelves in agreeable relation to them 5 and do hence a Jume a Face and 
Adions, according to that Portion of Strength Habit different from the horrid Stupidity of the 
which their Divine Author and Founder hath im- dumb Creation. 

The Author in his laft Editions adds thefe Quotations here. 

" We find Manilius ufing the like Excufe : Lib. iii. jt. 39. CT-f 

Ornari res ,ffa negat, connnta doceri. And though feme Words of foreign Stamp appear. 

Et fi qua externa referantur r,om,na l.ngua. Seem h^-^^^. ""tun d, """^7 ^^f./'^y ^^^^ . . 

Hoc oper,,, non vJs er.t : non omnm fle^ Th,s .s the SuhjecTs not the «>;«r s. Fault : 

Polfunt, ^ propria melm. fub voce rwuntur. Some thmgs are ft.ff. and w>ll not yield to Thought. 

■" ' ^ '^ ■* I muft be plain : and if our Art hath found 

Nor hope fweet Verfe and curious Turns to find : Expreffions proper, it neglefts the Sound. ^^ ^^^^^^ 

I'll leave thy Partions, and inftrud thy Mind. l- l i-ff C.^u tC, ■ 
To thejar^epurpofe, K. Lu c re T. Lib. i. ;^. .37- C7 H o r a T. Art. Poet. :fi ^^%. M kftfea.s thus. 

i..Si fort: necejfe eft None may to us that L.beiy retufe 

Indkiis monflrare recem.bus abd.ta rerum, Suppofing that it prudently be none. 

tmgere tiniiuth mn exaud.ta Cetheg.s fc„,perque Ucebn 

Contintet : dabiturque licenna fumpta prudenter. .- ^ j „„„,.., 

^ ThusinEnglilh: Stgnatum pr.fentenoa produerenomen. 

If to exprefs Things new fo'und out, we ufe It ever w-^^. jnd e er wi 1 l"vfv|^.be 

New Words, un?o the Antients never known. To ufe the Words forg d by Neceflity. 

A/r. Barb. NOtESon^.i, 11. 

' Cicero maintains it to be a childifhThin? to fpeak elegantly of Matters philofophical: In fuch Cafes to fpeak plam .s 
fufficient, and learned Men have no other Intent, but to exprefs themfelves clearly.]in. '■ "'• ^- '• , . , 

- I^efin. l.iii.c. ,. The following Part of this Difcourfe plainly Ihews us. that he l^peaks exprefly of fuch Phi ofophersas 
treat of moral knowledge, becauf^ he diftinguifhes them fi-om Logicians. Natural Philofophers. Geometnc^ns crr^ 

'Our Author infers f?om thefe Quotations." that 'tis as lawful forhim as thefe antient Poets, to b^owfomeTe ms 
from other Languages, to exprefs himfelf in this Work, f.nce he can find none proper '"^s own, and he ^ .snootier 
Way to render liimfelf intelWible. And this might have been a good Excufe for tfie antient Schoolmen, .1 they had 
not carry'd this Liberty too ^r, and made nfe ot Terms wholly barbarous. :„,.,.„,, ,„j „„r- 

4 By Beings our Author means the Subftances of Things, with all their Properties and Qualities, mteinal and exter- 

nal, as appears by what follows. 

' See Note 2. upon §. 5. of this Chapter. 

* Men and their Aftions are here underftood, as §. 16, thews. ^ 

Chap. 1.0/ the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities, 5 

III. We may define our moral Entities to be cer- human Condufl , as fuperior to brutal in being 
tain Modes fuper added to natural Things and Motions capable of regular Beauty and Grace ; that thus in 
hy underflanding Beings^ chiefly for the guiding and fo inconftant a Subject, as the Mot'ions of Mens 
tempering the Freedom of voluntary Jctions^ and for Minds, an agreeable Elegance and Harmony 
the procuring of a decent Regularity in the Method of might be produc'd. ' 
Life. We call them Modes., becaufe we conceive IV. As the original Way of producino- natural 
Ens^ or Being., in general, to be more conveniently Entities is ■♦ by Creation, fo the Manner'of ham- 
divided at large into Suhfiance and ' Mode., than in- ing moral Entities cannot be better exprefled than 
to Suhflame and Accident. And as Mode is cdn- by the Term of ' Impofition. For thefe do not 
tradirtinguiih'd to Subflancc.,_ fo it is manifcll:, that proceed from Principles ingrafted in the Subifance 
moral Entities have no Self-fubfiftcnce, but are of Things, but are added, at the Pleafure of in- 
founded in Subftances and in their Motions, and do telligent Creatures, to ' Beings already perfeft in 
only affeft them after a certain manner. Oi Modes., their Nature, and to the real Produ6Hons of thofe 
'fome flow, as it were, naturally from the Things Beings > and confequently obtain their ' whole 
themfelves} » others are fuperadded by the Inter- Exiiknce from the Determination of their Au- 
vention of an intelligent Power. For whatever is thors. The fame Power affigns them fuch -.ayl 
endu'd with Underflanding, can, from the reflex fuch Effefts, which, when it fees convenient, it. 
Knowledge of Thing?, and from comparing them can deftroy \ without caufing any natural Altera- 
with one another, form fuch Notions as may prove tion in the Subjeft to which they were apply'd. 
very ferviceable in the Diiedlion of an agreeable Hence their Force and Ability of Operation doth 
and confident Faculty. Moral Entities :ire of this no: confill in this, that they can by their inter- 
kind; the Original of which is juftly to be referr'd nal Efficacy produce any natural Motion or 
to Almighty God, who would not that Men Change in Things, without the Intenxntion ot 
ihould pals their Life like Beads, Avithout Culture other Caufes j but partly in fhewing Men how 
and without Rule; but that they and their Aftions they ought to govern their Freedom of Attions^ 
fhould be moderated by fettled Maxims andPrinci- and chiefly in making them capable of receiving 
pies; which could not be efi-ected without the Ap- Benefit or Injury, and of excrciling feveral Works 
plication of fuch Terms and Notions. But the towards other Perfons, with fome peculiar Et- 
greateft Part of them were afterwards added at feci: '. And the Efficacy of moral Entities, prc- 
the Pleafure of Men, as they found it expedient duc'd by Almighty God, flows from this Prin- 
to bring them in, for the polilliing and the metho- ciple, That he, by his Right of Creation, hath 
dizing of common Life. And from hence the the Power of circumfcribing, wnthin proper Li- 
End of them is plainly to be difcovefd , which is mits, that Liberty of Will with which he indulg'd 
not, like that of natural Beings, the Perfection Mankind, and when it grows refractory, ofrurn- 
of the Univerfe, but the particular Perfcclion of ing it which way foever he pleafeth, by theForce 

Mr. Barb. NOTES on i. tii, iv. 

» Our Author, witlioiit doubt, intends by this Diftinclion td make a Difference between Modes properly fo call'd, which 
are not to be fep.irated from their Subftance, and have no Evidence by themfelves; and fuch, as being real Subftances of 
themfelves, can have an independent E.viftence from the Subjed to which they are jovned. For the Term A/fl(/c, in its 
true Signification, is oppofed to Suhfiance, and imports only the Modification, or Manner of Being. It is riot the fame with 

For Inftancc, The Figure of a Body, which is really inherent in it ; and thcveiofccMcd an Mode. 
' Such are moral Entitle;, which are not in tiie Things themfelves, but depend upon the Operation of the Mind; and 
are therefore called External Modes, becaufe they are nothing clfe but certain Relations of Objcfts or Ideas one to an- 
other, Se^The Art of Thinking, 1. i. c. ii. andUv. Lo cki's HjimanUnrlerftantiin^, !. ii. c. xxviii. 

* This Word is fometimes ufed in Latin, to fignify theEftabHfhment of a Man in an Office, as Confulcreatuseft, He 
Was made Conful. '' 

5 The French renders it Inftitution, which being ufed in Englifli for every Thing that proceeds from mere human Invention 
and Appointment, in Oppofition to what proceeds from Nature, may be better ufed iiere. 

* We muftnot imagine, that the E.viftence of Entities is always poftcrior to the Exiftcnce of the Thinos they are 
annexed to. 'Tis true, in refpeft of fuch as are of human Inftitution only, but' not of fuch as are of divine, becaufe thev are 
appropriated to Man from the Moment of his Creation, of which Sort are all natural Obligations, of which our Author treats, 
j. m. c iv.f. :;. andthe State of Nature, of which he fpe.iks J. 7. So that there'is no Moment, in which a Man may 
be conceived free from all moral Entities. Neverthelefs, as moral Entities, which are born with a Man, are not lefs true 

out ot a Work of this Author's, call'd A Sfecimen of the Controverfies w'.th Pufendorf about his Rkht of Nature. &c 
f. 111. §.10. ^ J ' . 

_ ' To obviate all Objeftions againft this Expreflion of our Author, we ought to obferve, that he mak'es two forts of Inftitu- 
tion : I. Purely arbitrary. 2. Another, which has a Foundation in the Thin;^ itfelf, and which is a neceflary Confsquent of 
What is before freely refolved, and can't beoppofed orcomradifted : As f'or Example, an Architect may or may not build 
a Palace; but when he has refolved to do it, hemuft neceflarilv order the Materials in a clear different Manner than if he 
were to build a Cottage ; and he'd pafs for a Fool, if, after he iui'd built a Cottage, he fhould affirm it to be a Palace : Vet 
this hinders not, but the ordering ot the Materials proceeds from the Contrivance and Will of the Architecf. In like man- 
ner It was altogether free for God either to create Man, or not ; but after he had refolved to fend iiim into the World, it was 
neceliary that he (hould lay fuch Obligations on him, as became a rational and fociable Creature ; fo that if the Laws of Na- 
ture^epend originally on the Divine Inftitution, they are uot a pure arbitrary Conftituiion, as the ceremonial Laws ^iven to 
nie jeiis w-ere ; but an Inftitution founded upon the very Nature of Man, and the Wifdom of G o d, wlio can't will The End, 
but hemuft at the fame time will the Means to the End. Neverthelefs, though the Will of G o d can't be (eparated from 
nis ^oodnefs and Wifdom, yet we impute the Eftablifhment of the Laws of Nature chiefly to the Divine Will, becaufe it is 
not only the Principle of all Divine Aftions, but becaufe G O D's Wifdom and Goodnefs are Attributes intirely free, and fo 
can t be conceived without the Will. Thefe txpofitions are taken from this Author's Works, viz. Specitn. Conirtnerf cap. v. 
§. 9. Dijfert. Acad. p. 743. Spud. Controv. cap. iii. J. 9. ^ 

^ See the laft Paragraph of this Chapter. 
-kL^'^ l"^T "^""o"^ Entities we have a Right to do ourfelves, or require of others, certain Things ; orrather we are 
•DJi^ea to do them, or fufFer others to do them. See Note ^. in the next Paragraph, 

Of the Origin and the Variety o/moral Entities. B o ok I. 

of fome threatned Evil : Men likewlfe were im- 
powered to give a Force to their Inventions of 
the fame kind, by threatning fome Inconvenience, 
which their Strength was able to make good a- 
gainfl: thofe who fhould not aft conformably to 

V. Since then moral Entities V7tre mftituted for 
the Regulation of Mens Lives J to which End it 
is neceflary, that thofe who are to obferve this 
Rule iliould bear fome fettled Relations to one an- 
other, ilrould govern their Actions by a fixed Me- 
thod} and, laftly, ihould z£t with determinate Re- 
fpecls and Titles about fuch Goods and Pofiefllons 
as the Occafions of Life require ; we may hence con- 
ceive them to be principally inherent, ;?)y?, milleri; 
fecondly, in the^ff/o;/; ofMen; and, thirdly, after a 
(brt, likewife ', in77;/>/^^, which Nature, either by 
her own Strength , or with the Affiftance of hu- 
man Induftry, may produce. ' But though it would 
be no Abfurdity to ftate their Divifion accordmg 
to thefe three Heads or Subjefts, yet it feems a 
more exaft Method to make the ClaJTes of natural 
Entities our Patterns in digefting the moral j not 
only becaufe the former have more engag'd the 
Studies of philofophical Men, and being compar'd 
with the latter , caft a confiderable Share of their 
own Light and Evidence upon them -, but like- 
wife becaufe our Underftandings are fo immers'd 
in corporeal Images, as to be hardly capable of ap- 
prehending iuch moral Beings any otherwife than 
by their Analogy to thofe of Nature. 

VI. Now though 'ffioral Entities do not lubfift 
of themfelves, and for that Reafon ought not, in 
general, to be rank'd under theClafs oi Sub fiance s , 
but of Modes ; yet we find many of them to be 
conceiv'd in the Manner of Subilanccs, becaufe 
other moral Things feem to be immediately found- 
ed in them, jull as Quantities and Qualities inhere 
in the real Subllance of Bodies. ^Farther, as na- 
tural Subftances fuppofe fome Kind oi Space ^ in 
which they fix their Exiftence, and exercile their 
Motions; ' fo in AUufion to thefe, moral Pcrfons 
are efpecially faid to be in fome State, which in 
like manner contains them, and in which they per- 
form their Operations. Hence nt. State may not im- 
properly be defin'd a moral Entity framed and ta- 
ken up on account of the Analogy it hears to Space. 
And as Space feems no principal and original Be- 
ing, but is devis'd, to be, as it were, fpread under 
other Things, to hold and to fuftain them in fome 
particular manner ; fo the feveral Sates were not 
introduc'd for their own Sakes, but to make a Field 
for ' moral Perfons to exift in. Yet there is in- 
deed this Difference between .y/^r/f and Space, that 

the latter is a kind of immoveable Subftance, ex- 
tended primarily, and of it felf, and which might 
Hill fubfilt, if all the natural Things, which now 
fill ir, were remov'd: 'Qnt States (and all other tno- 
ral Beings, conCidefd formally as fuch) obtain no 
higher Condition than that oi Modes or Attributes} 
fo that upon taking away the Perfons fuppos'd to 
be in fuch a State, the State it felf is in manifefl: 
Danger of lofing its own Exillence. 

VII. Thereare two Sorts of ^/^^rf J j one accord- 
ing to which Things are faid to be in a Place ^ 
which the Logicians call Ubi, as here, there, £cc. 
and another according to which they are pro- 
nounc'd to be in Time, which they call ^lando, 
as Tefterday, to Day, to Morrow, &c. In the fame 
manner we may conceive a double Notion of 
State; one which denotes a moral Ubi, and bears 
an Analogy to Place ; another which includes a 
Refpeft to Time, fignifying the Application of 
fome moral Effcd to Pcrions exifting in fuch a 
Time. The former State, which hath a Relation 
to Place, may be confider'd either undeterminatc- 
ly, as it refults only from * moral Qualities ; or 
determinately, as it fuppofcth a Dependence on 
moral Quantities, and on Comparifon. The State 
of Man confider'd undeterminately, is either ««- 
turaloY ' ad'-jentitioHS. We ufe the Word natw 
m/, not becaufe fuch ^ St ate flows from the internal 
Principles of human Eflcnce, antecedent to the 
Power of Impofition ; but becaufe it was im- 
pos'dby God himfelf, not by Man, and affefts 
us immediately upon our Nativity. We are wonc 
to confider the natural State of Man , either abfo' 
lutely, or "with relation to other Men: The for- 
mer Notion, till we can find a more convenient 
Term, we may exprefs by the Word Humanity, im- 
porting that Condition in which Man is plac'd by 
his Creator, who hath been pleas'd to endue him 
with Excellencies and Advantages in a high De- 
gree above all other animate Beings'. Of which 
State this Principle is a direft Confequcnce, That 
Man ought to be a Creature acknowledging and 
worfhipping the Divine Author, and admiring his 
Works; and that 'tis expefted he fhould main- 
tain a Courfe of Life for different from that of 
Brutes. To this State is oppos'd the Life and the 
Condition of irrational Animals. 

Since then the very being a Man is a State o- 
bliging to certain Duties, and giving a Title to 
certain Rights, it cannot be out of the way to con- 
fider the precife Point of Time at which particu- 
lar Perfons may be faid to enter on fuch a State : 
And this we conceive ought to be fix'd on the ve- 
ry firft Moment when any one may be truly call'd 

'CicERoOff. i.c.ii.- Nature hath given US a Perfin and Charaller to fujlain, in a Degmof Excellence far above any other 

Mr. Barb. NO t E S on §. v, vi, vii, 

» Seewhatthe Author fays 5. 16. , ,. . ^, r 1 -r j • r n »» 

» All moral Entities may be reduced to two He.ids : i. Right, i. Obligation. Thefe are the Foundation of .ill Mo- 
talitv which confirts either in Aftions, or Perfons, which have Right to aft in fuch .t Manner, or are under an Obhg.ntjon 
rodoit This Risjht and Obligation are Relatives, whichalw.iys reciprocally fuppofe each other, as they refer todiffe- 
Tent Perfons See^Lib.m.c.tpw §. i. In fine, as all Right, and every Obligation depends on the Authority of a Superior, 
who regulates by Laws the Aftions of all that are fubjeft to him, natural Order requires, that we treat firft of human 
Adionst their Principles, and different Kinds ; and then of a Law in general ; after which the Explication of moral En- 
tities, which are founded on Laws, will properly follow, n ,ya. r^a: t>- • 

» As for Example, When a Prince, in favour to, or to reward any of his Subiefts, eftabhfhcs anOftice or Dignity. 
Which he would not elfe have done, nor was otherwife neceffary, but purely to advance the Honour of him tor whom 
it was eftAblifhcd: Such are all honorary Employments. 

-* From the 17 to the 23 §. of this Chapter, the Author fhews what he means by wor^igi£<^"«« and g«4«;f;«. 

« Adventitious is a fort of moral State, which is added by way of Overplus to the State of Nature, mConfequence 
pf fome human Aitioiu 

a Man, 

C H A p. I. Of the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities. 5 

a Man, though he as yet want thofe Perfeftions 
which will follow his Nature in a longer Courfe : 
that is, whenfoevcr he begins to enjoy Life and 
Send-, though his Mother hath not yet delivered 
him into the World. Now becaufe ihtObligations 
cannot be fulfilled by him, without he undcrrtand 
his own Nature and the Ways of working, they 
for that Reafon do not aft^ually exert their Force, 
'till he is able to fquare his Actions by fome Rule, 
and to diftinguiih them by their proper Diffe- 
rences. But the Rights^ on the contrary, date their 
Validity from the very Beginning of our Being, in 
as much as they engage other Perfons, already ai-- 
rived at the full Uie of Reafon, to fuch and fuch 
Performances towards us, and may turn to our 
Benefit, even whilll we are incapable of appre- 
hending the Favour. Hence, it being a general 
Right and Privilege of all Men not to be hurt by 
others , if the Body of a Foetus in the Womb 
fhould fuffcr any unlawful Violence, the Injury is 
not only done to the Parents, but to the Child > 
who, we fuppofe, may in his own Name demand 
Juftice on that fcore, when he is grown up to a 
Knowledge of the Action ' . But before the im- 
perfeft Materials ' have acquired an human Forr,i 
in the Womb, if any one fhould difiipate or dc- 
ftroy them, he cannot properly be termed inju- 
rious with regard to that fenfelefs Mafs ; though 
he hath indeed broken the Law of Nature, by in- 
tercepting a Member of human Society, and hath 
done an Injury to the Commonwealth, and to the 
Parents, by depriving them of their promis'd Citi- 
zen and Off-fpring. 

The Natural State of Man, confidered "with re- 
lation to other Men ^ is that which effefts us upon 
the bare account of an univerfal Kindred, refulting 
from the Similitude of our Nature, antecedent to 
any human Aft or Covenant, by which one Man 
is rendered peculiarly obnoxious to the power of 
another. According to which Senfe, thofe Perfons 
arefaid to live in a State of Nature, who neither o- 
bey one common Mafter, nor are a^U fubjeft one 

to the other, nor have any Acquaintance by the 
means of Benefits, or of Injuries. To which may 
be added a third Notion of a jiatural State, as it 
abitratts from all Inventions and Inrtitutions 
brought in, either by human Induftry, or by di- 
vine Revelation, for the Grace and the Conveni- 
ency of Life. 

The Adventitious State is that which obligeth 
Men at, or after their Birth, by the Authority of 
fome human Conititutionj the Divifions of which 
Avill be better fettled hereafter ' . 

Butweoughttoobferve, by the way, that there's 
no Reafon why People Ihould imagine a State of 
Nature, in the Senlc but now delivered , to be a 
Thing that never was, or can be in the World > 
becaule there was never any Set of Men joyned to- 
gether barely by that Similitude of Nature, as it 
ablbafts from Confanguinity > Eve being knit to 
Adam in thetonjugal Tie, and all their numerous 
Defcendents beiiig clofely united and ally'd by the 
Communion of Biood and Aflinity of Race. For 
we muft know, that the Bond arifing from Near- 
nefs of Birth, doth by Degrees wear out amongft: 
Perfons remov'd at agreat difhnce from the common 
Stock j nor is efteem'd of any farther force, when 
once got beyond the reach of thofe leveral Appella- 
tions and *■ Terms which Mankind have invented 
to expiefs it by. And therefore fuch a .y?^^?, though 
it did not appear at the Commencement of hu- 
man Race, arofe afterwards in a longer Trad of 
Time, when the Memory of the univerfal Root, 
and the Senfe of the Relation fpringing from it, 
were funk out of the Thoughts and Minds of Men. 

VIII. But although every State fuppofeth, in the 
Perfon whom it affetts, a Refpect and Difpofition 
towards others, in as much as it is attended with 
fome Right, or fome Obligation, neither of which 
we can conceive without an Objed to employ their 
Force uponj yet fome Kinds of States do more ex- 
prefly include and denote a Relation towards other 
Men, whilil they fignify the Manner and Proccis 
by which the mutual Bufinefs of Mortals is on both 

' Another Example may be; If a Thing be given to an Infant before he comes into the World by Will, or by an* 
tfther Title, when hei's i;?''Gonception, the Infant has a certain Right to it ; fo that if it be taken from him, he may legally 
require it, when he come? to an Age of Diicretion : For it is fulficient, that he declares, that his Goods were taken away 
without his Confent. Tiifs Comparilon will clear tho»Matter. When aiw Perfon in our Abfence robs us, or does us any 
Manner of Damage, he does us a real Injury, though we may not know irtiU a long time after. We have taken this out o 
our Author's Work, call'd The Elements oj' the Civil Laiv, p. 1 1, ii, We may add, that by the Roman Law, an Infant 
in the Mother's Womb is fiippofed to be come into the World at all times, when any thing may be done for its Ad- 
vantage, as the Words of the Bigefl. Lib.l. Tit.iu. Be Statu hoimnum. Leg. vii. import. Siui in utero eft, permck ac ft in re- 
bus humanis cjfet, cuftodifAr, quotiens de commodo ipjius partus qutcritur'.' See Leg. xxvi. of the fame Title. Yet the Ro- 
man Lawyers are not well agreed upon this Toint; for fome of them hold, that the Foetus is a Part of the Mother, or 
of her Entrails, and that it can't be called a Man, till it is born into the World. Partus enim, antequam edatur, mu- 
liens fortio eft-, vel z/ifceruf/h Bigeft. Lib.xxv. Tit. iy. Leg.i. §. i. They borrow'd this Motion of the Stoicks, who in this 
agreed with divers others of the ancient Philofophers. See Julius Paidus, written by Mr. Noodt. c. ii. and xi. 

* The Explication, which Philo the Jew gives upon Exod. xxi. 22. is fo very pertinent here, that 'tis a wonder our 
Author did not apply it. The Text is. If Men, in ftriving together, hurt a Woman great with Child, fo that fhe 
mifcarry, tho' no other Mifchief follow, they fhall pay the Husband of that Woman fuch a Fine, or MuUl, as he fliail 
lay on them, and give it him before the Judges; but if Death follow, ye fhall give Life for Life. Thefe Words may 
be underftood of the Death of the Mother only, as Jcfephiis thinks, or of both tlie Mother and Child, as Philo fuppo- 
fes, according to the Opinion of this Author. Em ft «,tAs;s-oj, 6cc. If the Foetus be not formed, he that flrikes the 
Mother, ought to make Satisfaftion, as well for the Harm done her, as becaufe he hath hindred Nature from per- 
fefting her Work, and giving Life to fo noble a Creature as Man; but if the Fa'tus be already formed, every Mem- 
ber being in its natural Place, and having its proper Qualities, the Perfon ought to be put to Death ; Philo Be Leg. 
fpccial. See Selden de Jure Nat. (jT Cent, fecundum Hebr. 1. iv. c. i. Further, if before the f ic/-;« be conipleatly formed, a 
Man by hurting the Woman on purpofe, caufes a bodily Deformity, or otiier Infirmity in the Child; he may, when 
he is grownup, profecute the Author of fuch a Damage, and fliall obtain Satistadlion according to his Damage, as our 
Author fpeaks in a Place cited hereafter, where he treats alfu of another Qtieftion, which deferves our Notice, lib. iv. 
c. xii. §. 10. 

' Yet ourAuthor does no where do it formally, but he tre3ts,in their proper Place, of the four principal adventitious States, 
to which all the reft may be reduced, via. Marriage, the Relation of Parents and Children, Maffer and Servant, and 
Citizen, or Member of a Society. To this we may add the Divifions of moral Perfons, whicii our Author lays down 
in the fame Chapter, §. 12, a-c. 

* Viz. When we have palled the Degrees of Father, Mother, Grandfather, Grandmother, Brother, Sifter, Uncle, Aunt, Ne-.' 

^hevv. Niece, Coufins, he and fhe, and fome others depending on them ; for as we have no other Names proper for fuch De. 

_ Icendents, fo the Line of Kindred produces no fuch ftrong Ties between them, who are in fuch diitautDegrees of Relation. 


($ Of the Drigm and the Variety of moral Entitles. B o o k I. 

Sides manag'd and tranfaaed. Of this fort themoft 
Cgiial and material are Peace and //vn , which two 
States^ ' Libanms favs, comprehend all the Af- 
fairs, and all the Conduct of Life. Peace is that 
State by ivhicJj Menll-Je quietly together^ ■without the 
Diflurbance of Violence or lujuries, and 'voluntarily 
di [charge their mutual Duties, as Matters of nccejfa- 
ry Obligation. War, on the other hand, is a State of 
Men mutually engaged in offering and repelling Inju- 
ries^ or endeavoimng forcibly to recover their Dues. 
Peace may be divided into common and particular; 
the former, fuch as is maintain d amongll Men by 
Duties flowing purely from the Law of Naturej 
' the latter, fuch as derives its Force from exprels 
Covenants and Leagues, binding both Sides to a- 
greeable Performances : This again is branciicd n> 
to internal and external, the one ^ between Mem- 
bers of the fame Commonwealth, the other re- 
garding Perfons of different Countries and Govern- 
ments, whether as common Friends, or as ipecial 
Confederates and Allies. A common or univerfil 
War engaging all Mankind at the lame time, is 
an impoffible Suppofition -, this being a dired 
Confequence of the State of Beafts. Particular 
War is either internal and ci-vil, or external; that, 
between Members of the fame ^ ; /^/j, between thole 
of different Communities. When the J^s of \\ ar 
,arc fufpended, though the State M\ continue, 
fuch a Ceffation is caU'd a truce \ : , ,1.1 
-( , IX. States are laid to be confider'd determnatc- 
ly, when we meafure them according to the high 
or low Degree of Elleem which attends themj or 
'accounting as thev are reckon'd more or lefs ho- 
nourable. ' For lince peculiar Rights and Obli- 
gations accompany each State, every one obtains 
a larger Share of Splendor and Credit, either as its 
Rights are more numerous and " more forcible > or 
as Its Obligations arc direded towards the P^rtor- 
mance of fuch Works as require a fingular AbiUcy 
. of Parts and Wit. On the other hand, thole 
which demand only dull Pains and Labour of Bo- 
dy, are in very little Value and Repute. 

X. The latter fort of 5",'^/^, which, in our ge- 
,neralDivifion, we fettled with relation to Time, 

in conjunction with fome moral Effect, maybe 
divided, firji, into Seniority and Juniority; both 
which are confider'd, either -with refpeft to the 
Duration of human Exillence, and are then call'd 
Jge ; the Degrees of which are Infancy, Child- 
hood, Puberty, Youth, Manhood, fixd Jge, de- 
clining, old, znd decrepit Jge : or, with regard to 
fome adventitious State, ' according as a Man 
hath continued a longer or a fhorter Time in ir. 
Secondly, into Plcn-agc \ \vhen one is prefum'd 
able by his own Strength and Difcretion to ma- 
nage his Affairs ; and Non-age, when a Pcrfon 
haih need of a Tutor, or Guardian, becaufe he is 
fuppos'd, upon the account of Weaknefs of Judg- 
ment, incapable of dexteroullyprofecuting liisown 
Bufinefs. The Limits of this State arc different, 
according to the various Conftitutions andCuftoms 
of Nations. 

Different from Non-age is what we may call an 
Jge capable of' meditated Guile ; the Bounds of 
which It is likewife impofiible to aflign. JLlian in 
his Farlous Hijlory relates a very remarkable Way 
of difcovering fuch an early Deceit. A Boy, hav- 
ing taken up a golden Plate '' dropt out of Di- 
ana's Crown, was indifted in Court : Thejudges 
order'da Pack of trifling Play-things to be laid 
upon the Board, and amongll theie a Plate of 
Gold, and bid the Boy choole which he Uk'dbeftj 
who again laying hands on the Gold, was con- 
demn'd as guilty of the former Sacrilege. 

XL Before we proceed to other Matters, it (eems 
neceffary for us to obferve, that through Scarcity 
of Words we are frequently compelled to exprefs by 
the fame Term, the State it felf, and the Jt tribute 
proper to fuch a State ; though they are really di- 
iHnft, and form different Conceptions in our 
Minds '. Thus, to give an Inllance, Liberty is 
us'd as well for a State with analogy to Space, as for a 
Faculty of working, with refemblance to an aiiivr 
^lahty '". And lb Nihility fometimes expreffeth a 
State, fometimes an Attribute, or Affedion of the 
Perlon in fuclf a State, in the manner of a paffive 
^lality. So likewife the wci^ Trjice denotes both 
the State of Peace, and the Manner of fettling it. 

a Vide Gro/. //f >r.B. cr P. l.iii. c.xxi. •> Lib. v. Cap. xvl. r r,r j /: -j * .j. j 

« Senet. de Bcnef. 1. ii. c xxxiv. There ir t^aft multitude of TlUngs which have no peculmr Words fix d upon them ; andr 
theje ive exprefs ndt by frofer, but by foreign and horrow'd Names. 

V.Ar-M , ■^^'- Barb. NOTES on §. viii, ix, x, xi. 

• « Pronmnarm r v c Edit. P.t-:: Morel. Arijlotk, as Mr. Hertius obfevvcs, had before fpoken to the fame effejS.' 

■ A.v:p,r«, /i ^ «•«? fiUi, 5^c. The whole Life of Man is divided into Labour and Idlcnefs, War and Peace. Polit. 

■ J. Vii. c. xiv. Edit. P.iri/: 1619. 

''■■■■■' See Book the \n\. Chaf.\x. 5cff. i, ;. Sec. „ ^ ,,-,,,• v u c ■ . a 

^ ' Viz So far as they execute the fundamental Aareement punaually, for the fake of which the Society was ell.i- 
bUnied ' and do not oppofe, by open Faft, the lawW Power which is exercifed over them; and fo that Peace is noc 
difturbed bv any fort of Violence, but onlv that which we are engaged not to u(e, when we are entred mto a Society 
■As for Example The internal Peace of a State fuffers no Interruption, when the Magiftrate ufes the Power entrufted 
to him to curb and punilh the Breakers of the Laws. But when the Subjefts will by Force deliver a Crimina frotre 
Punifhment and endeavour to oppole the Maaiftrate in the Exercile of his Authority, this is called a Civil War. 

■ Element. Juriffrud. Univerf. p. 17. The War alfo which breaks out among Confederates, united together by a perpe- 
• iual Alliance, mav alfo be looked upon as an inteftine War, as Mr. Hertius there obferves. _ • 1 .. • 

4 When this fort of War is extinguilbed at its f^rft Rife, viz. without any regular Preparations on cither Side, it 
is a Sedition ■ when Subjefts take up Arms unjuflly againft their Sovereign, it is a Rebellion. In Democracies and A- 
rifiocracies, when the People and the Magiftrates make two Parties, and ufe Acts of Hoftility one againft the other, 
this is properlv call'd a Civil War. Element. Jurifprud. Univerf. p. i?. _. 

5 See Mr Daum at'j Publick Right, Lib. i. Tit. ix. Seff. i. and what our Author fays, /. viii. <-. iv. 

' More forcible ] The Trench Tranflator renders the Words, validicra jura, more condderable, i.e. of greater Vali- 
dity and Certainty • for the Honour of an Employ does not depend upon the Manner of obtaining it, but upon ths 
Dianity and Privileges which it confers on fuch as are invei^ed with it. And fo this feems the better Tranflation. 
» And fo we fay^for Example, an Old General, an Old Soldier, a Young Apprentice, C7r. 
9 See Lib. iii. Ch. vi. §. 4- and Lib. iv. Ch. iv. §. i?. • • . r 

The Roman Law declares fuch as are in their Non-age, or not far from it, capable of Deceit. Igitur dolt non ca- 

paces, lit admodum impiiberes excufati funt. Vigeft. iii. xlvii. Tit, xu. De Sefiilchro violate. Leg. in. §. i. See 

CujAsV Obfervations, Lib. vi. Ch. xxii. v T>igefi. Lib. xlvii. Til. viii. De vi bonoriim raptorum. Leg. 11. §.19. 
"> The Author will explain a little lower^ viz. §. 19- what he means by qiialities aClne and pajj[ive. ■ 


Chap. J. Of the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities. 7 

Nor muft we forget to hint, that as one Peifon 
may be at the fame time engag'd in feveral States^ 
provided that the Obligations of thofe States do 
not interfere with one another > To theObligatioriS 
adhering to one particular State, may, according 
to difl'ercnt Parts, be deriv'd from different Prin- 
ciples. And therefore he that only collects the 
Obligations flowing from a fingle Principle, and 
omits the i-efl, doth not prefcntly form a diitinft 
State incapable of other Obligations befides thofe 
which he hath taken notice of. Thus he that ga- 
thers feveral Parts of the Office of Priells purely 
from the Holy Scriptures, doth not in the leait 
deny, but that they are likewife bound to fuch 
Performances as the Conllitutions of particular Go- 
vernments fhall farther enjoyn. So we that pro- 
fefs in this Work to treat only of thofe Duties of 
Men, which ' the Light of Reafon fhews to be 
neceflary, do not at all pretend that there ever 
was, or now is, or ought to be, fuch a State in 
which t\\o(c Obligations only ihould prevail, exclu- 
flve of all others. Nay, it would be almoft a need- 
lefs Difquifition to fearch, whether fuch a State of 
Men was once fo much as likely to have been in 
the World. For the Aflertion, which fome fo 
confidently lay down, could never yet be clearly 
made out ; That if Man had continued in his pri- 
mitive Holinefs, the Law of Nature alone, as it 
governed him at firft, fo floould have continued its 
Sway, except that one or two ^ pofttive Commands 
might probably have been added to it. We may juft- 
ly queftion, whether Mankind, although untaint- 
ed with Sin, fhould have always pafs'd their Time 
intheCompaisof a fingle Garden, fuilaining them- 
lelves with the Fruits of fpontancous Growth, and 
not have cultivated and adorn'd their Ways of 
living, by induftrious Management, and by Va- 
riety of Arts and Inventions. For what Prejudice 
could it have been to their original Innocence and 
Integrity, if, upon the Multiplication of human 
Race, they had divided into feparate Societies in 
the Forms of Commonwealths ? And what No- 
tion can we frame of fuch Societies, without 

the Addition oi pofttive Laws and Conftitutions? 

XII. Moral Entities, fram'd with Analogy to 
Subftances, are call'd moral Perfons ' ; which are 
either particular Men^ or feveral join'd in one 
Body by fome moral Tie, confider'd with the 
State and Office which they maintain in com- 
mon Life. Moral Perfons are either Simple, or 
Compound. The Simple, according to the Diffe- 
rence of their Polls and Employments, are either 
Publick, or Privates as their Duty is immediately 
apply'd, either to the Benefit of civil Society, or 
to the particular Advantage of ' every private 
Member. Publick Perfons, by the general Cuftom 
of theChriftian World, are divided into Cm/ and 
Ecckfaf.ical. The former '' are either Pfmcipal, or 
Inferior. Oi principal Perfons, fome adminifter 
Affiiirs with a fupreme Power ; others either exe- 
cute fome Part of the Adminillration by Commii- 
fion from the fupreme Power, who are properly 
call'd Magifirates, or elfe affiil with their Advice 
and Coiuilei in the Management of the Common- 
wealth. The Inferior perform a lefs noble Ser- 
vice to the Community, and a<5t under the Ala- 
gijlrates, with refped: to their publick Capacity; 
In War the Officers, whether of higher or lower 
Commiffions, anfwer to Magiftrates, and are af- 
fifted, in Subordination, by the common Soldiers. 
We reckon Men of that Profeffion amongft pub- 
lick Perlbns, in as much as they are authoriz'd by 
the fupreme Power, either immediately or medi- 
ately, to bear Arms in the Service of the Com- 

There is Ukewife a peculiar Species of politick 
Perfons, which we may llile Reprefentatives, be- 
caufe they fuftain the Charafter of other Perfons : 
fuch as, being invefted with the Power and Au- 
thority of adting by another, do in his room tranf- 
aft Bufinei's with the fame Force and Validity, as 
if he himfelf had managed it. Of this Kind are 
Legates, Ficars, Burgeffcs, &c. 

A new Diftinction hath been brought in of late, 
between Miniflers ' of a reprefentative Chara- 
Gtex, who are Embaffadors properly fo call'd j and 

» The Roman Laivyers ordinarily reftram the wofiPerfon to thofe that are Free : and rank their Slaves amon^Jl the Goods 
they fojfejfed. 

Mr. Bakb. NO tES m §. xii. 

* InOppofition to Revelation, and particular Rules of the Civil Laws of every Country, from whence arife three di- 
ftincl Sciences, i;;z. N.itural Right, which is common to all Men without Exception ; Civil Right, which is or mav be dif- 
ferent according to the Intereft of every State; and Moral Theology. See the Author's Abridgment of the Duties of a 
Man and Citizen. Prif. §. 2. 

* It is not known, whofe Words thefe are, which our Author cenfures. As to the Qiicftion itfelf, 'tis one of the 
mod impertinent; for our Author elfewhere acknowledges, that is is very hard to imagine, how a Propriety of Goods 
and Government, on which our whole Lives now are fpent, could have Place in our State of Integrity. See his 5;>if/7. 
Jur.Nat.c.2. §.9. and his Comment, fuper. invert. Vener. Lipf. pullo. p. 386. Neverthelefs fome others have treated fe- 
rioufly upon this frivolous Queftion; as Ur.ThomaJius Inft. Jurifpr.Dtvin. Lib.i. f. 2. §. 37, 38. and Mr. Hirtius in his 
Etem. priid. Civil. I. i. ieci. 3. §. <,. 

» There is another Reafon, why they are call'd fo, and that is, that they are fettled in publick Employs by the Au- 
thority of a civil Society, or of them that govern it. Whereas private Employments depend upon the Will and Chioce 
of every Man, unlefs the State will interpofe and confer them. 

* Why does he not define what is meant by Perfons political, or civil? They are fuch, as (for fo our Author him- 
felf fpeaks,£;«OT. ;^«r;y^r«</. Uni^^r/:/l. 23. ) adminifter by publick Authority thofe Affairs which have a particular regard 
to civil Society, confidered as fuch ; whereas Ecclefiafticks are to take care of Matters of Religion only. Thefe Taft, 
though they ought to be fubjeft to their Sovereigns in temporal and civil Matters at all times, yet may and ought alfo 
to be independent, as to Spirituals, provided they keep within their Bounds, and do not fet up any other Religion be- 
fides the eftablithed : And the Reafon of it is, that as Religion is a Thing in its own Nature free, at leaft, "direftly, 
and can't be fuppofed to be admitted into civil Society for no End, every ecclefiaftical Society may do what it judges 
for the Intereft of Religion, provided it encroach not upon any Prerogative of the Civil Power. See what i"hall be 
faid hereafter, Li^. vii. ch.^. §. 11. Note 2. Neverthelefs, I do not allert anv Thing here, which may be a Founda- 
tion for any Principles contrary to the Enpifli Autlior, Of the Rights of the Chnftian Church. 

The Author here quotes the Work of Mr. Wicifuefort, entituled. The Emiajfador, and his Office, printed in his Time 
without a Name, and under a different Title, viz.. Memoirs concerning Embaffadors ■, but lately publillied, with many Ad- 
ditions, as above, i> ji ' ' t 1 


8 Of the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities. Book! 

Minifters of the fecond Order, as Envoys or Refi- 
dents^ who do not, hke the former, exprefs the 
full Power and Grandeur of their Mafters '. 

With refemblance to thefe publick Reprefenta- 
tives, Tutors and Guardians are concern'd for pri- 
vate Perfons, as they manage Affairs in behalf of 
Pupils or Minors given them in Charge. 

On this Point Mr. Hohbs ' is miftaken, when he 
will have it frequently to happen in Communities, 
that a Man fiall bear the Pcrfon of an inanimate 
Things which therefore is it felf not properly a Per- 
fin i as fuppofe of a Churchy an Hojpital^ a Bridge, 
dec. For there appears no Neceflity of introducmg 
a FiSiion of Law, to conftitute Perfons by whom 
any of thefe iTiould be reprelented. It being more 
natural to fay in plain Terms, that particular Men 
are impower'd by the Community, to colleft the 
Revenue, fettled for the preferiing of fuch Places, 
or Things, and to carry on and fuftain any Suits 
that {hall arife on thofe Accounts. 

The Variety and Divifion o? ccckfmjiical Perfons 
is obvious to every Man, according to the parti- 
cular Religion in which he hath been bred up. 
Nor can any Man of Letters be at a lofs to appre- 
hend what Kinds of Perfons are founded in the 
Management of Schools. 

Private Perfons are of a vaft Latitude and Ex- 
tent ; yet their principal Differences may be taken, 
firfi, from their Bufinefs, Craft, or Trade, which 
imploys their Pains, and exhibits their Livelihood: 
and thefe are, either creditable and genteel, or 
fuch as feem to carry in them more Bafenefs, or 
Drudgery. Secondly, from the Condition, or, as 
we may fay, the moral Situation which any one 
obtains in a Community 5 in which refpeft one is 
a Citizen, with more or fewer Privileges ; another 
a Sojourner, and a third a Stranger. Thirdly, from 
the Place in a Family, upon which account one is 
faid to be a Houfliolder, which may comprehend 
the Perfon of a Husband, a Father, and a Mafler; 
another is call'd a Wife, another a Son, another a 
Servant : Thefe may pafs for the ordinary Mem- 
bers of a Family; the extraordinary arc Guefts and 
Lodgers. Fourthly, upon account of Race and 
Birth ; whence anfe Nobles (divided into diffe- 
rent Degrees in different Countries) znd Plebeians. 
Fifthly, from Sex and Age, whence com* the Dif- 
ferences of Man and Woman, and the Diflinftions 
founded in Childhood, Youth, Manhood, and 
Old- Age * . For though the Diverfity of Sex, 
and Number of Years, are not of external Impo- 
fition, yet in the Method of a focial Life, they in- 
volve fome kind of moral Notion ; in as much as 
diflferent Aftions arc becoming in different Sexes, 

and Perfons of various » Ages require a various 
Treatment and ^'Application. 

XIII. A Compound moral Perfon is then conftitu- 
ted, when feveral individual Men are fo united to- 
gether, that what thty^ will or a£l by virtue of that 
Union, is efleem'd a lingle Will, and a fingle Act, 
and no more. And this is fuppofed to be done, 
when the particular Members fubmit their Wills 
to the Will of one Man, or of one Council, in 
fuch a manner as to acknowledge, and to defire 
others to acknowledge, for the common Aft and 
Determination of them all, whatever that Man, 
or that Council fhall decree or perform, in Mat- 
ters which properly concern fuch an Union, and 
are agreeable to the End and the Intention of it. 
Hence it comes to pafs, that whereas in other 
Cafes, when many Men will or aSl any Thing, we 
conceive fo many diflincl Wills and A6ts as there 
are in number natural Perfons, or human Indivi- 
duals ; yet when they clofe, and form a compound, 
Perfon, they are fuppofed to have but a fingle Will, 
and every Aftion which they perform is conllrued 
as one only, although a Number of natural Indi- 
viduals concurs in its Production. And hence fuch 
a compound Perfon doth and ought to obtain fbme 
particular Goods and Rights, which none of the 
Members, in their private and feparate Quality, 
can claim or arrogate to themfelves "*. 

Here aHbwe muft remark, that as natural Bodies 
continue the fame, although in length of Time, by 
flow and filent degrees they receive a confiderable 
Alteration from the various Acceflions and Defer- 
tions of their Particles ; fo by the particular Suc- 
ceffion of Individuals, the Identity of the compound 
Perfon is not injur'd ; unlefs at one and the fame 
time fuch a Change ihould arrive, as would entire- 
ly take away the Nature and Conftitution of that 
united Body. On which Point we fhall be more 
large in ' another Part of our Work. 

Compound moral Perfons, or Societies, may, after 
the manner oi fngle Perfons, be divided into Pub- 
lick and Private. And the former again are fub- 
dWidcd'mio Sacred tindiCivil. Oilht Sacred, fome 
we may call general, as is the CathoUck Church, 
and likewile any particular Church, whether com- 
prehended within the Bounds of fuch a Nation, or 
diftinguifh'd from others by publick Forms of Con- 
feflion. Others Peculiar, as are Councils, Synods, 
Confiftories, Presbyteries, ^c. Civil Societies are 
alfo either general, as -x Commonwealth, of which 
there are many Species, as fimple, compound, re- 
gular, and irregular; or particular, as a Senate, an 
Order of Knights, a Tribe, a Parliament, 6?r. 
Armies may be called military Societies, and confifl 

*Leviath. cap. 16. 

Mr. Bakb. NOTES on §. xii, xiii. 

' This is a vifible Miftake inouv Author, who has aflened the contrary elfewhere, and ought to have beencorrc£led 
by Mv.Hirtms, who put out the Frankfort Edition in 1706 ; for there is great reafon to rejeft the Sentiments of fuch 
Men {as Charles Pafcal, Richard Zouthms, &c.) who affirm that Emballadors, properly fo called, are as their Mafter him- 
ielf, who fends them ; infoinuch, that the Prince or State, to whom they are fent, ought to give them the fame Ho- 
nour they would to their Mafter. The Charafter of an Emball^tdor certainly gives neither the Dignity nor Title of a 
Sovereign, and fuch a Miniftcr may not pretend, becaufe his Mafter has a Superiority above another Prince, that he 
muft perfonally be preferred before him. See what our Author fays. Lib. iii. ch. 4. §. 20. 

* In the Civil Law fome other Diftinftions are m.ide among Perfons from their Age and Sex. Sec Mr. Dau mat's 
Civil Laivs in their natural Order, Lib. i. Tit. 11. SeCl. 1. of the Preliminaries; and the Interpreters upon the Digcfl. Lib. i. 
Tit. V. De (latu Hominmn. 

* Ages is not in the Original, but the Manner of Reafoning, and Beginning of the Sentence require the Addition of 
It, as our Author himfelf does in his Elements Jurifpr. XJniverf. p. z%. 

* As for Example, No private Perfon hath a Right to punilh Criminals, although the Right to dg it proceeds Origi- 
nally from private Perfons ; the Sovereign only has that Power. 

5 See Lib. viii. Ch. XII. 


C H A p. L Of the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities. 9 

of • Regiments, Troops, Cohorts, Companies, have obferv'd, that the Splendor of Mens Dignity 

£?r. hath frequently a ftrong Influence on their Aftions, 

Amonu,{k private Societies we do not only reckon and that many Men have made veiy diffei-enc Fi- 

Families^^huz all the ^ Colleges, or Corporations gures in a publicic, and in a private Station. But 

in a Kingdom, or a City, as thofe of the Mer- we may reckon thefeFanfiesamongft the common 

chants, of the Artificers, and the like. To make Deceptions of Sight, occafion'd by gaudy Pomp 

ammute Catalogue of every Species we think un- and Shew. The Cafe being much the fame, as 

neceflaiy to our prefent Defign. when Country People imagine the Name andTi- 

XIV. Concerning the Nature oi fimpk moral tic of Doctor to have fome Share in the Force and 

Perfons^vjc have this farther to obferve j that as the Succefs of a Prefcription ■*. Except indeed, 

one and the fame Man may be in feveral States to- that fome kinds of Parts and Difpofitions arerouz'd 

gether, ' provided they do not clalli with each and enliven'd by Bufinefs; and on the contrary, lie 

other, fo he may fuftain feveral Pcrfons togethei-, doimant in a State of Eafe ^ Yet there is no 

upon Suppoiition that the Duties attending thofe Queftion to be made, but that when God Al- 

Perfons may be perform'd together by him. For, mighty impofeth a peculiar Charge and Perfon on 

though upon a natural Account one cannot be both any Man, he can, and often doth indue him with 

a Husband and a Wife, both a Son and a Daugh- extraordinary Qualities, beyond the Meafure ofc' 

ter i nor in a moral Confideration, at the fame moral Acquirements ; as is evident from the holy 

Time, a Mafter and a Servant, a Judge and a Pri- Scriptures •". 

foner, a Party and Witnefsj yet nothing hinders From what hath been ofFer'd on this Subje£b ic 

why the fame Man may not be (for Example) at appears, that the JiisJS heretofore attributed too 

home a Houfholder, a Senator in Parliament, an large EfFefts to their Regeneration^ by which the 

Advocate in the Halls of Juftice, and a Counfeller new Perfon of a Profelyte of Jufticew^s impos'd on 

at Court. In as much as thofe particular Offices a Gentile j as, when they affirm'd, that there was 

do not require and engage the whole Man j but no Force remaining in his former Kindred j thac 

may, at different Times, be all conveniently ad- he ought not to elteem, or ufe as Relations, his 

miniftred ". And upon this Principle the wifer Brethren, Sifters, or Parents j nor his Children 

Heathens undertook to defend Polytheifm^^ which begotten in his firfl: Condition s. The Caufe of 

they knew well enough was contrary to Reafon : this Error was their abfurd Belief, that a new Soul 

For, their Excufe was, they only conceiv'd fuch a was infus'd into the Profelyte. 

Number of Perfons in the fame fupreme Being, XV. It may not be amifs, in the laft Place, to 

as might anfwer the Variety of Operations obferve, that Men fometimes frame a kind of Sha- 

which proceeded from his Eflence and Na- dows, or Images of moral Perfons^ for the repre- 

ture' "". fenting of them in Sport and Jeft. Whence in 

It's very plain from the Name and the Notion came to pafs, that the Term of Perfon hath been 
oi Impofttion^ that when a Man enters on the Ca- peculiarly challeng'd by the Stage. The Eflence of 
pacity of a new Perfon^ there is no natural Change -x feigned P erfon confifts inthis,that the Habit, Ge- 
produc'd in him, no Generation of new natural fture,and Speech ofanotherrrfl/Pf/yo^ be handfome- 
Qualities,no Augmentation of old ones j but what- ly exprefs'd : Thus the whole Procedure bears only a 
ever accrues to him from this Relation, is comprc- Countenance of Mirth, and whatever fuch afifti- 
hended within the Sphere of moral Things. So tious A6tor fays or does, leaves no moral EffeSi be- 
when a Man is declar'd Conful, he is made ne'er the hind it, and is valu'd only according to the Dexte- 
wifcr, nor when he lays down his Office, doth he rity and Artifice of the Performance : For which 
lay down any of his Parts with it. Though fome Reafon we may, by the way, juftly wonder, why 

' Cicero Off. Lib. i. Ch. xxx. We mufi underfland, that "we are by Nature invefied, as it were, with two PeiTons ' 
or Capacities ; one common to Mankind, on account of our being Partakers of Reafon, and of that Excellence by which we 
furpafs the Beafts ; the other proper to particular Men. A third is cafl upon us by Time or Chance : A fourth we undertake 
and accommodate to our pelves by our own Judgment. 

Idemde Oratore. Lib„\\.Ch.icf\y. Ijuftain threeVtx(oni at the fame Time ; mine own, the Adverfary's, and the Judge's,' 

'' S E N E c. de Benef. Lib. iv. Ch. vii. There may be fo many Appellations of God, as there are Employments. 

« Maxim. Tyrids, Differt. xxiii. The Gods are one in Nature, though many in Name. But we, fuch is our IgnO' 
ranee, ajfign them different Titles, according to the different Helps and Favours which they afford Mankind. 

d Purpura vendit 

Cauffidicum, vendunt amethyftina ; convenit illis, 

Et /irepitu zs^' facie majoris vivere cenfus, Juv, Sat. vii. ;?■. 135, &c, 

« Vide Corn, Nep. Alcibiad. Ch. i. 

f Vide Exod. iii, iv. Deut. xxxiv. 9. 1 Sam. x. 6, 9. Matt. X. i. 19, 20. 

« Vtde Selden de J. N. cr G. Lib. ii. Ch. iv. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES, 

■* Our Author exprefles thefe Parts of an Army according to the Manner of the Romans, as Legio, Turma, Cohort, 
Mampulus, S:c. to which we have no Terms that will exaftly anfwer, and therefore we are forced to tranflate them 
thus. See the Treatifes of Jujlus Lipjius upon this Matter. 

Collegia is a Name given to the AlTemblies of fome particular Society of Men of one Trade or Calling in a City 
or Corporation, and fuch were the Collegia, or Societies of Coachmen, Augurs, J¥.fculapius, or Health, Dendrophori, orTim- 
^er- Mer chants, &c. as we have at London, Companies, or Collegia of Mercers, Drapers, &c. Vide Mr. Daumat, Of 
fubUck night. Lib. i. Tit. XV. i. J ' r ' 'J 

' Mr. Hertius has treated at large of this, and cleared it by a great Number of Examples, in his Difcourfe, De «w 
homine plures fuftinente perfonas, which makes up a Part of the third Tome of his Commentaries, and fmallTrafts. Print- 
ed at Traftkfon on the Mein, A. D. 1700. 

* See Mr. Le Clerc'j Bibliotheque Choijte ; i. e. Choice Library, Tom, iii. Art, i. 

C Peter 

Of the Origin and the Vciriety of moral Entities. B o o k I. 


Peter ', BiHiop of Alexandria, approv'd of the 
Baptifm which Jthamftus, when a little Boy, had 
adminiilred to one of his Play-fellows '. 

But the Impofition which produceth true moral 
Perrons, is allow'd no fuch Liberty j but ought 
always to prefuppofe fuch Qualities, as may contri- 
bute to the folid Ufe and real Benefit of human 
Life : And he that in conftitutingPerfons hath not 
a Regard to thefe Endowments, is to be efteem'd 
an extravagant Buffoon, and a vain Tnfulter over 
Mankind *. Thus Caligula might have made a 
Con/ul o( the mofl wicked, or of the moll fenfelefs 
Wretch in Rome, provided the Man had been a 
free Citizen, and could at leaft have perform'dthe 
common and formal Part of that Office: But to 
defign his Horfe Incitatus the fame Honour, was 
a Pitch of Madnefs, and of infipid Raillery : nor 
a lefs Impudence than when he ff t him up for a 
Mafter of a Family, and gave him a Houfe and 
Furniture j where there was good Entertainment 
provided for Guefls invited in the Name of the 
Beafl ^ . An equal Madnefs was it, as well as a 
horrid Impiety, that many of the Anticnts, to 
flatter their Princes, their Founders of States, and 
other Worthies, rank'd them after their Death in 
the Number of the Gods ' . And what to think 
of the Canonization amongft the modern Papifts, 
no Man of Senfc is at a Lofs. 

XVI. As to Things confider'd as they are the 
Objeft of Law "* , there feems to be no Occafion 
of ranking them under the Head o? moral Entities. 
For, though iV/f« are conceiv'd as different Pcrfons, 
upon account of their diflFerent State or Office, yet 
Things do not raife fuch diftinft Notions in us, 
with reference to their Owners, whether ourfelves 
or others, or whether the Propriety be yet uncer- 
tain. When at firft fome Things fell under parti- 
cular Right and Dominion, and others were left 
exempt, we mufl not lanfy, that they themfelves 
acquir'd any new Qualities} it feems rather, that 
upon introducing this Propriety of Things, a moral 
Quality arofe amongft Men, of which the Men 
were the SubjeEls, and the Things only tlic Terms : 
For, as during the primitive Communion of Goods, 
any Man had a i^/^/j/ of applying to his proper Ufe, 
what equally belong'd to all > fo, when once Ma- 
ilers or Owners were conftituted, there fprungup 
a Right in each particular Mafter of difpofing how 
he pleas'd of his own, and an Obligation in all 
other Mafters to abftain from his PofTefTions. But 

the Things themfelves obtain'd nothing hence, but 
an extrinfical Denomination, as they make the Ob- 
iect of luch a Right, and of fuch an Obligation. 
So when certain Things are faid to be holy, or fa- 
cred, no moral Qiiality of Holinefs inheres in the 
Things ; only, an Obligation is laid upon Men to 
treat them in llich a particular Manner : and whea 
that Obligation ccafeth, they are fuppos'd to fall 
again into promifcuous and ordinary Ufe. Yet if, 
ftill, any Man will poiitively maintain, that there 
are fome Things, as well as Perfons, which 
fhould be call'd -moral, he muft take care fo to 
explain himfelf, that he may be underftood to 
attribute this Morality to the Things, not for^ 
mally, as if it were inherent, but only obje£li-vely, 
as ir is terminated in them '. 

XVII. Thus much of thofe moral Entities which 
are conceiv'd with Analogy to Subfiance. We are 
now to enquire about thofe that are really and for- 
mally Modes, and pafs in our Notion as fuch. 
Alodes maybe conveniently enough divided into 
'' Modes of JffeRion, and Modes of Efllmation : 
According to the former, we fuppofe Perfonstohe 
affefted in fuch and inch a Manner j according to 
the latter, both Things and Perfons may be rated 
and valu'd. The former fall under the Name of 
^ialify, the latter of ^antity ; if we take both 
thole Terms in the moll extended Scnfe. ^lali- 
ties, fo far as concerns our Bufincft, may be divid- 
ed into formal and operative. For-mal ^alitics are 
fuch as do not tend, nor are direfted towards any 
A61 or Work, but agree and are join'd with the 
Subject, in the Manner of pure and naked Forms: 
whence we may likewife call them fimple Attributes. 
Operative polities are either primitive, or deriva- 
tive. By the primitive, 2. Thing is conceiv'd fit and 
able for fuch anA£t: They are divided into inter- 
nal ', and external ', and maybe term'd moral paf- 

five ^alities. The derivative are thofe which 
proceed from the primitivc,M\d. are the ' ^& them- 
felves, as the former were the Poivers. 

XVIII. Among ?noral Attributes, Titles have a 
confiderable Place, which are apply'd for the Di- 
llinftion of Perfons in civil Life, with Reference 
to their State and their Elleem. They are chiefly 
of two Sorts: Some direftly fignify the Degree of 
the Rate and Value, which Perfons bear in com- 
mon Account, together with the Qualities pecu- 
liar to Men of that Rank > but the State itfelf 
they only denote indireftly, and by the Bye, and 

» Sozom. Lib. ii. Ch. xvi. AiH the Argument of the BiJJiop »/ Minorc.i in the Council 0/ Trent, by Father Pnul^^B. i?. 
concerning the Intention of the Mlnljler in the Celebration of the Sacrament. ^ Sueton. Calig. <: SeeTi- 

ber'Ms's Speech ;» T.icitus, An. iv. C^. xxxvii, xxxviii. •' The different DlJllnSllons of Things -with Reference to Lazv, 

■will be explaln'd in the ^th and ^th Books. 

M. Barb. NO TES. 

* The greateft Number of learned Men rejeft this Story, becaufe (as they prove) S. ^?^4»<7/;kj was eighteen Years 
old, when this pretended Baptifm was adminiftred. See the Life of this Father written by the Benedictines ; but it is 
fufficicnt for our Author's Deiign, that the Faft was poflible. 

' A witty Speech of Antlfthenes deferves our Notice in this Place. He advifedthe Athenians, upon a certain Time, 
to decree. That hereafter AJfes fliould be called Horfes. Some prefent replied in Banter, That can't be. But, Gentlemen, 
(fays he) you can choofe for your Generals Men that know nothing of warlike Affairs, and whofe &tuallficatlons conjijl only 
in having a greater Number of Voices, Diog. Laert. Llb.y'x. §. 8. Edit. Amft. 

' The different Diftinftions of Things in relation to Right, fhall be explain'd in Lib. iv. and v. See the Infill. Lib. ii. Tit. i. & 
Digefl. Lib. i. Tit. viii. Be rerum Blvljione, as alfo Mr. D a u m a t's Cnll Laws,\n their natural Order in the Preliminaries, Tit. iii, 

4 Modi affeHlvl: Words hard to be tranflated. The French renders them, fimpk Modes ; becaufe, as our Author 
explains them, they only modify; i.e. difpofe moral Perfons. 

s Internal Qiialities are fuch, as are really inherent in a Perfon, as Power, Right, Obligation; as alfo, fuch p.ifllve 
Qualities, of which our Author treats in §. 20. following. It were to be wilhed, that our Author had been clearer in 
his Divifions, which are not very Scholar-like. 

* External Qtialities are fuch, as are not annexed to the Perfon, but being fixed to external Objefts, make an Im- 
predion upon the Perfon. See §. zi. following. 

' Viz.. Thefe deriv.atiye Qualities are nothing but the EfFeft and aftual Operation of the primitive Qiialities. In a 
Word, our Author ought to have avoided all this Jargon and unprofitable Diftinftions of the Schools. 


C H A p. I Of the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities. 


that either more clearly, or more obfcurely, ac- 
cording as fuch a Title is ufually attributed to 
fewer, or to more States. Of this kind are thole 
honoraiy Epithets, commonly prefixed to the 
Names of great Perfons, as Marks of general Re- 
fpeft : As, The rnoft Serene., "The moji Eminent., 'the 
moft IlUiflrious : the Signification of which rifes 
higher, or falls lower, according to the Condi- 
tion of the Subftantive to which they are join'd. 
Other T'itles direSlly fignify fome particular" State, 
or fome peculiar Seat and Place in a State., but in- 
dlrcUly denote that Degree of Value and Repute, 
which ufually accompanies fuch a. Slate: as are the 
Names of moral Perfons, of thofe efpccially who 
fill any Poft of Honour. Now thefe Titles are 
not confider'd, as they are only Notions reprefent- 
ing to one Man's tJnderftanding the State and 
Office of another, but as, by Virtue of human Im- 
pofition, they declare the Power and Authority of 
the Perfon that enjoys them. So that 'tis not a 
vain Contention about empty Ceremonies, when 
Men frequently have fuch hot Difputes and Quar- 
rels about 'titles: becaufe, upon the Denial of a 
Title, we are fuppos'd at the lame time to deny 
the State, the Office, the Power and the Rights, 
which fuch a Title generally exprcfles, or includes. 
But here we mull be fure to obierve, that the Im- 
poficion of moft Titles is not perpetual and uni- 
form 5 but in different Countries, and in the fame 
Country at different Times, admits of very large 
Alterations. Thus thcTitles of thefiift Kind which 
we mention'd (or the honorary Epithets) made 
ufe of by our Anceftors, how mean and little do 
they found to the Ears of our own Age: while 
what was heretofore thought a worthy Mark for 
the greateft of mortal Men, lliall now be defpis'd 
by an inferior Scnbler? For which realbn the In- 
creafe of fuch Titles does not always argue the in- 
creafe of Dignity; but when the Titles fwell high- 
er, while the Thing itfelf maintains its firft Con- 
dition, their Value and Price is fuppofed to be 
confiderably debafed. Sometimes alio a certain 
Ti!lr\s affix'd by way of Elogy and Complement 
to fome particular Order, becaufe the Quality or 
Thing meant by that Title, is, or ought to becon- 
fpicuous in the Generality of the Members belong- 
ing to fuch an Order. And hence thofe Members, 
who are not really poflefs'dof the Thing, do how- 
ever enjoy the Title ' . Thus in the Order of Men 
of Letters, many Perfons are faluted with the Ap- 
Tpe\\Miono( moft famous, znd moft learned, who are 
as much any thing elfe in the World as what thofe 
Terms fignify. And fo too, an idle unactive No- 
bleman muff have Induftry, and Strength, and Fa- 
lour applied to him in our Addrefles. It happens 
likewife very commonly, that private Men, or 
ethers, either advance or diminilh the Titles of 

Perfons, as they judge it convenient for the prefent 
Condition of their Affairs to flatter and carels or 
to defpife and vilify them. And even in the lat- 
ter Sort of Titles, as we above divided them it 
frequently falls out, tliat the Title may continue 
tho' the Thing itfelf, or the Dignity and Right 
be in a high manner either bcttcr'd or impair'd. 
And firther, 'tis very ufual, that in different Coun- 
tries the fame Word ffiall exprefs very different De- 
grees of Honour. And therefore it would argue a 
very unskilful Head, to place in the fame Clals all 
thofe who bear the fame Title all over the World *. 
It muff not be forgot, that fometimes a bare Title 
is attributed to a Man without the Thing, or with-: 
out the Offices and the Profits which ufed to attend 
fuch uTitle; only to this Intent, that he may hence 
obtain the external Enfigns and Badges of the Ho- 
nour, and may acquire a more creditable Place and 
Seat in the Community of which he is a Mem- 
ber. Laftly, It is worth remarking, that chiefly 
in the Titles of the principal Houfcs of jEaro/^, the 
fame Title fometimes imports both the Family, and 
the Pofleffion of the mention'd Tciritory • fome- 
times the Family only, without the Pofleflion, yet 
with the Right of fucceeding to it, according to 
the due Courfe and Order of Inheritance. 

XIX. Moral operative ^alities ' are either ac- 
tive or paffive. Of the former the moft noble 
Species are Power, Right, and Obligation. Power is 
that by which a Man is enabled to do a thing lawfully 
and with a moral Effect : which Effect is. That the 
Perfon exercifing this Power, fliall lay an Obligation 
on others to perform fome certain Bufincls, which 
he requires, or to admit fome Aftion of his as valid, 
or not to ftop and hinder it; or that he ffiall con- 
fer on others aLicenfe of doing or pofleffing fome- 
thing, which Licenfe they did not before enjoy. 
Whence it appears how wide this Quality runs, and 
how veiy diffufive it is of itfelf Power, with re- 
fpect to its Efficacy, is divided mto perfect and im~ 
perfect. The former is that, the Exercife of which 
may be afl'erted even by Force, againft thofe who 
endeavour unlawfully to let and oppofe it. Now 
Force is chiefly applied, within the Bounds of the 
fame Community, by an ylSiion at Law, and 
without thefe Bounds by a JVar. The latter, or 
imperfect Power, is that, the Exercife of which if 
any Man is unlawfully prohibited, he may be faid 
indeed to be inhumanly dealt with, yet he has no 
Right to delend it, either by Procels of a Court, 
or by the Force of Arms, unlefs this 4 Inefficacy 
or Impcrfeftion is fupplied with abfolute Neceffi- 
ty. With refpect to its Subject, Power is fur- 
ther divided into perfonal and communicable. The 
former is fuch as one Man cannot lawfully transfer 
to another. But then this muft be confider'd un- 
der feveral Differences. For fome Powers are 

Mr. Barb. NOTES on §. xviii, xix. 

' Hence it is that Cicero calls Titles of Honour no certain Marks of Dignity. Lib. x. Efifi. ad famil. Ep. vi. and 
obfervcs a little after, that during the Troubles of the Commonwealth, feveral Perfons were honoured with the Ti- 
tles of Conftih, who were altogether unfit for that Dignity, Confules dicii, jed nemo in Rempidlicam confidaris. See Tke 
^rt ofThmhmz, Part ii. Ch. vii. §. 2. and The Kew ^Letters of Mr. B A Y L E, on the Occafion of his general critical 
Remarks on M a i m b o u r g's Hiftory of Calvinifm. Let. iv. §. 3, 4, S. 

' Vide Mr. Le Clerc'^ yirs Crit. Tom. i. Part ii. SeSi. i. Cap. 13. 

'We muft undevftand by thefe Qu.ilities, fuch as our Author calls Original and Primitive; and, iii that Number, 
tliole that he calls internal. See $. 17. above. 

* As for Example, If a Man refufe to let us pafs through his Ground, though we do him no Injury, and we can 
^\^\ "° o™"" way, without great and manifeft Danger, he is suilty of an inhuman Adion towards us ; which never- 
thelels does not licenfe us to offer him any manner of Force ;"" but if a Man finds himfelf attacked, and can't other- 
i\ile lave his Life; as, when an Enemy profecutes us furioullv, then we may force a PafTage, Piifend. Ekro. Jun/pr, 
Vmverf. p.gj. See alfo what he fays, /. ii. c. 6. 

G a fe 

r 2 Of the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities. Book I. 

fo clofely united with the Perfon, that the Acts 
belonging to them cannot rightly be exeicifed by 
another. Such is the Poiver of the Husband over 
the Body of his Wife, which no Laws allow him to 
difchaige by a Deputy. In fome again, tho' we 
cannot transfer the Pofleflion, yet wc may by De- 
legacy commit the Alls to the Adminillration of 
others j but in fuch a manner, that the whole 
Strength of their Authority muft be deriv'd from 
him, in whom thofe Powers are originally feated. 
Of this kind is the power of fuch Kings as arecon- 
ftituted by the Will of the People : For they can- 
not transfer the Right of Reigning to another, 
and yet they may ufe the Service of Minifters for 
the Performance of the JRs belonging to that 
Right. Communicable Poiver is fuch as may be law- 
fully dev'olv'd upon others ; and that either at the 
Pleafure of the Perfon fo devolving it, or by the 
Authority or the Confent of a Superior '. 

Laftly, In refpe£t of the Objects, the Generality 
of Poii-ers may be reduced to four Heads : For 
they regard tithcvPerfons ox'Th'mgs-y and both thefe 
as they are either o/^ owk, or other Mens. APo-wer 
over our o\vn Perfons and Adions is called Liberty ; 
- the different Acceptations of which Word ftiall 
be hereafter difcufs'd. This muft not be conceiv'd 
as a diftinft Principle fi-om him who enjoys it, or 
as an Authority ' of obliging himfelf to any thing 
which is oppos'd by his Inclinations ' > but as a 
Licence to difpofe of himfelf and ot his A6tions, 
according to his free Pleafure; which at the fame 
time includes a Negation of any Impediment, pro- 
ceeding from a fuperior Power. A Power over 
our own Things or Goods, is called '* Property. A 
Poiver over the Perfons of other Men, is properly 
Empire or Command \ A Power over other Mens 
ThinjTs, is what the Cii-ilians term Service. 

XX. Right is that moral ^.ality by which we 
jujily obtain either the Government of Perfons^ or the 
PoJffeJJton of Things., or by the Force of which we may 
claim fomcwhat as due to us. The Latin Word 
Jus is a very wide and ambiguous Term : befides 
the Signification here ufed, it is taken for Law., 
and for " a Syftem or Body of municipal Laws or 
Conltitutions, and likewife for a ' Sentence pro- 
nounc'd by a Judge. There feems to be this Dif- 
ference between the Terms of Power and Right, 
that the firft does more exprefly import the Pre- 
fencc of the faid Quality, and does but obfcurely 

' Vide Lib. li. D. tie Recept. Lie. xiii. D. ad L. Aquil. 

denote the Manner how any one acquir'd it. Where- 
as the Word Right does propeily and clearly 
fhew, that the Quality was fairly got, and is now 
fairly poffefs'd. Yet becaufe the feveral kinds of 
Power have for the moft part a peculiar Name, 
which * that Quality, by which we conceive 
fomeching to be due to us, wants, Vv'e ha\x thought 
it convenient to give it the name of Right in a pe- 
culiar manner, tho' wc do not in other places ab- 
Itain from its more common Signification, as may 
be oblerved in the following Parts of this Difcourie. 
We place Right in the Clafs of aclrce ^alities., as 
by virtue of it any thing may be required of others. 
It may likewife be rank'd in the number oipajji've 
^alities., as it impowers us lawfully to receive any 
thing from others. For moral pajji-ve ^t.ilities are 
thofe by which we are faid to do or fuffer fome- 
what, or to admit and receive it. Of thefe there 
be three kinds: One according to which we right- 
ly indeed admit fomething, but in fuch manner, 
that neither we our felves have any Power of ex - 
afting it, nor others any Obligation to give it: 
Such is the Ability of receiving a Gift purely under 
the Notion of a Gratuity. And that this ^lality is 
not a mere Fanfy and Fiction, is evident from this 
one Confideration, that it may be reltrain'd by a 
Law. A Judge, for Example, may be debarr'd 
the Liberty of taking a Gift from Parties engag'd 
in a Suit, under what Colour or Pretence foevcr. 
Afecond Species is fuch as puts us in a Capacity of 
receiving fomething from another, not fo, that we 
can force it from him againft his Will, unlefs in 
Cafes of Neceffity j yet fo, that he is obhg'd by 
fome moral Virtue to pay or perform it. This 
'' Grotius calls ' Aptitude, or Defert. The third 
Species is that by which we are enabled to compel 
another to fome Performance even againft his Will, 
to which Performance he is likewife fully oblig'd 
by the Force of fome Law ordaining a Penalty up- 
on his Default. Here 'tis worth our rcmembring, 
that many Things in common reckoning pafs un- 
der the Notion of Rights, which if we would 
fpcak accurately, wc fhould rather call Compofi- 
tions, made up of Power and Right, in the llrifb 
Senfe of thofe Words : At the fame Time involv- 
ing, or fuppofing, fome Obligation, fome Ho- 
nour, or the like. Thus the Right or Privilege 
of being a Citizen, contains both the Power of ex- 
ercifing with full Virtue all A£ls peculiar to the 

b De Jure E. a- P. Lib. i. Ch. i. §. 7. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

* Such wns, ninong the Romans, the Powefj which a Father had obtained by adopting a Son ; for tlicre 
muft alio be befide;;, a transferring of the paternal Authority, confirmed by the People, Magiftrate, or Prince. See 
Aul. Gel. Lib. V. Ch. xix. and the Titles De Adoftionibus, in the Vigefts and Inftitutes. 

^ See Chaf. iv. of this Book, §. 2, ;. and Lib. ii. Ch. i. 

' Keijiie autem imperare pbi, neque fe prohibcre quifquam foteft; i.e. No Man can command or forbid himfelf. Di^efi. 
Lib. iv. Tit. viii. De Receftis, qui arlitrium, ip'c. Leg. li. See alfo L;b. ix. Tit. ii. ad Leg. Aquil. Leg. xiii. 

•» See Lib. iv. Ch. iv. 

' This Command or Authority is divided into, i. Abfolute, 2. Limited, fee i(i. vii. Ch.\\. As alfo into, i. Private, 
a. Publick. The firft is with which private Perfons are inverted for the Management of their private Concerns, 
as fuch, to wliich maybe referred the Authority of Parents over their Children; of Mafters over their Slaves, or Ser- 
vants ; of an Husband over his \K'ife ; of a Schoolmafter over his Scholars ; of a Tutor over his Pupils, eye. The 
other is that which publick Perfons are endowed with as fuch, for the Advantage of the civil Society. Pufend. Eiem. 
Juriffr. Univ. /. 93. 94- 

* Thus the Collection made by the Command of J u/linian, is called the Civil, or Law, and in the Time 
Senfe this Book is entitled. The Right of Nature and Nations. 

' This is only proper in Latin. See Digejf. Lib. i. Tit. i. De Ju/iitia CT" Jure, Leg. xi. 

■* This relates to what the Interpreters of the Roman Law call. Jus ad Rem, or, a Right to a Thing. See what is 
faid Lib. iv. Ch. ix. §. 8. Note 2. Uipian the Lawyer, as Mr. Hertiiis thinks, calls it. Jus crediti; i.e. a fort of aftive 
Debt. Digefl. Lib. iv. Tit. ii. &iuod metiis caufa, vc. Leg. xii. J. i. See I/^. 1. T/V. xvi. Deverborum jignificat. Leg. x. 
erf. And what is faid Lib, v. Ch. xi. §. i. Note 4. 

* See Ch. vii. J. 7. where we fhnll explain the Diftinclion of pcrfcft and imperfeft Right. 


Chap. I. Of the Origin and the Variety of moral Entities, i g 

Members of that City, and alfo a Right of enjoy- 
iriCT the Benefits proper to it, fuppofing in thePer- 
fon an Obligation toward the Corporation. So, 
for Example, the Honours and Degrees of learn- 
ed Men include both the Power of performing 
certain Aftions proper to fuch a Dignity, and the 
Right of iTiaring in the Profits of their Order > 
to which Notion there is further added theheiglit 
of Efteem and Refpcft, which accompanies their 
Place and Title. 

XXI. An Obligation is that by which a Man 
is bound under a moral Neceflity to perform, or 
admit, or undergo any thing. The feveral Kinds 
of Obligations t will be hereafter infifted on at 
large \ 

There are alfo a fort of ' moral patihle Qualities., 
which arc conceiv'd to afFe<5t the Underftandings 
of Men in fome certain manner : as in natural Qua- 
lities, thofe have obtain'd the Name of patible, 
which afte<Et the Faculty of Senfation. Of this 
Order are Honour, Ignominy, Authority, Gra- 
vity, Fame, Obfcurity, and the like. 

XXII. It remains that we fubjoin Ibmething 
about the Modes of EJlimation, or the moral ^mn- 
tities : For 'tis evident in common Life, thatPer- 
fons and Things are rated, not only according to 
the Extenfion of their natural Subftance, or ac- 
cording to the Intenfenefs ot their Motion, and 
their other natural Qualities, confidered as they 
flow from the Principles of their Eflencej but 
likewife according to another kind of Quantity, 
different both from phyfical and mathematical: 
And this ^lantity ariies from the Impofition and 
Determination of a rational Power. Now moral 
^antity is met with firft in 'things^ where it is 
called Price > fecondly in Perfons^ where we term 
it Efteem; both which were included in the No- 
tion of Value J and thirdly, in AUims^ where it 

has not yet acquired ' a peculiar Name. Of each 
Species we fhall treat in its proper Place. What 
we have hitherto infilled on, about the Variety and 
Diftinclion of»/ora/ jE»//7/w, may feem fufficicnt 
to our prefent Defign. 

XXIII. We will only add this general Remark 
That as moral Entities owe their Original x.o Impo- 
fition^ fo they draw their Continuance and their 
Changes from the fame Caufe i and when that once 
ceafes, they immediately vanifh, juft as when we 
put out the Light, the fhadow inftantly difappears. 
Thofe which are made by divine Impofition^ are not 
diflblv'd but by the divine Pleafure. Thofe which 
are fram'd at the Will of Men, are deftroy'd by 
the fame Power, without the leall: Alteration in 
the Perfons or Things, as to their natural Sub- 
ftance. For tho' it implies a Contradidion in the 
Nature of Things, that what has been done alrea- 
dy, fliould be made not to have been done ; as 
that a Man, who has been Conful, fhould not 
have been Conful ; yet we find every Day how 
cafy 'tis to caufe a Man not to be for the future 
what he has already been: and we fee at the fame 
time all the moral Entities that inher'd in fuch a 
Man, entirely defac'd, and leaving no real Foot- 
fteps behind. For 'tis impoffible that a moral En- 
tity fliould ever grow up to the Strength and 
Force of a natural Quality. Whence 'tis a very 
weak thing to believe, that when a Man is con- 
ftitutcd fuch or fuch a Perfon, an indelible Cha- 
radter is imprinted on him barely by virtue of that 
moral Impofition : For thus, when a Commoner 
is created a Nobleman, he only acquires new Right, 
but does not at all change his Subftance, or the 
Qualities founded in it : And if a Nobleman be 
degraded, he only forfeits the Rights of his Order j 
but the Benefits he holds from Nature, remain 
perfeft and unimpair'd ' . 

'Vide Lib. iii. Ch. iv. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

•}• See Ch. vi. §. >;. of this Book, and Lib. iii. Ch. iv. 

» Ouv Author calls thefe external operative §iualities, §. 17. above ^ and the Trench ti-anflates thenij moral fenjibic 

^ Vide, for the firft. Lib. v. Ch. i. For the fecond. Lib. viii. Ch. iv. For the third. Lib. i. Ch. viii. 

' The proper and real Foundations of Honour lofe nothing of their Value, although Men are ftript of their Titles. 
Demetrius Phalcreiis lively exprelTes this Matter, as he is quoted by Mr. Hertitis ; when it was told that Phi 
lofopher. That the Athenians had thrown down his Statues; Well, faid he, but they cannot overturn that Virtue, for 
the fake of which they were ereded. Diog. Laert. Lib. v. §. 82. See other E.xamples concerning tJie Manuer how moral 
Entities are deflroyed, in the laft; Chapter of this Bookj §. 6. 



Of the Certainty of moral Science. B o ok I. 

Of the Certainty of Moral Science. 

The Contents of every Paragraph of the fecond Chapter. 

I. Moft Men deny that there is a demonjlrati've Cer- 
tainty in moral Sciences. 

II. What is a Demonfiration. 

III. T'be Principles of a Demonfiration. 

IV. Demonfiration agrees to that moral Science on- 
ly^ that treats of the Goodnefs or Evil of Man's 


V. the Uncertainty of moralthings is objeSled. 

'T has been an cflablifh'dPerfuafion among the 

Generality of learned Men, xhzxmoral Knozv- 


I ledge is delHtute of that Certainty which is fo 
M famous in other Parts of Philofophy , and e- 
fpecially in the Mathematicks ' . The Foundation of 
their Notion is this : They take Mortality to be in- 
capable of Demonllration, from whence only true 
Science, and free from the fear of Error, can pro- 
ceed > but imagine that all its Evidence rifes no high- 
er than a probable Opinion. An Unhappinefs that 
has been prodigiouily injurious to the moft noble 
Difciplines, and the moil neceflary to human Life. 
For, hence it came to pafs, that Men of Wifdoni 
and Parts were afraid of fpending too much Labour 
in cultivating Notions which depended on fo weak 
a Bottom: And the fame Principle furnifli'd thofc 
who were intirely idle and negligent about thefe 
Studies, with a fair Excufe; while they might al- 
ledge, that there was no firm and demonftrative 
Affurance to be had in fuch Difquifitions, but that 
they could only be profecuted in a rude and unac- 
curate Manner. To which jlrifiotk contributed 
not a little, who in the common Judgment of the 
World, has arriv'd at the higheft Pitch of moral 
Attainm.cnts, and left no farther Field for the fuc- 
cceding Induftry and Wit of Men. Ariftotle then, 
as to the Truth of Ethicks, in hisTreatife on that 
Subjedl , addrefs'd to Nicomachtis ', delivers him- 
felf in the following Propofitions : It mufi not be 
expeUed^ that all Kinds of Things fioall he explained 
isjith the fame Accuracy . Honefiyandjufiice^ ivhich 
fall under the Confideration of ' civil Knowledge, have 
fo many different Faces, and are liable to fo many Mi- 
fiakes^that they feemto be only infiituted by Lazv, and 
not originally decreed by Nature. We fhall therefore 
think it fufficient, "when -we difcourfe on fuch Heads, or 
ivhen we argue from them, tofhew the truth in a 

VI. Whether any thing be good or bad before any In- 

vn. Whether Shame be a Proof of it. 

viii. Of the Extent of moral ASiions as to the pa- 

IX. Grotius'i Opinion confider''d. 

X. In moral ^.antities there is a Latitude. 

XI. What is called Morally Certain. 

ruder Manner, and under akind of Shadow and Figure. 
It becomes a Man well infiituted to require fuch Proof 
and fuch Explication of any Matter, as the Nature of 
the thing will bear. For, itfeems equally abfurd, to de- 
mand Demonfirations from an Orator, and to let a 
Mathematician fatisfy us with Probabilities ' . We, 
for our Part, as we are not at all influenc'd by the 
Name of a fingle Philofopher > fo we intend to en- 
quire what Anfwers are to be return'd to the prin- 
cipal Arguments urg'd by him, and others, fo foon 
as we fliall have premis'd a Word or two concern- 
ing the Nature o{ Demonfiration in general. 

n. To demonfirate then, as we apprehend it, is 
fyllogiftically to deduce the necelTary Certainty of 
any Matter propos'd from fuch Principles, as being 
its Caufes, muft needs make it known beyond 
Doubt and Difpute. Now, tho' 'tis manifeft that 
there is fuch a Thing as we here define, and we fee 
Inftanccs of it every Day in mathematical Opera- 
tions, to which no Man in his Wits ever denied 
the Art and Power of Demonftrating; yet from 
the falfc Expofition of two or three Words, it has 
happen'd that the greateft Number of Philofophers 
have committed a wretched Overfight inthePoinr, 
and have rafhly excluded this noble Way of Proof 
from many Parts of Knowledge , which had a juft 
Title to its Pofleflion. The chief Occafion of the 
Error v/as this: They found it laid down for a 
Rule, That the Subjeftof a Demon ftration ought to 
be neceffary, which they interpreted, as if in a de- 
monftrative Syllogifm tht SubjeSl of the Conclufion, 
to which the Predicate was applied, ought always 
to be a Thing neceffarily cxifient; as for Example, ia 
that thread-bare Inftance, Man is rational, therefore 
rifible; the SubjeSl of the Demonllration is Alan, 
who mult be own'd for a neceffary Being*. But 
in Reality the SubjeU of Demonftration is not any 

' Vid. Lib. i. Cap. i. 


'If we would know the Reafons, why it is f.ilfly beHcved, tli.u nil demonftrative Knowledge borders upon m.ithe- 
matic.ll Qii.Tntity, we need re.-id nothing but Mr. Lo c k e's excellent Work of Underftaiiding, Lib. iy. Cij.ii.§. g, 
lOj CT'c. and C/?.!/). iil. §. 19, lo. 

_ * Ariflotle undcrftands not by this, the Art of Government fimply, but the Knowledge of Morality, and the Condi- 
tion of a Citizen, of whatever Degree he is. This verv Word among the Greeks includes fometimes allpraftical Sciences, 
as, Oeconomicks, Rhetorick, vc. See Mr. Hertius's introdutl. Element. Prurl. Civil. §. 8. 

J Thefe Words appeared fo plain to M.r. Bud dens, that he was wholly of Opinion, that ^ri/?i)//c's Judgment about the 
Original of Juftice and Honefty was the fime as flpicunis's. See his DiCcourfe of moral Scepticifm, printed with his ^»a- 
lecla of Hift.Philof. in 1706. §. 12. However, Mv. Hertius in his Notes upon that Place, pretends to excufe Ariflotle, by 
faying. That he wrote for fuch of his Scholars, as, according to the Ciiftom of thofe Times, applied themfelves clofe 
to Mathematlcks, and on that Account fanfied that they had found geometrical Demonftrations every where. Hercupoa 
he quotes a Padage in his Metaphyficks, where he favs. That we muft not expeft a mathematical Exaftnefs in all forts 
of Subjefts, Ttiv kxft?o?ioyMii ii,»hffciTix.i>, Lib.u.Ch. ult. and refers us to Rachelius's Introduftion to the Philofophy of ^W- 
Jiolle, Ch.xn. '^ ' 

4 He does not mean, that Man has fuch an Exiftence that he can't hut cxift ; for that's the Property of God onl)'. The 
Exiftence of Man then is no otherwife neceflary, than as God has determined to fend him in'to the World, and that 
bemg fuppofed, he muft exift till God deftroys him. 


Chap. II. Of the Certainty «/" moral Science. 


* Eth. Nicom. 
Lib. vi. Ch. iii 

one fingleTerm, but fome entire Propofition, the 
neceflary Truth of which is from fettled Principles 
fyllogiftically inferr'd. Where it fignifies little, 
whether or no the5'«^/V^of this demonftrable Pro- 
pofition neceflarily exill > but 'tis fufficient, if grant- 
ing its Exiftence fuch certain Affections neceflari- 
ly agree to it, and if it can be made out, that they 
do thus agree to it , by undoubted Principles. 
Thus, a Mathematician never troubles himfelf to 
enquire, whether zTriangJeht necejfary ox contingent^ 
fo long as he can demonftrate all ^z Angles of it to 
be equal to two Right ones. And therefore the 
Subject of Demonftration is only call'd nccejfary up- 
on account of the necejfary Connexion by which the 
Predicate cleaves to it in Conclufions of that Na- 
ture '. 

III. But what kind of Propofitions thofe ought 
to be, which we are to ufe in Demonftration, will 
appear from the Confideration of its End and EfFe6t. 
That then, which we require by Demonftration, is 
Science^ or a clear and certain Knoivledge ^ every 
ffajf and at all times conjlant to itfelf.^ and placed 
beyond the Fear of Miftake. What 
ive have Science of (fays * Ariflotle) 
we imagine under an ImpoJJibility of 
being otherwi/c. 

Therefore 'tis neceftaiy the Propofitions fhould 
be true ' really and abfolutely, and not upon Con- 
ceflion or Suppofition. For, tho' from a Suppofition 
laid down;, a long Chain of Conclufions may be 
drawn j yet 'tis impoffible that , being deriv'd 
from a precarious Principle, the Streams fhould 
not rehfh of the Fountain. And tho' we fhould 
make the two moft contradiftory Suppofitions in 
Nature, one of which muft of Neceflity be true ; 
yet we can by this Means only prove for certain 
TO iT-i, as the Logicians call it , or that the Matter 
is really fo : for to Ji^ti, or the Reafon why it is fo, 
requires, as an indifpenfable Condition, the Firm- 
nefs of the precedent Hypothefis. The Propofi- 
tions of Demonftration muft likewife be the firfi 
and the higheft that can be, fo as to want no far- 
ther Proof, but to deferve Credit upon their own 
Evidence j or, however, fo as at lafl to be reduci- 
ble to fome firfi Truth. For as fome Propofitions 
are plac'd at a lefs, and fome at a greater Diftance 
from the firft Principles ; fo we muft not imagine 
that eveiy Demonftration can be finifh'd in a fin- 
gle Syllogiim , but we muft carry on the Argu- 

ment from the Propofition to be demonftrated, 
till we arrive at the firft Principle, on which it 
depends. For, they are not the only Maftcrs of 
Reafoning, who are fo very quick and expert at 
their quicquid^ their at qui ^ and their ergo ; but 
thofe alfo, who beginning at evident Principles, 
underftand how to frame an Argument by a juft 
Train of necefliiry Confequences. Another Re- 
quifite in fuch Propofitions is, that they be im- 
mediate '; that is, that they flow immediately 
from one another, without any Gap or Interrup- 
tion. For, a demonftrative Argument fhould be 
work'd up in the manner of a Chain, the Pro- 
pofitions being knit within one another^ like fo 
many Links > fo that if any one Link breaks, or 
proves deficient, the whole Frame muft diftblve 
and fall in Pieces. Laftly, 'tis neceflary that the 
Propofitions in Demonftration be the Caiifes of the 
Conclufion^ as containing the Reafon why in fuch 
a Conclufion the Predicate neceffarily agrees to the 
Subjecl ^. 

IV. This being premis'd, itisfartherobfervable, 
that tho' 'tis a Thmg common to all moral Difci- 
plinenotto take up with a bare Theory, but to pals 
mtoUfe and Practice, yet there is avaft Diffe- 
rence to be difcover'd between the two Principal 
of them i of which one is concern'd about the 
Reftitude of human Adtions, in order to Lav/s > the 
other about the dextrous Government of our own, 
and of other Mens Aftions, for the Security and 
the Benefit of ourfelves, and more efpecially of the 
Publick. For this latter Part o£ Et hicks ought to 
be rank'd under theNameof Pra^^»^^, which yfrz- 
fiotle^ defines > J Habit, aBi've according to Reafon, 
about the Good and Evil that can happen to a Man. 
Whence he thus fettles the Duty of a prudent Per- 
fon : It feems to me to be the Property of a Man of Pru- 
dence, to take right Confultations about thofe 'Things 
ivhich are good for him, and of miiverfal Ufe in ixjcU 
living. And thefe Opinions he builds upon Axi- 
oms drawn from the accurate ObfeiTation and 
Comparifon of human Manners and Events. But 
thofe Axioms do not appear fo very firm and evi- 
dent, as to be the Ground of infallible Demonftra- 
tion, as well upon account of the wonderful Frail- 
nefs and Inconftancy that occurs in the Wits and 
Tempers of Men, as becaufe the Events of Affairs 
are frequently turn'd in a little Moment , and dri- 
ven to a Refult quite contraiy to our Intentions 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

* So that tlioimh the 

he Acfions oi ', and all other moral Entities, do not necefHirily exift, but depend upon the free 
Determination orour Underftanding ; yet if we fuppofe certain Relations between Deeds which are aftuall)- produced, 
orm.iyexift, and a Rule with which we may compare them, fome Right and Obligation will as neceffarily follow from 
thence, as fuppofing a Triangle, it follows, that its three Angles are equal to two Right ones. 

'■ Our Author argues here upon the Principles of ^ri/?ci//f, wliofe Words are, 'Avihiin^i >.iyu, &c. " I call that a De- 
" monftration, which by Reafoning produceth Knowledge, as foon as we apprehend it. And if this be the Way to 
" know, it is a necelTary Confequence, that all demonftrative Knowledge muft be deduced from Maxims fo evidently 
" true, that they enforce a Conclufion immediately, and fo are the proper Principles of the Thing to be demonftrated. 
Ari^. Anahjt. Poft. Lib. i. Ch. ii. D. " If demonftrative Knowledge be from neceflary Principles, "tis plain, that all de- 
" monftrative Reafoning muft be from fuch. lb. Ch. vi. 

» Every Step or Degree of Inference ought to be known intuitively, ;. e. at the firft View, and of itfelf : viz. we 
fhuft fee the Agreement or Difagreement of the Medium which unites the Terms together ; and which intervenes to 
fhew the Agreement of the two Extremes at one fingle View. See hit. Loch's EJfay of the human Underftanding, Lib.iv. 
Ch. ii. §. J. 

* Our Author might have obferved here , that all that he was about to fiiy of the Nature of a Demonftration , is 
explained more at large in a Latin Book entitled, Analyjis, &c. An Analyjis of AriftotleV Philofophy, according to the 
Principle! o/Eucild, by Erhard Weigel, ProfefTor of Mathematicks at '^ena. This Perfon firft encouraged Mr. Pufen- 
dorf to undertake this Work, and furniflied him with fome Materials for it ; as our Author owns in his Preface to his 
Element dejunfp. Univerf. He adds there alfo. That no Man of his Nation has fo well taught the Art of Demonftration 
as that Profeflbr. 

* Ariji. Ethic, ad Nicom. Lib. vi. Ch. v. Cicero alfo calls Politicks, Prudenttf civilis, Partit. Orat. Ch. xxii. 


Of the Certainty of moral Science, B o o k I. 


and Expe£tations ' '. Nor is human Subtilty 
in the Applications of thefe Rules and Maxims 
baffled only by fuch unlook'd for Accidents and 
Occurences j but the divine Wifdom is pleas'd of- 
ten to interpofe, and to elude the craftielt Strata- 
gems, and the belt contriv'd Plots of mortal De- 
signs. And therefore the ableft Managers of Af- 
fairs afpire not to aft always with ftrid Demon- 
llration of Succefs % but when they have apply'd 
the moll: fage Circumfpedion, and the mofl pier- 
cing Forecaft, they commit the Iflue to Provi- 
dence and Fate. ^ For tho' generally we may 
know what can poflibly happen , tho' we may 
compare thefe poffible Events together, tho' we 
may determine for certain, not only which of two 
Poifibilities is of greater, and which of lefler Va- 
lue, fuppofing them now to exift > but alfo what 
Effe(5t can proceed from more, what from fewer 
Caufes, either now in being, or hereafter to be : 
and tho' we may conclude that EffetV, which can 
be produc'd by moft Caufes and Ways, to have 
the higheft Degree of Probability , and therefore 
beft to deferve our Hopes and Expeftations '^ j yet 
all Poffibilities do not occur to the Mind at all 
Times and Places j or, if they do, are not always 
rightly weigh'd and conCder'd : and by reafon of 
ibange and fudden Accidents, which could fcarce- 
ly have been forefeen, many Things, which we at 
firfl thought to be moft pofllble, or the moft like- 
ly to fall out, when we come to the Point, ap- 
pear quite otherwifc than we before imagin'd 
them. Hence, in pmdential Managements moft 
Men think it fuilicient to follow that Rule of 
Arljlotle <• .• IFe ought no lefs to hearken to the un- 
demonjiratcd Declarations and Opinions of skilful, of 
ant lent, orofivife Afen, than to Demonflration itfelf : 
for fuch Perfons found their fight of Things on Expe- 
rience, and fo look into the very Principles of Action. 
But let others fight out this Prize ' . As for the 
former and more noble Species, which we alfign'd 
to moral Difcipline, that which confiders what is 
Right, and what Wrong in human Actions, the 
beft Share of which ♦ will be lUuftrated in our 
prefent Attempt > this is built altogether on fo fure 
Grounds, that we thence draw genuine Demon- 

ftrations, able to produce tme and folid Science : 
Or, in other Words, its Decrees may be in fuch a 
Marnier deriv'd from certain Principles, as to leave 
no Room, noExcufe for Doubt ^ Whatever con- 
tributes to the improving of our Virtue, or of our 
Happinefs , Nature hath taken Care to lay either 
directly before us, or at a very eafy Diftance for 
our Search This Aflertion will be more clearly 
made out, if we in the firft Place confider and exa- 
mine the Arguments ufually alledg'd to the contra- 
ry. But, by the way, we acknowledge Mr. Hobbes^ 
to have been extreamly miftaken, when he con- 
tends, that ' Ethicks and Politicks are therefore ca- 
' pableof a Demonftration « //vor/, i.e. byReafons 
' drawn from the Nature of the Thing j becaufe 
' we ourfelvcs are the Authors of the Principles of 
'Juftice and InjuHice, of Right and Wrong, by 
' making thofe Laws and Compacts whence the 
' Meafures of Juftice are to be taken : flnce before 
'any fuch Laws or Compacls were inftituted, 
' there no fuch Thing as Juftice or Injuftice, 
* //^Md- Good or Evil, among Men, any more than 
'amongBcarts' '. The abfolute Falfenefs of which 
PoCtion we iliall hereafter- ^ have Occafion to dc- 
monftratc } as there is alfo a Fallacy lurking under 
the word Piiblick. 

V. To proceed therefore to the Obje£tions : 
Some affirm moral Things in general to be uncer- 
tain and unftable j and no Science can be of a 
more firm and fettled Nature than the Objeft a- 
bout which it is employ 'd. To which it may be 
anfwer'd, That tho' Jwri?/ £«/^///« owe their Ori- 
ginal to Impofition, and therefore cannot be cali'd 
Neceffary in an abfolute Senfe ; yet they do not 
proceed from fuch loofe and wandering Principles, 
as that on this Account all Knowledge about them 
fhould be weak and uncertain. For, the very Na- 
ture of Man, allign'd him by the Wifdom and 
Goodnefs of the Almighty Creator, requir'd the 
Inftitution of the chief Part of them j and thefe ac 
leaft cannot be iaid to be unfettled and uncertain. 
This will appear beyond Difputc, when we come 
to enquire into the Origin of the Laiv of Nature. 
Befides, human A&ions are chiefly on this account 
caird Moral, becaufe th ey are not neceffary, but free j 

» 'T« not barely the Event of Things (fays Tabius in Livy, Lib. xxii. Cli. xxxix.) which communicates this Knowledge, for that 
is only as the Inftruilor of Fools : but it is the fame immutable Reafon which, and will be fo as long as the World continues in its 
frefent Condition. .tI^;(/eaSam. x. 12. c Vide D.Cumberland De. L. Nat. Ch.\v.§. 4. n. 4. i Ethic. Lib.yl. Ch.Kii, ^Senec. 
DeBenef. Lib. yii. Ch.yii. DeHomine, Ch.x. ech.yii. J. 13. andLJ^. viii. Ch.i. §.5. 

Mr. Eakb. NOTES. 

' See Montagne'sEjfays, Lib.i. C^. xxiii. P. 76. in fol. AndCharron, Of Wifdom, Lib. in. Ch.i. Here alfo we may ob- 
fcrve, that fome Events are liot probable fometimes, according to the Senfe of an antient Poet, cited hy Ariftotle, Rhetor. 
Lib. ii. C/j. xxiv, TuyJ 'et-i tk, £1x05, See. Any Man may affert it as a Probability, That many unlikely Things befal Men, See 
Mr. Bayle's Hijior. and Critical Diilion. Tom. i. P. 94. 

' In the ordinary Coufe ot Life we muft not cxpeft a clear Evidence, but are obliged, for the moft part, to aft by Pro- 
babilities. It is a judicious Maxim of D«/Mrfej's, and, long before him, laid down by iewca : We muft not exfeH a certain 
Knowledge of theTruth, which is hard to find out ■■, but we }n:i/i follow Probabilities. All our Actions are grounded on this. So wg 
fow, fail, marry, &c. tho' we know the Event uncertain. We go, where Reafon, not Truth leads : If we tarry till we can kno-M 
what will happen well, and what is certain Truth, we may Jit fiill for ever. I will not fear to follow Probabilities. Sen. de Be- 
lief. Lib. iv. Ch. xxxiii. Arnobius has a like PafTage, in the Place where he anfwers the Pagans Objeftions againft the Faith 
of Chriftians. 

» It is certain, that Politicks, as well as Phyfick, is a conjeftural Science, AsMr.Bayle expreffes himfelf, in his Reply tt 
theQueJlionof a Province, Tom.i. P. 570. But whatever that famous Philofopher fays, who, according to his Cuftom, pre- 
tends to gather from thence fome Argimients for Sccpticifm, P. 565. yet if he would ferioufly examine true Politicks, he 
would find that moft of its Principles and M.ixims have a Certainty in them, \vhich comes very near a Demonftrationj 
and as to thofe Things which look like Problems, their Obfcurity proceeds rather from the Difticulty of Application, 
Ignorance of fome Circumftances, or Want of Attention, than any abfolute ImpofTibility to eftabliOi a Rule of Cer- 
tainty concerning them. See what Mr. Hcrr;«j fpeaks here, and the Difcourfe of Mr. B«(/(/e«j, De Scepticifmo Morali, §, 26^ 
The Boafting of the Scepticks proceeds from tlie Obfervation of the Behaviour of bad Politicians, and ambitious So* 
vereigns, an^ not from the Principles and Maxims which arife from the natural Dcfign of civil Government, and the 
publick Good, feparatc from the private Intereft of fome Perfons. 

'* Our Author ncvcrthelcfs explains the fundamental and principal Qucftions of Politicks in the two laft Books of 
this ^»'ork. 

f For, fome pretend that the Determination pf what i? moially Good or Evil, depends upon the Will of the Sovereign. 

3 yet 

Chap. II. Of the Certainty of moral Science. 

vet from hence it does not follow , that upon the 
laying down of certain Principles, fuch Affe6lions 
may agree to thefe Aftions, as may be undoubted- 
ly demonflrated concerning them. For 'tis evident, 
that the A£ls which fall under the Conduct of the 
Law of Nature, do in themfelves contain an in- 
irinfical Force and Power, dire£ting towards a lo- 
ciableLife,tho' the aftual Excrcife of them depends 
on the Free-will of Man. While we deliberate, 
we are properly faid to ht free^ and the EfFefts 
which are to proceed from our A£tions are , with 
Rcl'pedt to the Freedom^ rightly term'd Contingent : 
but when we have once determin'd which way to 
a6t, the Connexion between our Adions and the 
depending Effefts is neceffary and natural, and 
confequently capable of Demonftration. Neither 
do they argue any Thing to the Puvpofe, who deny 
the Poflibihty of palling a clear Judgment on hu- 
man Deeds, upon Account of the great Variety of 
Circumftances , any one of which feems to put a 
new Face, and a new Quahty on the Action j 
whence it happens, that Legiflators can feldom 
frame fuch a Law as ihall admit of no Exception, 
and where there iTiall not be frequent Occafion to 
negleft the Letter of the Statute, and to have Re- 
courfe to Equity for Relief. Becaufe indeed there 
are eftablilTi'd Principles, by which it may be 
fhewn how much Weight and Force any Circum- 
llancc bears in affecting, or varying any A£lion. 
And thefe very Principles are the Occalion, that 
Law-givers are frequently lefs anxious about ex- 
cepting from their Decrees fome particular Cafes 
involv'd in extraordinary Circumftances ', but 
proceed with more Security in the Ufe of general 
Words. For they take it for granted , that the 
Judges, whofe Duty it is to examine particular 
Actions by the Rule of the Law, will be very well 
able to underfland what Power any Circumilance 
has over any Fa£t ' ^ But hence it cannot be in- 
ferr'd , that conftant and perpetual Decrees fome- 
times fail j but we ought rather to conclude, that 


'tis not worthwhile for Legiflators, in their written 
Laws, to prefcnbe any Thing about Cafes that very 
rarely happen, fince fuch may be eafily determin'd 
by the Judges out of the Principles of the Law of 
Nature . 

VI. But to make the Knowledge of the Law of 
Nature, of which we are now treating, and which 
includes all moral and civil Dodrines that arc ge- 
nuine and fohd, to make this Knowledge, we 
fay, fully come up to the Meafuie and PerrciSlion 
of Science^ we do not think it necefTary to affert 
with fome Writers, that there are fe\eral Things 
honefl or dinionclt of themfelves ' and antece- 
dent to all Impofition, and ib to make thefe 
Things the Object of our natural and perpetual 
Law, inOppofition to pofitivc Laws, where Mat- 
ters are Right or Wrong, juft as the Law-giver 
was pleas'd to make them either. For, fince Ho- 
nelty (or moral Neceffity) and Turpitude are Affec- 
tions of human Deeds, anling from their Agreeable- 
nefs or Difagreeablenefs to a Rule, or a Lav/ j and 
fince a Law is the Command of a Superior, it does 
not appear how we can conceive any Goodneis or 
Turpitude before all Law, and without the Impo- 
fition of a Superior ' . And truly, as for thofe 
v/ho would eitablifh an eternal Rule for Morality 
of the Adions, without Refpect to the Divine In- 
jundion and Conftitution, the Refult of their En- 
deavours feems to us to be the joining with God 
Almighty fome coeval extrinfical Principle, which 
He was oblig'd to follow, in affigning the Forms 
and Effences of Things. Bcfides, 'tis acknowledg'd 
on all Hands, that Goo created Man, as welf as 
every Thing elfe, according to his own Free-will. 
From whence it evidently follows, that it mull 
needs have been his Power and Pleafure to endue 
this Creature v/ith whatever Kind of Nature his 
Wifdom thought fit. And how then lliould it 
come to pafs, that the Adions of Mankind ihould 
be veiled with any AfFcdion or Quality proceed- 
ing from intrinfical and abfolute Neccffity, with- 

» And hence chiefiy v:e are to draw the Reafonof it, §. ^, 4, 5, 6. de Legib. Laws are to be enaftcd, rti Tlieophraftus tis'd 
to fay, withRegavd to Thine,?, as they moft commonly fall out, not as tliey fomctimes happen beildeExpeftation. Lit- 
tle pai-ticular Cafes and accidental Exceptions are not worth the Notice o! aLegiflator. '■ Add. D. Cumberland de Le!^ 
K. Ch. iv. §.4. ». I. ' SeldendeJ. N.vG. Lib. i. Ch. 4. 

A/r. Barb. NOTES. 

* By thefe Principles (adds this Author) the following Maxims of the Roman Lawyers are to be expl.iined : Laws are 
it be made (lays Theofraftus) .'ibout fuch Things as commonly happen, and not about fuch Things as fall out unexpeiledly and 
by Chance : For what happens once or tifice. Lawgivers pajs over. Dig. Lib. i. Tit. iii. De Legibus, Senatttfonf. c longd, 
confuetudine. Leg. iii. i. e. In a Word, Laws are made about Things that commonly happen, and not tor extraordinary Cafes, 
which may fall out once or twice by Chance. See Ariftot. Ethic, ad Nicom. Lib. v. Ch. xiv. and what is faid Lib. v. Ch. xii! 
§. 16 and 2,1 following. 

* We muft own, that becaSfe of this infinite Variety of Circumftances, we can hardly come to a final Decifion in 
our Examination of all particular Cafes ; yet that does not at all fhake our moral Certainty, nor lefien the \]k of it • 
for the Impofllbility of doing any Tiling without us, either by the Ufe of our Senfes, or with the Help of Inftruments,' 
as to make a fuigle Line pertedfly right, a fingle Surface exadlly round or plain, a fingle Body compleatly regular, or 
whatever elfe may be reduced to the like Nature; fuchan Impoftibility (I fay) can't de'llroy the Truth or Benefit of' the 
Principles of Geometry, concerning the Meafure of Lines, Superficies, and Solids. It is Vufiicient that they come fo 
very near Exaftnefs, that nothing confiderable can be defired to make them ufeful to us ; and (b we may arrive at 
our Ends as well by the Principles of Morality, as by thofe of Geometry. It is true neverthetefs, that Thin>'s moral, 
fuch as God and Man, with their mutual Acts and Relations, can't be known fo diftinftly and exaftly, as matlienia- 
tical Qiieftions, and fo moral Conclufions can't be fo perfetlly known. But as to the Method, Rules of Denionllration, 
and interring one Tiling from another, they are all exaftly the fame in Geometry and Morality; and there is no more 
Need of an abfolute Exaftnefs for the Ufe of Life, than to meafure the Diftance of Place, or Extent of a Field. Cujn- 
herland. Ve Legib. Nat. Ch. iy. §. 4. n. i. It is thought necefl'ary to give the Reader this PaHage entire, which our Au- 
thor only refers to. 

' To remove all Ec|uivocations, and leave no Place for Cavil, we ought to obferve. That we inuft own Tilings 
honeft or dilhonefl of tlicmr-,;lves, or in their own Nature, 1. By Way of^Oppofition to human Appointment, as the 
Agreements or Opinions of Men. 2. In Refpeft of the Subjeft, with Relation to which they are thought fo. As tor 
E.\-amplc, There are fome Acts v.'hich a;;^r;e to G o d no wav, i.e. which he can't do without derogating from his Per- 
leftions, and fo contradifting himf.lf. there are Aftions alio, which of themfelves agree, or difagree with the human 
Nature in our prefent State. But if v,e underfland that an Aftion is honeft, or diflioncft in its own Nature, without 
any Relation to the Appointment of G o d, or the Laws which God hath impofed upon us by our Creation, in tiiis 
Senle the Propofitioa is falfe. Specm. Controverf. Ch.\, §.7. See i;^. ii. Ch.iii. §.4, 5. following, 

5 D out 

Of the Certainty of moral Science. Book I. 


out Regard to the Inftitution , and to the good 
Pleafure of the Creator ' ? So that in reahty , all 
the Motions and Aftions of Men, upon fetting a- 
fide all Law, both divine and human, are per- 
fe6i:ly indifferent ' ; And fome of them are there- 
fore only laid to be naturally honeft or difhoneft, 
becaufe that Condition of Nature, which God 
has freely beftow'd on Man , ftridly enjoins the 
Performance or the Omiflion of them '. Not 
that any Morality inheres of itfelf, and without all 
Law, in the bare Motion, or the meer Applica- 
tion of natural Power ' : And therefore we fee 
Beafts every Day doing fuch Things without Fault 
or Sin, in committing which Man would have 
been guilty of the higheft Wickednefs. Yet are 
not the natural Motions of Men and of Beafts in 
themfelves different, but fome Adions of Men are 
by the Authority of a Law inveiled with a moral 
Quality, which does not at all touch or affect the 
Proceedings of Brutes. 

Nor will it be to thePurpofe for any one to ob- 
je£t, That fince Men are endu'd with Reaibn, which 
"is wanting in Beafts, therefore there muft be a 
natural Difference between human and brutal Ac- 
tions. For, if we confider Reafon, as uninform'd 
with the Knowledge and Senfe of Law , or of 
fome moral Rule, it might perhaps even in this 
Condition, furnifh Man with theFacuhy of ading 
moreexpeditioufly and more accurately than Beafts, 
and might affift the natural Powers by an addi- 
tional Shrewdnefs or Subtiky. But that it fhould 
be able to difcover any Morality in human Adions, 
without refleding on fome Law, is equally impof- 
fible, as that aManborn blind fhould make ajudg- 
ment on the Diftinftion of Colours '*. 

Another Argument in favour of our Opinion is 
fuggefted by Oftander, in his Notes on Grotius^ de 
Jure Belli 6? Pads, p. 60. ./f (fays he) there were 
any fuch Thing as moral Good or Evil before all Law, 
how could there beany Obligation to make fuch a Dif- 
ference in our Anions, fince all Obligation proceeds from 
the Comtnand of a Superior ? For moral Good or E- 
vil involve a RefpeSl to a Perfon aSling either of thofe 
ways ; and if that Perfon be determined by no Obli- 
gation, he cannot be [aid properly to aEl well or ill. 

But here we defire it Ihould be well obferv'd. 
That this Indifference of the natural Motion in 

human A£tions is by us maintain'd and eftablifli'd 
only in refpe6t to Morality : For otherwile Ani- 
ons enjoin'dby the Law of Nature have, from the 
Determination of the firfl: Caufe, a native Force in 
themfelves of producing Effefts good and ufeM 
to Mankind} as Aftions forbidden by the fame 
Law are productive of contrary Effects. But this 
Goodnefs and Illnefs, which an A£lion bears natu- 
rally and of itfelf, can never conilitute any new 
Thing in Morals, which are quite beyond its Reach 
and Concern. For there are many Things highly 
conducing to the Happinefs and Advantage of a 
Man ', which are not morally good , as neither 
being voluntary Deeds , nor Performances of any 
Law ^ i and many Aftions which contribute to 
human Welfare, do in the fame manner promote 
the Benefit of Beafts, in whom certainly they can- 
not bear any moral Quality. Thus the abftaining 
from mutual Hurt, the moderate ufe of Meat and 
Drink, the Care of Progeny or Off-fpring, are 
equally ferviceable in the Prefervation of rational 
and of irrational Kinds j and yet Beafts are never 
faid to perform Actions morally good '. So tho' 
all human Aftions falling under the Guidance of 
the Law of Nature, may be finally refolv'd into 
that natural Strength and Force which they bear 
in advancing the Profit or the Harm of Men*, 
confider'd either in a fingle or in an united State; 
yet it does not follow on the other Hand, thar 
whatever Thing is endued with a natural Power of 
doing good or harm to any Species of Animals, 
is therefore the Objedt of the fame Law. 

Another Objection againfl: the Doftrines we are 
now-eftablifhing, is taken from that Paflage in A" 
riftotle"% E: hicks ' : Every ASiion and every AffeSlion 
does not admit a Mediocrity : For there are fome Af- 
feSiions which involve a kind of Pravity in their very 
Name,as Malice, Impudence, atkl Envy, and '^^ycti- 
piJixnix, or rejoicing at another Man's Misfortune ; and 
likewifefome ASlions, as Adultery, Theft, and Murder. 
Now thefe and the like being evil directly and in their 
own Natures, are not called Vices with relation to any 
Escefs or DefeSl y for abfolutely, and without any De- 
grees to be guilty of them, is to commit Sin. But 'tis by 
no means a good Confequence, that becaufe we 
have fome Names of Aftions or Affcdions, which 
of themfelves, and without any Excefs or Defed, 


> Pl A T o in Sympof. This is the Nature ofever'j Anion, to he in itfelf neither good nor vicious ; »s what we are now doing, drink* 
J. ['H''^g' 'arguing. Neither of thefe. confider'd by itfelf, is honefl or difioneft; but the Manner of performing it gives tvery Ac- 
tion its proper Denomination. For what is done right, we call good, and what is done wrong, evil or indecent. Thejame Rule 
the Philojopher aftewards applies to Lovt. •> Such are a §itick Apprehenjion, Knowledge, Memory, ficc. « Add. D. Cumberland^ 
Dc L. N. Ch. V. §. 9. 


' SeeNort4. uponCh.i. §.4.' 

* This will .ippear more plain from this Confiderauon : There are fome Aftions, in which the phyfical Motion is entirely 
the fame, but the Morality is very different ; the one being accounted good, or at leaft allowable, the other evil and unlawful : 
As for Example ; To kill a Man is a Wickednefs in a Thief, but a good Aftion, or at le.ift an allowable one. in an Executioner, 
a Soldier, or a Perfon that fights in his own Defence, CTf . fo that the Aftion in itfelf may be reckoned altogether indifferent. 

'Plato, in his Treatife of Banquets, fpeaks to the fame Effeft. The Nature of all our Aftions is fuch, that they are nei- 
ther honeft nor difhoneft in themfelves, asto drink, fing, difcourfe, and fuch like Aftions ; but 'tis the Manner of doing, that 
denominates the Aftion ; for what we do well, and according to our Duty, is honeft, but whatwedoill is diftioneft. 

•* Here we muft diftin'^uifti between fuch Terms --tnd Exprefllons, as denote purely and fimply the Motion of our na- 
tural Faculties, and thofe'Verms and ExprefTions which fignify to us an Aftion purely moral, i.e. a phyfical and inoral Mo- 
tion. As for Example: To labour, to kill, to fpeak, fignify only certain natural Motions, and thofe indifferent: But 
when we fay. He laboured to kill his Neighbour, He flew an innocent Perfon, when he had no Right to kill. He fpake 
ill of his Neighbour, thefe are bad Aftions. And thefe are good ones, or at leaft allowable ones. To labour in our 
Calling, Slay an unj'uft Aggreffor, Speak fincerelj, cty. There are alfo fome fimple Terms, which in themfelves con- 
tain both a phyfical Motion and Morality. As tor Example, Adultery. Inceft, Theft, Cf. as our Author fpeaks in his 
Dijfert. Academ.p.ji^, 734- 

I Such are (^faith Bithop Cumberland, De Leg. Nat.Ch. v. §. 9.) a Quicknefs of Wit, Knowledge of fpeculatiye Sciences 
and divers Arts, an happy Memory, Strength of Body, the Help of outward Things, C5-f. 

*See wh,it our Author writes. Lib. ii. C», iii. S. »I. 

° Ethic ad Nitom. Lib. ii, Ch. y'u 


Chap. IL 

imply Vice ; therefore there are fome Adions and 
Atfeftions bad in themfelves, without Refpecl to 
any Law : becaufe thefe Terms or Names do not 
fignify bare natural Motions and Acts, but fuch 
entire moral Motions andAfts, as are repugnant to 
fome Law, and fo take in and exprels the whole 
Compafs of a moral Deed '. For why, for Ex- 
ample, are Envy and its vile ConCcquents, which 
we but now mention'd under the Greek Name of 
iV.^«ifix«K,'«, reputed evil Afteftions, but becaufe 
the Law of Nature ordains, that a Man fliould ne- 
ver be a Stranger to his own Kind, but iliould 
bear a Part in the Pleafures and in the Sorrows of 
Iiis Neighbours} to which Rule it is anopenCon- 
tradiclion, to receive any Joy from the Calamity 
of others, and to repine at their Happinels and 
Succels ^? And fo what elfe is Impudence, but a 
wicked Firmnefs and Hardinefs of Mind in the 
Commiffion of fuch Things as the Law bids him 
be afham'd of ? For not to be ailiara'd, or not to 
blufli, can never be a Fault, when we are not by 
fome Lavv^ fuppos'd and enjoin'd to do otherwife. 
After the fame Manner, Adultery is the Pollution 
of another M^yi'sWife, whom the Laws appropri- 
ate to her Husband. Theft is the taking away of 
another Man's Goods, againft the Confent of the 
Owner, who by the Law is made the foleDifpofer 
of them. Murder is the killing of a Perfon in his 
Innocence, and againft the Laws. Inceft is a 
Conjunction with fuch a Perfon as the Laws ob- 
lige us to abftain from, upon account of the Reve- 
rence which Men are by Law likewife taught to pay 
toNcarnefsof Blood. And the fiime Judgment is 
to be made of other Vices. But now, if from all 
thefe you take away the Refpeft to the Law, and 
the Morality inherent in fuch Anions, the bare 
natural Fact will involve no Abfurdity or Contra- 
di(5tion: For in a natural and abfolure Senfe thefe 
are altogether indifferent Things ; to have Con- 
junftion with your neareft Relation, or with the 
fame Woman who is enjoy'd by another, fuppo- 
iing he has no peculiar Right to her, as he cannot 

* Add. Stch. Serm, Cii, 

Of the Certainty o/' moral Science. lo 

have without Lawj to take away the Life of a 
Creature of the fame Species with vour Ic'f- to 
take a Thing vv'hich another Man h-id defi?n'cl for 
his Ufe, tho' he had obtain'd no Right by Law 
to exclude others from their Share in lu i'olTef- 
fion. And the Reafon why fo few Pero is can 
conceive and apprehend fuch a naturi:llndifffiicnce 
as we are maintaining, is only this, becau.'e-j from 
our Infancy, we are taught to dctelt fijch Pra- 
ctices} and this Abhorrence being imprinted on our 
tender Minds, feems to grow into a kind of natu- 
ral Judgment} fothat it i'cldom enters into Mens 
Heads to diitinguilh between the Materiality and 
the Formality of thofe Aftions, or between our 
Performance of them as natural, and our Commif- 
fion of them as moral Agents '. Hence it ap- 
pears that Grotiiis had not confider'd this Matter 
throughly \ when among thofe Things to which 
the Power of God himfelfdoes not extend, be- 
caufe they involve a manifcft Contradiction, he 
reckons *- the Malignity of fome human Actions. 
Indeed 'tis impofiible that twice two fhould not 
make four, becaufe twice two and four are really 
the fame Thing, and only differ in Name, and in 
our Manner of conceiving them. But the Con- 
tradiction which appears in ACtions repugnant to 
Nature's Law, is of a much lower DegVee, and 
can never rife to an abfulute Impoflibility. And 
upon the fame Account he derives this Malignity 
from fuch Actions as compar'd with right Rea- 
fon: For in the very Terms of right Reaion,when 
apply'd to Man, there inheres a Refpeft to the 
Law of Sociablenefs enjoin'd to human Race by 
the Creator. Thus at the fame rate he allcd'^es 
' for a Proof of the Independency of fome of Na- 
ture's Laws, the necc£ary Agreement and Dila- 
greement of Things to rational ar.d locial Natilre. 
But Man obtain'd a focial Nature from the 
good Pleafure of G o d Almighty, not from 
any immutable NecefTity } and confequently the 
Morality of ACtions, agreeable or difagreeable 
to him as a focial Creature, muil be derived from 

^De J. B. & p. Ltb. i. Ch.\. J. lo. c Ibid. §. u. 

Mr. Barb. NOtES. 

* It Is is true, that %ve fometimes confound the pofitive Idea and phyficil Aftion with its mornl Rel.ition thou^K 
they nre really two very diftmft Things. As for Example, To drink Wine, or any other ftrong Liquor, till we lole 
the Uleof our Reafon, is that which we call Drunkennefs ; but as that Word imports, in its ordinary Ufe a moral 
Turpitude in the Action to a Law, Men are obliged to condemn every Thin;; that hath a Tendency to that which 
we call Drunkennefs, as an evil Aftion, and contrary to the moral Law ; but if a Man happen to have his Brain 
diftiubed, by drinking a certain (Quantity of Wine, which was prefcribed him as a Medicine tor the Recovery of his 
Health, thovigh we may call luch an .'ic'lion Druukennefs, confidering it as a Name of a mixt Nature yet 'tis plain 
that ifw2 compare It with the Law of God, our fupream Rule, 'tis no Sin, nor a Tranfgrellion of that divine! 
though Drunkennefs is ordinarily taken in that Senfe. Mr. Lode's Effay of the human UnderjUndtng, Lib il Ch xxviii 
$. 16. There is a great Ufe ot this Remark in the Qiieftion of Lying, which is treated on. Lib iv Ch i' 

Here's a tacit Anfwer to an Objeaion that may be offered. There are fome Men that have as natural an Abhor- 
rence of fome Vices, .as others have of Meats. Now fuch an Horror beinc; a kind of natural Motion, or Paffion, i: 
feems that our Senfe of the Turpitude of fuch an Action ought to be looked upon as a natural Otiality, and not as a 
moral one, refuking from the Law of God. This DiflRculty is fpecious, and the Author leems w give it an Anfwer, 
which, that we may underfland let us unfold his Words; Cuftom bcmg a ficond ^^alure. as the Proverb n, it happens, 
that (ome Pcrfons, of a more elevated Genius, conceive, from their Cradle, fuch an Horror .igainfl fome Vices of a 
more heinous Nature, that they retain it the refl of their Lives. This fort of Antipathy proceeds more from a con- 
tuled and indeliberate Thought, than a diftincl Knowledge and Reafoning about the Contrarietv of thofe Vices to tire 
i^aw. ..s for Example, It is certain, that in the f^rftAges of the World,^Marria(Tes between Brither and Sifter were in 
l-n ' ?7 ^"t 'o^^ed by the Dilpolitionof human Affairs at that Time, fo that the^moft of ouf Divines and Lawyers ac'- 
knowledge the Prohibition of thefe fort of Marriages to be only of pofitive Rioht; neverthelefs, the Uface of them 

,K^v° V^ "ff ^7 ,^'^ ^'^' ""''^ Nations, Men have entertained fo great an Aver-^on to them, not only becaufe 
tney aie toroidden bv their Laws i >- nnn.i t!-^ Ar.-r^,.r,^ ^f ,1... i n: _r .i..- . t- j ^..- i . .i.... i{-i 

I ley aie torDidden_by their Laws, la: upon th:: Account of the Imprellions of their Education, that they look upon 

Sifter to have a carnal Love one for another. And it feems as if their 

Senf« ™°"'^["7,7'''"g f'Jr a Brother .ind siitcr to nave a carnal Love one for another. And ft feems as if their 
orfinarv R* 7 '" ''^=^' ^^^r^^^^. for we may fee young Men converfe all thc-r Days with their Sifters of extra- 

thrVe im, n-"^'' "''" ^'T "'■''"' ^^ TcmptatiOH, though very amorous towards others of their Sex. Such as hav6 
aillc f!-om . x"' -"^f • "°u '^ ^'''^''"' "°-' ''-^ t'''-'''^'^'''' '"^^"^'"'^ °f fl^e A£tion, but are ftrongly perfu.-ded that they 
nhvfir-il n,,.l -"P'j n '" '"e A£tion, as contrary to the Nature of Man, as excelflve Cold, or tfeat. Grief, or othci- 
C/, V S . ^^*' deftru£tive to his Bc.-n-. Pi^jmrl. Letters a- SPccim. Controv. Ch. v. J. 5. See Phto, cited Lib. v. 
1 c 1 '",4 r' •^- ='"'* -P'^-'i"^. De Vtrlut. Moral. Tom. ii 
See the Defence of Crotius, Lib. ii. Ch. iii. §. 4. A-,,^ 5. 

D s ihe 

20 ^f t^^^ Certainty of moral Science. B o' o k T. 

the fame Original and Spring ; and mufl: be at- human Aftions of themfelves, and by the Force of 
tributed to Man, not by an abfolute, but by an their own Nature, not by the Power of external 
hvnothetical Neceflity; or upon Suppofal of that Impofition; for this Reafon,becaufe our very Blood 
Condition which God Avas pleas'd freely to be- feems to have a natural Senfe of wicked Deeds, 
flow on Mankind above the Privileges of the in- which it exprefles by fpreading a fudden Rednels 
ferior Creation. Nor can this Opinion of Gro//«j- over the Face, whenfoever we are touch'd, either 
find any Shelter or Prote6tion in thofe Places of with the Memory of them, or with the Reproach. 
Scripture which he quotes to fhew, that God Now they fay 'tis very improper to attribute a na- 
Almighty permits himfelf to be judg'd accord- tural Effed to a moral Quality ; bur, on the con- 
ing to the original Laws, and therefore theymuft trary,that fincefuch a certain Motion of theBlood 
be abfolutely immutable : For withoutdoubtGo d raifing a Rednefs in the Face, relults in the Man- 
declar'd to Mankind from the very Beginning of ner of a natural Effeft from an ill Aftion, that 
Things, that he would be a Rewarckr of the Good, Illnefs or Pravity muft likewile be applied to the 
and an Avenger on the f^kked, Htb.xi.6. and that Aftion, as a natural and a neceflary Affection or 
he would render unto eveij Man according to kis Quality. In return to which, in the firlt Place, 
IVorks, Rom. ii. (5. From which Declaration his we confefs that the moil wife Creator has implant- 
Veracity not permitting him to %<:)\i7ick, Abraham ed in the Minds of Men the Paffion of Shame, to 
had Reafon to make that Appeal whicii we find ferve as it were for a Guard and Defence to Vir- 
G>«.xviii.2j-. Shall not the Judge of all the Earth do tue, and for a Bridle to wicked Defigns. And ic 
right ^? But how does it follow hence, that ' hu- is likewile probable, that unlcfs God had defign'd 
man A£lions have any moral Quality antecedent to Man for an Agent, who was to frame hisProceed- 
ihe divine Im.pofition? Nor docs it at all appear ings by a Law, he would never have mingled fiich 
Iiow the fame Conclufion can be drawn from the a Paflion in human Conftitution, fince without 
fifth Chapter oilfaiah, where God is pleas'd to that Suppofition it docs not appear to be of any 
refer the Caufc betiveen him and his Vineyard, to Lffe at all in the World. But indeed it is no man- 
the Judgment oi Ifrael and Judah, and concludes, ner of Contradiclion, that a moral Quality owing 
that he may lawfully negleft the farther Care and its Original to Inllitution, fhould produce in Man 
Culture of it, fince the degenerate Fruit made fo (tho' not directly and immediately) a natural Ef- 
ill a Return to his Pains. And laftly, from that feft: For ' the Soul being united by the clofeft 
Place in the fixth of Micah, where G o d is faid Ties to the Body, while itfelf apprehends moral 
to have a Controverfy ivith his People, and to rea- Concerns, and is afFefted with them, may at the 
fon ivith Jft-ael, it feems to be hinted, that Men fame Time eafily raife a peculiar Motion in fome 
may by their own Judgment underftand the Equi- Part of the Body. Befides, we ought to obferve, 
ty of returning Thanks for Benefits receiv'dj but that Shame does not only arife from the Pravity of 
we cannot thence infer, that, becaufe Men who Aflions, but alfo from any Fa6l, tho' not morally 
have a Senfe of Kindnefs, are oblig'd to be grate- evil, which we think will leiTen our Chara£terand 
fill, therefore this Gratitude is not commanded by Efteem : For, according to Dm C«r/«'s Definition, 
any Law, but is of itfelf, before all Law, a necef- it is nothing elfe but a Species of Sorrow, founded 
far'y Duty. From all that we have urg'd on this upon Self-love, and proceeding from a Senfe or Fear of 
Head, it may appear, that the Sentence which is L)ifgrace^: Or, as ^nj?o//£? fpeaks % it is a certain 
fi-equently in the Mouths of mod Men, * T'hat the Grief and Confufion at 'things which appear hurtful 
Precepts of natural Law are of eternal Verity, is fo to our Reputation: For, Man is a molt ambitious 
far to be reftrain'd and limited, that this Eternity Creature, and highly conceited of his own Excel- 
oupht to reach no farther than the Impofition and lency, whence he takes an extraordinary Pleafure, 
Inttituticn of G o d Almighty, and the Ori- if he can find out any Advantage or Perfefiion in 
gin of human Kind. Tho' to fay the Truth, the himfelf, on the Strength of which he may brag. 
Eternity which we improperly attribute to the and fwell, and carry himfelf above the Dimenfions 
Laws of Nature, is only to be rated in Proportion of his Neighbours. And whenever he appre- 
to the Oppofition they hfxxio pofitive Laws,x}n.<t{& hends thefe Talents to be the lead impair'd, and 
being fubjeft to frequent Alterations, while thofe to weigh lighter in common Account, he im- 
remain fixt and unchangeable. mediately conceives the deepeft Regret in his own 
VII. It may be farther objefted, and with fome Mind. Now the Heart, that chief Seat of 
Face of Probability among vulgar Judges, That human Excellency, being affected with this 
Honclly and Turpitude mufl needs inhere in fome Paffion, prefently fends up the Blood to be an 

» Add. £«/.-. xviii. 25. ' iii, C. »■ De Paffion. Art. ccv. 'Rhetor. L'lh. ii. Ch. vi. init. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

' Wliat Grams infers from hence is no direft Confequence. He nlledges thefe P.iffhges, to prove, that God con- 
feius th.u Men m.^y judge (as we may fay) of his Conduft, by the Principles ot the Duties he impofcs on them, to 
which he himfelf conforms, as much as the great Dirtance between the Creature and Creator will permit. See the 
Difcourfe of U.\-.Noodt, Of the Power of Sovereigns, with the Note of the French Tranflator, printed, A.D. 1707. 

* Thofe who have firft fpoken of the Eternity of the Laws of Nature, muft mean it in Oppofition to the Novelty 
nnd frequent Changes of the Civil Laws; for they adert only, that natural Light had not its Beginning in the Times 
of Minos, Solon, ot'Lycurpis, but exifted Ijefore any civil Society, and is as antient as Mankind. Further, That this 
Ki'^ht is not fubjeft to change, as Civil Laws are, which are abolifhcd according to the NecelTitics of a State, or the 
Humour of Sovereigns; butit remains the fame in all Times and Places, and fliall end only with Mankind. In fine, 
'Tis no ways neceflary to maintain, that the Law of Nature is co-eternal with God ; for fince it lias no Regard to 
him, and is only contrived for Men, on whom it is impofed ; to what Purpofc is it to fuppofe, that it had a Being 
before Mcn^ But if we fay, that he had them from all Eternity in iiis Prcfcience, we attribute nothing thereby to the 
Law of Nature, but what's common to every Thing that exifts. Piifoid. A^olog. §. 26. 

' See the Pafiage of P L u i ab. CH., §. 6. xVcrc lo^ and what goes before and follows ir. 


Chap. IL Of the Certainty of moral Science. 

outward Sign of it in the Face. But becaufe ' 
Man does not only value himfelf upon Account of 
abftaining from Evil Deeds, but for feveral other 
Things, which are not endued with any moral Qua- 
lity, if he fufFer in any of thefe latter Points, he is 
equally liable to Shame: Thus we fee many Per- 
fons who cannot forbear blufhing at their Lamencfs, 
orBaldnefsj at a Wen, a Crump-back, or any other 
Deformity of Body j at fome particular; Dileafes > 
at Poverty J bad Cloaths ; at faultlefs Ignorance, 
or at harmlefs Millakes, and at ' many other 
Things, which are by no Means morally Evil '. 
And among Sins, thofe efpecially put a Man to 
theBlufh, which direftly argue aLownefs andDe- 
jedion of Mind, and which for that Reafon make 
us appear more contemptible ^ ; nor has the Fear 
of this Contempt the liime general Power, but on- 
ly when we are in Danger of fufFering it from 
thofe Perfons, whofe Eiteem and good Opinion 
we are particularly coveteous of enjoying. And 
thoie defperate Wretches who have once finned 
themfelves out of all Care of Credit, are not af- 
terwards ' touch'd with the leaft Blulh, upon the 
CommifHon of the vileft Wickednels ^ What- 
ever we have urg'd againfl: the natural, the abfo- 
lute, and the neceOary Goodneft or Pravity of hu- 
man Deeds, docs not at all feem to rob moial 
Knowledge of its rcquifitc Certainty, for this 
would remain fixt and unmov'd, tho' the Morahty 
of our Aftior.s depended entirely on Impofition. 

VIII. But if this Do&rine be true which we have 
aflerted, what will become of that moral Latitude^ 
which is fo much ralk'd of, and fo frequently op- 
pos'd to mathematical StriUnefs ? Does not that 
leem to detract fomewhat from the Certainty 
which we maintain ? This Doubt will be clearly 
folv'd , if it be confidcr'd how far we affirm De- 
monftration to prevail in thefe Notions, and in 
what Things this Latitude is to be found. De- 
monftrations therefore are here chiefly employ'd a- 
bout moral Qualities, fo fir as thofe Qualities ap- 
pear, for certain, to agree to fuch Adions or Per- 
fons : When we enquire (for Example) whether fuch 
an Adion be juft or unjuft, whether fuch a Right, 
or fuch an Obligation accrue to fuch aPerfon, con- 
fidcr'd in general , or as that perfonal Capacity is 
common to others with him. Now all thefe Kinds 
of Truths we maintain to be fo clearly and cer- 
tainly deducible from their genuine Principles and 
Caules, that no Man in his right Wits, can enter- 
tain a Doubt concerning them. And tho' we 
fhould difcover fome little Latitude, or fomething 
analogous to Latitude, in the Queftions j yet that 
would not be able to prejudice the Certainty of 

» Add. S;V,if. Cli.\X\\. 9, ^c. ^N\i.. Ar'ifiot.'^htx. Lib. n.Ch.yi. '■AAi.Cartes dc PafTion. art. ccvii. 

^ Lib. i. Ch. ii. §. 6. « Lib- vi. Ch. i. f Ethic. Ch. ulr. 6 Lib. i. Ch. i. §. lo. 

Mr.'&AT^-a. NOTE S. 

• So fai- from, that we are fometimes afhamed that we have done Things that we believe to be good, and not 
done Things that ai-e evil. See P L u t a r c h's Tveatife of Falfe Shatne, Tom. u.p. 518. Ed. Wccb. 

' Seneca in his Letters, Nutnb. 11. proves, that Blufliing is the Efteft of our Temperaineut, and that diverfe Caufes 
produce it. As for Example, Pomfey the Great could not help Blufliing, when he appeared in a great Aflembly ; and 
Fahiams the Philofopher and Orator blufhed, when he came but to give an Evidence before the Senate. Seneca 
lays, it proceeds not from Weaknefs of Spirit, but from Suprize ; for what a Man is not accuftomed to, difturbs fuch 
as are fubjeft to Elufhing. 

?^*ciTus has alike Remark, Annul. \\. Ch. z6. Ob magnltudinem infamu.O'c. The Greatnefs of the Infamy gives 
Plealure to the Crime, in the Minds of fuch as have c.ift away all Senfe of their Honour. Which Ur. Henius cites. 

. . , . - .^_ 


the Right from whence this Obligation arifcs, is that which is call'd by our Author, Imperfect. See Chi. §. 19, 20. 
toregomg, andcfc. vii. §.7, n. 16. Bookiii.Ch.i. §.3. and C/;. iii. §. 16. andC/;. iv. §.6. Boohyw.Ch. i. §. i. 

\Ve may add, or with Relatione certain Perfons. See what 1 have faid in my Treatil'e of Games, printed in 1709. Lib. iii. 


them in itfelf. As for the Goodnefs or Pravity of 
Actions, as they denote their Agrceablencls or Re- 
pugnancy to the Rule of the Law, in this Refpea: 
they feem capable of no Manner of Latitude but 
whatever declines from Good muft immcdiatc'ly be 
pronounc'd Evil. Yet under other Confidcrations 
at leaft with Rcfpeft to Men, they admit of feme- 
thing Hke Latitude ; Latitude, properly fpeaking, 
being applicable only to Quantity. And firft, Be- 
caufe in Laws the Force and Power of obli^ino- 
Men is not always of the fame Tenour and De^ 
•gree, but appears more ftridt in commanding and 
forbidding fome J£iions, and more loofe about 
others. Whence it comes to pafs, that we are 
forc'd to diftinguifh between Law and Equity, or 
between what's rigoroufly and exactly juft, and 
'^ what's equal and fair to be done. The Diffe- 
rence between which Things is this. We lie under 
a more necefliiry Duty of performing the former, 
but the latter engage our Obedience with agentler 
Tie, and with an inferior Obligation. Yet thefe 
laft have a wider Obje£t than the firft; the Offices 
of other Virtues being extended much farther than 
thofe of Juftice. It happens likewife very com- 
monly, that among Men, and in human Courts, 
fmallcr Deviations from the Law fcarce fall under 
Confideration or Animadverfion. Many Things 
too are ordain'd and commanded in fb weak and 
indifferent a Manner, that they feem to engage 
Men rather by affefting their Modefty than their 
Honefty: So that thofe who perform them deferve 
Commendation, thofe who omit them are not ob- 
noxious to Reprehenfion. And among thefe Mat- 
ters Grot ins ''feems to reckon Concubinage., Divorce., 
and Polygamy^ before they were forbidden by the 
Law of Go D : "thefe (faith he) are fuch Things as 
Reafon itfelf tells us it is more honefi to ahftainfrom ; 
yet not/b, as that {fitting afide the Divine Precept) 
they include any grievous Fault. 

Butof thefe wefliall treat in their proper 'Place. 
Hither likewife is to be referr'd that Pallage of ^- 
riftotle ^ ; He that declines but a little from right 
Dealing., vohethcr to the Excefs, or to the Defe&^ is 
not charged with Guilt ; hut he that tranfgrejfes in a 
larger Meafure , becaufe his Fanltinefs difcover s and. 
betrays itfelf by its Bulk. It may happen too that a 
Thing in itfelf ftiall be unobliging and indifferent, 
and yet the Performance, or theOmiffion of itffiall 
either always, or however at fome certain 'Junc- 
ture, be more for our Advantage and Ufe. To 
this Cafe belong thofe Paflages of St. Paul in his 
firft Epiftle to the C(?nK//.'?.'7/2.f, Chap. vi. ver. 12. 
Chap. vii. ver. (J, 7, 8, 9. Chap. x. ver. Z3. And 
that Obfervation of Grotius^, That fometimes by 

i-ieaiure to the Crime, in the Minds of fuch as have c.ift away all Senfe of their Honour. Which Ur. Hertius cites. 
^ So that Equity includes not only what is really and fully due to any one, although he cannot require it of us in StriiS 
iiefs by any written Law, but all that is due to another upon a Principle of Humanity, or Charity, or any other Virtue, whic 
IS luch, that if we do not our Duty, he to whom we ought to do it can't complain of any Wrong done him; fo th: 



Oftloe Certainty of moral Sdence, Book I. 

m abufc vf PVords^ thofe Things which Reafonfiews 
to be bonefi, or better than the contrary ^^thd" they are 
not enjoin' d^ yet fa all be cairdDiclates or Ordinances 
of the Law of Nature. From all that has been faid, 
we may underftand whether, and in what Manner 
there may be faid to be Degrees of Good. If then 
we conficier Good in a ftrift Senfe, for a Congru- 
ity to the Law, 'tis as impofTible there fhould be 
any Thing better than what is good, as that there 
fhould be any Thing ftraighter than what is properly 
ilraight. Yet one Good may be pronounced better 
than another, according to the different Degrees 
of Neceflity which are found in both , and upon 
Account of which, if they cannot be both per- 
form'd, one of them manifeflly gives Place to the 
other. To this Purpofc, fee Matth. viii. ii, ^^. 
where it was a good Thing to bury a dead Father, 
but a better to follow our Saviour : ylSls vi. 2. 
where it was a good Thing to miniftertn the Poor, 
but a better to preach the Gofpel : On which 
Point we fhall be larger hereafter'. Laftly, 
when Actions, in themielves lawful and indifferent, 
are meafur'd and rated according to their Uleful- 
hefs or Expedience, one of them is declar'd better 
than another, as it is more advantageous to the 
prefent Circumftance or Occafion '. 

IX. According to our Doftrine already deli- 
ver'd , mufl that Place of Grotius ^ be explain'd , 
about the Caufcs of Doubt in moral Adtionsj 
where he fays, There is not an equal Certainty to be 
met with in Morals and Mathematicks -, which there- 
fore happens , becatifa mathematical Sciences treat of 
Forms.) as dijlincl and abftraEled from all Sorts of 
Matter., and becaufe the Forms tbemfelves are gene- 
rally fiich as will admit of no Medium., as we can find 
nothing which is not either crooked or fralgbt. But in 
Morals the leaf: Circumfance alters the Matter j and 
the Forms^ of which they treat ., have comtnonly fome 
intcrvenicnt Latitude., by Reafon of which they fome- 
times approach nearer to one Extream^ and fometimes 
to the other. Thus between Things abfolutcly command' 
ed) and abfolutely forbidden^ there are fome Things 
left indifferent ; but this Medimn of Indifference fome- 
times inclines nearer to the Injun^ion., fometimes to the 
Prohibition. IFhence frequently arifes an Ambiguity, 
fomewhat like what we meet with in Twilight., or in 
Water not per felily hot. As to this Aflertion , we 
muft confefs, that, as about other Aftions, fo efpe- 
cially about making War, a Doubt may probably 
arifej either becaufe the Faft which occafions the 
War is not yet fully made out, or whether it be 
of fo great Confequence as to deferve aProfecution 
by Arms, where the Cafe is lb defperate, and where 
the attending Miferies are fo numerous) or whether 
in the prefent Jun£lure and Condition of the Com- 
monwealth, it be a moot Cafe which Courfe 
ought to be taken, either to return the Injury in 
an hoftile Manner, or rather conceal the Affront, 
and defer the Satisfa£l:ion, lelf an untimely Pur- 
fuit of Revenge fhould draw greater Misfortunes 

on the State. But that the Caufes of Doubting ia 
fuch Cafes proceed fronl the Uncertainty of moral 
Matters, this we abfolutely deny. The Reafon 
why the Demonftrations in Mathematicks arc fo 
very accurate, is not the Abllradion from Matter^ 
but another, that we fhall produce by and by. That 
in Morals the leaf Circumfance alters the Matter^ is 
an ambiguous Expreflion. If this be the Senfe of 
it. That the leaft Circumftance alters the Quality 
of an Anion., that is, turns it from Good to Evil, 
this Variation does not at all injure the Certitude 
of moral Knowledge. For a Line that recedes 
never fo little from Straightnefs, degenerates into 
Crookednefs, and yet no Uncertainty arifes hence 
in geometrical Operations. But if this be the 
Meaning of the Place, that the leail Circumftance 
either raifes or lefTens ' the Qiiantity of an Jlc- 
tion ; this, at leaft in human Regard, is not al- 
ways true; for trifling Accidents and Punctilio's 
feldom weigh any Thing in the Sentence of a mo- 
ral Judge. Yet, if we grant this Suppofition, it 
will not in the leaft diminilh the Certainty of Mo- 
rality j fince even in Mathematicks the unalleft Ac- 
ceflion, or the moft inconfiderablc Lofs, varies the 
Quantity. Lawful or indifferent Things, which 
compofe the Medium between Commands and 
Prohibitions, we have already obferv'd only in this 
Refpeft to incline fometimes more to one Hand, 
fometimes to the other, as it appears moft expcdi- 
' ent and ufeful fometimes to perform them, fome- 
times to omit them. Yet even hence nothing of 
Uncertainty can arife, nor is any fuch Medium 
form'd, as wc can clearly underftand either to be . 
Good or 111. So that thofe Examples and Inflances | 
o£ Twilight and lukewarm Water , are improperly 
applied to the prefent Cafe j they being of thac 
Kind o£ Media we C'AX Media Participationis, as 
lukewarm //^/^r partakes of hot and cold together. 
But thofe /l/e(r//ij, which we cM Media Negationis, 
are indifferent and lawful Matters, pofTels not the 
leaft Share of either the Extreams, but equally 
deny them both. For wc Giy in the lame Manner, 
Good is not Indifferent, and Evil is not Indiffe- 
rent ; and it docs not appear, how a Medium of 
this Nature can prove a Caufc and an Occafion of 

X. Yet as to the Quantities which are ufed in 
Morality, they., we confels, are capable of fome 
Latitude i and it's chiefly on this Account, that ma- 
thematical Knowledge is eftcem'd to have fb much 
higher Degrees of Nicety and Exaftnels than mo- 
ral. The Reafon of this depends on the different 
Conftitutions of natural and of moral Quantity : 
For natural or phyfical Quantities may be accu- 
rately compared, and mcafured, and divided into 
the moft equal Parts > becaufe they are reprefcnted 
as the Affeftions of material Things, which are 
the Objects of our Senfes. Whence we may prc- 
cifely determine, what Rule and Proportion they 
bear to one another, efpecially if wc employ the 

' Lib. i. Ch. iii. §. 8. Si Lib. v. Ch. xii. §. 23. 

*> Lib. ii. Ch. xxiii. §, I. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

'Such is, for Example, the Cuftom of covering thofe P.irts of the Body whicli diftiiiguifli Men from Women: To 
which we m.ny refer what St. Paul fays of the Cuftoms of his Times, i Cor. xi. 14. N.iture itfelf tcaclies us, Thut if a 
Man have long Hair, 'tis a Shame to him; but if a Woman have long Hair, 'tis her Honour, .is Frederick C roiiovilts exph'ms 
thefe Words, in his Notes ; but our Author gives them another Turn, Liki'. C^. iii. §.z2. 

* There are other Principles by which the rcfpeftive Quality of moral Aftions may be deterniineJ. SccC^. viii. §. j.- 
Vvith the Note. 

• As for Example, It renders a Fault more or lefs excufable, and a Crime more or Icfs enormous. 


C H A p. II. Of the Certainty of moral Science. 23 

afliftance of Numbers, by the Application of which not us'd to cut every Thing to the quick. ^TheLaivs^ 

all Queftions of this kind are moft exquifitely and thePhilofophcrs {kys" Tully) clear SubllUksim 

folv'd. And befides, thofe Quantities are the Ef- a different Manner : ^he Laws no otbcrwife than as 

feft of Nature, and confequently immovable and Things may be felt and handled^ by reafon of their 

permanent. On the other hand, moral Quantities Grojsnefs-y but the Philojophers, as they may be dif" 

proceed from the Impofitions and the Eftimation cern'd by Reafon and Underftanding. And in the De- 

of intelligent and free Agents, whofe Judgment cifionofCaufes 'tis a Maxim vulgarly known, That 

and Pleafure not falling under natural Dimenfions, the Judge does not concernhimlelf with every pet- 

the Quantities which they thus conceive and de- tyCircum fiance. And fo when fuch a Number of 

termine, cannot be circumfcnbed by any fuch honeft Men are appointed ' Arbitrators of any 

Meafiire, but retain, as it were, fomewhat of the Controverfy, there is fair room for Latitude in 

Loofenefs and Liberty of their Original. Nor in- their Judgment and Sentence *. Farther, in exe- 

deed did the Ends for which moral Quantities cuting vindiftive Juilice, there is an Indulgence 

were firil introduced, require any fuch pundlual made of a convenient Latitude, not only on the 

Minutenefs "j but it was fufficient for the Ufe of Part of Clemency, but of Severity too. To which 

human Life, that Perfons, Things, and Aftions purpofe is that Saying of 7«am ' : yi II great Ex- 

fhould be more grofly rated and compar'd toge- amples have fome'what of Injiijiice ; but the Injury 

ther '. Thus wedifccver a Latitude in the Value they do to particular Perfins is recompens" d by the com- 

or Efteem of Perfons i by which, tho' we under- vion Advantage they bring to the Piiblick : And that 

ftand that one Perfon is to be preferr'd to another^ of Jafon in Plutarch '', 'Tis necejfary that thofe 

yet we cannot exaftly determine whether he ex- fhould aSi unjujlly in fmall Matters^ ivho intend to 

ceeds him in a double, or treble, or quadruple maintain Juftice in the grand and chief Concerns "^ . 

Proportion of Worth. The Hke Latitude occurs Moft Virtues likewife, befidesJulHce, admitafr^e 

in the Valuation of different Things,and of Aftions Loofenefs and Latitude in the Exercifc of them; 

belonging to Commerce; on the account of which as for Exarrtplej Pity, Liberality, Gratitude, E- 

we can fcarccly fix any ' fettled Price on any quity, and Charity. And fo, in common Life, 

other Things bcfides thofe which the Civilians call weapply the Names of Habits under a Latitude of 

Res fnngibiles % confumable Goods, that is, fuch as Signification*. Thus we call him a juftMan, who 

we borrow for our prefent Ufe, upon Condition commits (tho' deliberately) but a few Pieces of In- 

of repaying theni in the fame Qjjantity and Qyali- juflice. Laflly, we may obferve, that if in moral Con- 

ty: As to the reft, we efleem them equal and in- fideration fome Quantities are brought to an exaft 

different, and to be determin'd by the private Bar- Standard, and a punftual Meafurcj as the Price of 

gains and Agreements of particular Men. And fb fome Commodities, the Periods of Time 'fettled by 

likewife the Proportion between many Faults and Law, and the Uke; yet this precile Determination 

Punifliments is adjufted with fome Latitude ; For does not fo much proceed from the Things them- 

who, for Example, can tell precifely how many felves, or from the Times, as from the Inltitution 

Lafhes, and how fmartlylaid on, come juft up to and Will of Men '. From all thefe Remarks we 

the Guilt of fome particular Piece of Thievery ? conceive the Difference between mathematical 

But in fuch Cafes we affign what Proportion we and moral Demonflrations to appear very clear 

think fir, with great Loofenefs and Security. We and evident; and it is no more than this, that the 

find too a veiy remarkable Latitude in many Bu- former are chiefly employ 'd about Quantity, which 

finelfes and Affairs of Life *. Human Lawgivers are is in its own Nature difpos'd for the nicell Divifion 

» To underftand what is meant by thefe Terms, fee B. v. Ch.\\i. §. i. *" Off. iii. Ch. xvii. <: Annal.x'w^ 

Ch. xliv. "l Be Santtat. taend, V Pncept.Relfub. gerend. SzezlCo Art/lot. Rhet, Lib. I. Ch. xii. e Add. D.Cum- 

tetland De L. N. Ch. viii. §. 14. 

Mr. Barb. NOrES. 

* See the ^X'ol•ds of Bifliop Cumberland, §. f. Notez. 

* The .'Vuthor treats here of Quantities moralj which are the Matter of moral Adlions. He fpake in §.8. of the Quan- 
tity or Degree of Extent, which he conceived to be in the fame Aftions, in certain Refpcfts. 

' ^(-ftfrdhonem in fuo genere recipiunt, is an Exprefllon of the Civil Law ; about which, fee the Author, Lib. v. Ch. vii. §. i. 

* This is the Foundation of that excellent Expreifion of the Pa^aw Philofopher Seneca: (^am angujla Innocentia eft, 
Vc. De Ir.i. Lib.W. C/7. xxvii. How little is the Virtue of that Man, whofe Goadnefs extends no farther than the Law ? How 
tnuch larger is our Duty than the Rules of the Law dire5l ? How many Things do Piety, Humanity, Liberality, Juftice, and Fidelity 
tc^juire of us, which the Lazvs give no Commands for ! What the Law forbids not. Honour and Confcience rejlrains us from : As for 
Fxaml>le,The Law puniflies the Injuftice of a Seller, when he has taken more than a juft Price ; hut Philofophy and Virtue order the 
Reftitutwn of the leaft Thing, which he has fraudu'ently got, more than theWorth of his Goods. See Grotius, Lib. iii. Ch.x, §.1, 

' See Lib. v. ch. xiii. §. 5. following. 

* So when it is ordered. That one Inall immediately pay a certain Sum, it is to be underftood with fome Limifa^- 
tions ; for it can't be fuppofed, that he muft go that very Moment, and deliver the Money into the Hands of him to 
wliom 'tis to be paid. Digeft. Lib. xlvi. Tit. iii. De folutionibus cr liberat. vc. Leg. cv. 

' Some Refleftions made hyMx.Bayle, DiSI. Hift. tyCrit. ^.235 and 2317, areworth our Obfervation here. He fays. 
The fublick Good reijuires, in fome Cafes, that Juftice fliould depart from the Rigour of the Laws, becauje an Injury done to a pri- 
vate Perfon is a lefs Evil, politickly fpeaktng, than the Advantage that redounds to thcPublicI: by it, is a good For this 

Reafon it is,that the Laws condemn to the moft rigorous Puni fitments, fuch Servants as lie with their Maftcr'sWife or Daugli- 
ter, tho' they alledge that they were by many Promifes and Thteatnings drawn into it : Thus a Footman was hang'd at Pa- 
ris in 1698. For though the Excufes be true, yet Juftice will not releafe them ; that fuch Perfons may cxpeifl no Favour^ 
and fo may be more cautious of offending. Bodin the famous Lawyer, fpeakingof a Law made by King Henry II. a- 
gainft \JComen who made away their Children, fo rigorous, that it might happen that an innocent Wom.inmight fuffer by 
it, fays, "Thatthe Ufe of profitable Laws ought not to be fufpended, upon the Account of fome Inconveniences produced 
"by them." And thereupon, he c[notes3.Sayingoi' Cato's, That there is no Law that is profitable for all, 'tis fujficicnt that it is 
teneHcial for the moft Part, and generally. Liv. Lib. xxxiv. Ch. iii. See Montame's Eflays, Lib. iii. Ch. xiii. and Charron of 
m/dom. Lib. iii. Ch. ii. S JJ J 

* See ch. vii. §. 6. following. 

» The Periods of Time fettled by Law, the Latin is Tempera fatalia, a Phrafe taken from the Roman Lawyers, who 
nieant by it, fuch a Term of Time, as after it no Appeal will lie againft a Sentence given by La'W, See Cod. Lib. yii. 
iit.Uni. Leg.u. where you'll find Tempora fatalium dierum, znd fatdes dies. 



Of the Underjianding of Man^ 


and Determination j whereas the latter endeavour 
nothing farther than to prove for certain fuch a 
Quality of fuch a SuhjeEl^ leaving the Decifion of 
moral Quantities to the laiger Scope and Range of 
human Will. 

XI. But we muft take heed of confounding this 
moral Certitude, which we have been fo long e- 
ftablidiing, with that which is fo often apply'd to 
Matters of Fa£t> as, when we declare (for Exam- 
ple) fuch a Thmg to be morally certain^ becaufe it 
has been confirm'd by creditable Witnefles : For, 
this latter Sort of moral Certitude is nothmg elfe 
but a llrong Prefumption grounded on probable 
Reafons, and which very feldom fails and deceives 
us. Zeigler, in his Notes onGrotius\ has not fuf- 
ficiently diftinguilli'd this inferior Certainty from 
the former and the more noble Kind, while, tho' 
he grants the more general Precepts of Ethicks to 
bear an equal Evidence with the Propofitions of 
any Science properly fo call'd, yet he affirms, f/Mt 
the particular Conclufions have a much fiorter Degree 
of Certitude^ and are often invoh'd in dark Objcuri- 
iies, by reafon that the 'Things themfehes, concerning 
which fuch Conclufions arc form'd, are many ways 
changeable and contingent: And the Example he 

2 Lib. ii. Ch. xx. ■?. i. 

brings is this ; We have moral Certitude and Evi~ 
dence^ that an honefl and fcrious Perfon^ when ha 
takes an Oath^fwears truly. Andyetthis Evidence 
is not abfolutely fuch.^ but conditionally^ becaufe it is 
not dirchly impofftble., but that a Man of thefc good 
^lalities may forfivear himfelf, fince he may fall from, 
his Virtue and Integrity. But now that Certitude.^ 
by which we know Perjury to be an Evil, is very 
different from that by which we believe a good 
Man is not guilty of Perjury; nor is the latter Pro- 
portion deduced fairly, as a Conclufion from the 
former. Thus, in the fame Manner, the Faith we 
give to Hiftorians is reckon'd morally certain, 
when they teftify a Thing vaftly remote from 
our Memory and Knowledge, and of which 
there is no real and demonftrative Proof now ex- 
tant; and efpecially, if many agree in the Relation: 
Becaufe it is not probable that many Pcrfonsfhould 
join together by Compadl, in putting a Trick on 
Pofterity, or lliould entertain any Hopes, that the 
Lye would not in Time be difcover'd. And yet for 
allthis,if Occafion were, we could produce Exam- 
ples of many popular Fables that have paiVd through 
feveral Ages, under the Colour and Charafter of 

CHAP. 111. 

Of the Underftanding of Man^ as it concurs to Moral Actions, 

The Contents of every Paragraph of the third Chapter. 

VIII. A dubious Confidence . 

IX. A fcrupulous one. 

X. Ignorance f what it is, and how manifold. 

XI. En or, of how many Sorts. 

XII. Error in lawful Actions. 

XIII. Speculative Error about neccfifiary AEliom, 

XIV. Or indifferent ones. 

XV. Practical Error. 

XVI. Error in an ill A6tion. 

dition of brute Creatures, that he is cndow'dwith 
a moll: noble and exalted Soul, which exerts itfelf 
not only with a fingular Light, as to the knowing 
and judging of Things, but alfowith a prodigious 
Quicknefs and Aftivity, as to the embracing or 
rejefting them. So that on this Score theAftions 
of Mankind ought to be rank'd in a much higher 
Clafs than the Motions of Beallis, which proceed 
purely from the Spurs of Senfes, without the pre- 
cedent Help of Reflexion ', whatever Charron '' 
has alledg'd to the contrary. That Power of the 

I. Two Faculties of the Underftanding. 

II. What is the Nature of the reprefentative Fa- 
culty of the Underftanding. 

III. The natural Underftanding apprehends Things 
moral rightly. 

IV. Confilence, what it is, and how manifold. 

V. A right and probable Confidence. 

VI. Rules for a probable Confidence. 

VII. Rules how to choofie Things profitable. 

SINCE that Part of Knowledge which we 
have undertaken to explain, is chiefly em- 
ploy'd in demonflrating what's right and 
what's wrong, what's good and what's 
what's iuft and what's unjuft, in human Ac- 
, in the ifirfl: Place we are oblig'd to confider and 
examine the Principles and the Affeftions of thefe 
Anions, and to fliew how, by the Help of Imputa- 
tion, they are conceiv'd to be morally join'd and con- 
nected to the Authors of them : In this Refpcft then, 
the Excellency of Man chiefly outfhines the Con- 


b De U Sagejfe. Lib. i. Ch. xxxiv. 


' Ur. charron' s\itords are thefe, Man fet ting him/elf above, and calling hinfielf Mapr of all Creatures, difdainstherefl. 
Mc divides them into Parts, and allozus them what Taadties and Powers he ple.^Jes. On the other Side, he degrades himfelf 
as it -were in Spite; he groans, complains, blames Nature as a cruel Stepmother to him, and makes himjelf the Rcjufe and mofl 
miferable Creature in the World, both which are equally contrary to Reafon, Truth, and Modefty. Neverthclefs, Beajis can't 
he reafonably dehafed to the Condition of mecr Automata ; i. e. Clock-worh : Such an Opinion muft proceed from Prefumption, 
and not a ferious Conjhderation of their jiHions ; for, ai Mr. 'Locv.l. ffeaks -very well: fhall we believe Doj;s and 
ElepUants do not think, when we plainly fee, that they can find out that in us which v.e can't difcern in ouviclves ? 
Do they not give us all the Demonftiations imaginable'of their Senfc, except that they can't tell us fo ? It is hard indeed 
to fix the Bounds of the Faculties of the Souls of Beafts, tho' Mr. Charron afl'crts, that they can from Particulars in- 
fer Univerfals-, but yet we have fufficicnt Reafon to be convinced, that Beads aft with fome KnowlcJ^jc and Rea- 
foning. Sec Mr. Locke, Lib. ii. Ch. ix. §. ii, 14. & x. §. 10. &; xi. §.•?, 10, 1 1. As alfo M;. Le Cle kc's Phyficks, 
Zi^. iv. C^. xii. What Mr. P«/e»ior/'5 Notiou was in this Matter, is h.-ird to know., for he allows Beafts in one Place, 
what he denies them in aagther. 




as it concurs to moral Aciions. 


human Soul, which it bears as a Light for its 
Guidance and Direction, we commonly call the 
Under flancling^ and in this, as it is concern 'd a- 
bout voluntary ASlions^ we conceive two Facul- 
ties ' ; One is that by which, as by a kindof Mir- 
ror, the (Jbj eft is fhcwn to the Will, with a general 
and confus'd Notice, whether it be agreeable or 
dilagreeable, good or evil. The other is that by 
which the Realons of Good and Evil, which in 
feveral Objefts offer themfelves numerouHy on 
both Sides, are wcigh'd and conipar'd, and Judg- 
ment is given, what, when, and m what manner 
we are to acr, and Confultation taken about the 
moll proper Means for the AccompliOmient of 
the propos'd End. And here it mult be obi'erv'd, 
that the Beginning of a voluntary Act Ihould re- 
gularly proceed from the Underlianding, whence 
arifes the vulgar Maxim, 

- - Ignoti nulla Cupido. 

Objc£ls unkno'wn can never move Defire : 

Although this Knowledge, Avhich precedes the 
ilcts of Volition, is not always diftin£t, becaufe a 
confus'd Notion is fufficient to make the Will be- 
IHr itfelf. And thus when v.'e have not a tolera- 
ble Knowledge of a Thing, we cannot be laid 
properly and fully to defire itj yet v/e may defire 
to make Trial oi:^ it . 

II. As to the former Faculty of the Underliand- 
ing, we mull remark, that it is of the Number of 
thofe which are commonly call'd natural Facul- 
ties \ contradiltincl to the free; in as much as it 
is not in the Power of Man to apprehend Things 
otherwife than as the Images of them prefent 
themfelves to the Mind ; nor can the Will by any 
Force hinder the Underlianding from affenting to 
a Propofition which appears clearand evident toit. 
But thus lar a Man is at Liberty j he can more di- 
ligently confider the Object in view, and more 
exactly weigh in his Mind the oppofite Reafonsof 
Good and Evil, and Co not flick at the outward 
Face and Semblance of Things, but pierce into 
the deepell Secrets of their Texture and Conltitu- 
tion. And after fo Itvict an Enquiiy and Exami- 
nation, he can pronounce a pofitive Judgment in 
the Caufe before him. The Underlianding being 
in this Refpcct, as in many others, like the Eye, 
that it makes a very important Difference in be- 
holding Things with a roving and tranfitory Call, 
and in contemplating them with a fix'd and Iteady 
Application '. And hence 'tis eafy to conceive, 
how far this Power of the Soul falls under thcCul- 
nire and Cognizance of Laws. For lince 'tis be- 

yond human Ability, that the Underlianding 
Ihould apprehend Things after another Manner 
than they appear ; and fince Credit or Affcnt can- 
not but anfwer the Idea of the Underlianding, no 
Perfon can judge otherwilc of a Matter, than as 
he appears to have conceiv'd it ; nor can he by any 
jull Law be compell'd to a contrary Judgment : 
For fuppofe a Man to be in the Wrong, yet » a 
bare Injunction and Command will never make 
him the wifer. Yet becaufe many Things efcape 
a negligent Searcher, which offer themfelves to 
the Notice of more curious Enquirers > and be- 
caufe the Will may hinder the Underlianding 
from contemplating fome Truth, by prefenting 
other Objects to tempt and engage its Care; there- 
fore an earnell and altiduous Application of Mind 
is of vail Ufe in confirming the Judgment; and 
confequently thofe who are entrulled v/ith a Care 
and Authority over others, ought to make all fair 
Provifion for' the Affillance and Direftion of a fe- 
rious Meditation : and they may likewife engage 
Men, by the Sanftion of PunilTiments, to apply 
with Diligence thofe Means which are moll likely 
to difpel the Clouds and Perplexities of Things, 
and to reprefent them in their genuine Colours and 
Condition *. 

III. Farther, fince the Underlianding performs 
the Office of a Light in ourCourfeof Aftion- and 
fince, when it doth not guide us aright, 'tis impof- 
fible but we fhould lofe our Way ; we ought to 
ellablifh this as a certain Principle, That there is 
both in the apprehending Faculty, and in the 
Judgment, a natural Redtitude, which, upon due 
"Attention given, will not fuffer us to be deceiv'd 
in reference to moral Things, and that neither of 
thofe Powers are fo far corrupted and deprav'd, as 
to put us under a Neceffity of being millaken.For 
at the fame rate it would follow, that becaufe a 
Glafs ill cut prefents every Image inadillortedCon- 
fufion, and becaufe the Tongue, when cover'dwith 
the Tincture of the Jaundice, is not able todifcern 
the Difference of Talles ; therefore the Senfes, to 
which thofe Offices belong, mull be, in general, 
pronounc'd fallacious and uncertain. Neither could 
it be charg'd on us as Guilt, that we have done a 
bad Aftion, if we were not furnifh'd with a clear 
Difcernment of Good and Evil; and it would be 
the highell Injullice to impute that Error as fin- 
ful, which was beyond our Power to avoid or fhake 
off. Therefore, unlefs we would utterly fubvert and 
dellroy all the Morality of ading, we mull by all 
Means maintain, that the Underlianding of Man 
is naturally right and certain, and upon fufficient 
Enquiry and Meditation does always appre- 
hend Things clearly, and as they are in their own 

' Add. D. Cumberland De L. K. Ch. ii. §. 9. 

\ Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

* To fpcik truly, one Faculty cannot have another fixed in it, as in its Subjeft ; becaufe every Faculty muft hav* 
its proper Subieft.' Faculties, or' Powers (Tiys Mr. Locke) belong only to Agents, and canonlybe attributed to Subftancen 
and not to any other Power. Hum. ITnderftand. Lib. ii. Ch. xxi. §. 16. 

' By natural Faculties is pajjive Faculties, which receive the Impteffions of Objefts, and do not properly aft 
.u all; for the Underftanding is like the Eve, which difcerns Ideas with the different Relations, without adding or di- 
niinidiiiig anv Thin2 ; whether it only perceives the Objects, or judges what is, or is not to be done. For '"5 
Underftanding there'is nothing but bare Perception or Reception of "ideas. The Determination from whence Aftion 
proceeds, is .in Aft of the Will onlv. The Diftinftion of the Schools ; that is, Underftanding is either fpeculativ* 
or, is founded upon the Nature of the Objecls it contemplates; and not upon the different Aftions of the 
Soul: For the Soul is difpofed alike in the Perception of Good and Evil, Truth and Fallhood. Sec the Searches aftr 
Truth, LiL. i. C^. ii. and Mr. Clerc's Difcottrfe of Spirits, §. i. Ck. iii. 

• i.e. Without any Reafon or Motive. . m ■/• 

■* But if this fails, 'tis to no Purpofe to have recourfe to Force and the Anthoriry of the Sovereign. Elem. Juriffr. 
Univerf. />. 375. See Lib. vii. Ch. iv. §.S. and 11. 

E Nature 

Of the Underjianding of Man^ 


Natuie and Conftitution : And likewife that ■ the 
praftical Judgment cannot prove fo far debas'd 
and degenerate (at leaft as to the general Precepts 
of Nature's Law) as to excufe the Afts proceed- 
ing thence from being imputed as if they wereEf- 
ft&is of invincible Ignorance \ And here we de- 
fire it fhould be confider'd, that we are not de- 
bating what Power the Underftanding has about 
Matters which depend on peculiar Revelation 
from God, or what it can perform in fuch ex- 
traordinary Cafes, without the Angular Affiftance 
of divine Grace j becaufe this is the Subject and 
Bufinefs of another Profeflion. Neither are we 
concern'd to examine whether in fpeculativeTruths, 
requiring the mod fubtil Difquifitions of Mind, a 
Man may not through ill Information get fuch 
firm Pofleffion of a falfe Tenet, as not to be able 
to recover himfelf out of theMiftake: But we are 
difcourfing only about the Power of the Un- 
derftanding, as it is imploy'd in Tquaring our Ac- 
tions according to the Diftates of Nature. And, 
as to this Point, we conceive that there's no Man 
of proper Years, and Mafter of his own Reafon % 
fo defperately dull and ftupid, as not to compre- 
hend, at leaft, the moft general Rules of natural 
Law, and thofe which are ot the greateft Ufe in 
common Life, and not to difcern the Agreement 
they bear to the rational and fecial Condition of 
Mankind. And though a Perfon through extream 
Idlenefs may poftibly never have thought of one or 
two Precepts, or through precipitate Raflmefs may 
have fram'd wrong Opinions of afting, or by bad 
Information, or a Mind conupted with vicious 
Courfes, may have call'd their Truth and Necef- 
fity in queftion, or have taken up other Rules of 
Adtion contrary to natural Suggeftions; yet we 
do not by any Means acknowledge this Ignorance 
or this Error to be infuperable, fo as to hinder the 
Imputation of Deeds confequent on fuch a Prin- 
ciple. For thefe univerfal Edid:s are fo clearly 
publifh'd and explain'd, and fo clofely interwoven 
with our Being, that no one can be overcome with 
fo brutal a Sottilhnefs, as not to be capable of ap- 
prehending and difcerning them ; fince to this Bu- 
finefs there is not requir'd any fingular Force of 
Wit, any peculiar Shrewdnefs of Reafon, but an 

B o o K L 

ordinary Portion of natural Light is fufficient, 
provided that the Mind be not vitiated and ob- 
ftrufted by fome Diftemper. To which Purpofe 
Tullfs Diftindion about Folly and Madneis is 
obfervable : Folly (fays *• he) if affifted ivith a due 
State of Health, ts able to maintain a competent Set 
of Duties, and to keep up, in fome manner, the 
Culture and the Methods of common Life ; but Mad- 
nefs is a perfeEl Difeafe, that quite extinguifioes the 
Sight of the Mind, and involves all its Ohje£is in a 
general Obfcurity '. 

IV. The Judgment pafs'd on moral Actions by 
the Underftanding, as it is fuppos'd confcious of 
a Law, and therefore accountable to the Law- 
giver, is commonly call'd C&?//«>«fe} which as it 
cither '* precedes, or follows the A6tion, we may, 
for Diftinction fake, branch into antecedent, and 
confequent : This laft is the reflex Judgment of the 
Underftanding on Things done, or fbrborn ' , 
approving what's well, and condemning what's 
illj the Attendants of which are either Tranquil- 
lity or Reftlefnefs of Mind, according to the dif- 
ferent Teftimony it bears j and as it gives us Oc- 
cafion to expeft either the Favour, or the Difplea- 
fure of the Legiftator, and either the Good- will,- 
or the Hatred of other A'len '. The former, 
commg before the Action, informs us is 
good and what evil, and confequently what to be 
done, and what to be omitted. But here it is 
carefully to be obferv'd, that the Confcience ob- 
tains no other Place in the Guidance of human 
Operations, than with reipect to its being in- 
ftruited in the Knowledge of fome Law ; fince 
Laws only are the proper Rules of " afting. And 
therefore, if any Man will attribute to the pra6ti- 
cal Judgment, or the Confcience, any peculiar 
Force or Ability of directing us in our Doings, 
owing neither its Original to, nor its Dependence 
on any Law > he will invert with a legal Power 
the vain Fanfy of private Men, and will bring the 
wildeft Diforder and Confufion on the Affairs and 
Tianfactions of the World. For we muft declare, 
that as far as our Diligence could reach in 
feaiching, the Word Confcience, in this ftrange 
Senfc, is neither to be met with in the holy Scri- 
ptures, nor in the antient Latin Authors; but it 

' V'td. D. Cumberland, tie L. N. Ch. ii. §. lo. •> Tufciit. Siuefl. Lib. iii. Ch. v. <■ Plin. P.incgyr. One Man may pof- 

fibly deceive another, but there's none who ca» deceive himfelf; let him only looh into his own Life and Conduct, and take 
his Merit and Character from his Heart. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

* See Note on §. z. 

* See the Note on Book i. Chap. i. §. 4. of the Abridgment of the Duties of a Man and Citizen. Printed at Amflerdam 
in 1707. 

' Cicero cites this Cafe out of 'he Laws of the twelve Tables, but to a clear different Purpofe from what our Au- 
thor ufes it, viz. To prove a Difference between hifania, Madnefs, and Furor, Fury ; but i>ur Author lias no Re<;ard 
to the Contexture of the Difcourfe, and ufes the Words to tliis Senfe only. Folly is no ImpeJiinciu to the compre- 
hending the common Duties of Life ; but to be ignorant generally of all the Principles of Morality, is a fort of Mad- 
nefs. In other Circumftances the Words might be fo underftood, but our Author miltakes them iierc. 

^ This Divifion is according to the Schools, Confcience antecedent and confequent; but our Author reycrfes the 
natural Order, in defining the Confcience, which follows, before that which preceeds the Action. 

' Pliny Panegyr. Chap. Ixxiv, Z7C. vide . 

* This is true, but it hinders not, but that the Confcience may be the immediate Rule of Action ; for a Man can't 
conform himfelf to a Law, unlefs he know it, and if he do good without knowing it, he lofes his Pains, the Law- 
giver regards it not. Neverthelefs it follows not, but that every one may do all that he believes either permitted, or 
commanded, after what Manner foever it comes into his Mind. Here are two Rules, which the molt fimple may, 
and ought to follow, to fatisfy themfelvcs, upon all Occafions, that the Motions of their Confcience are according to 
tlie Law : i. To confider, whether they are not out of the Stare of determining concerning an Aftion, by fuch clear 
Arguments as may fiitisfy' any Man of Senfe. 2. To fee that they have fufficient Reafonsto do what their Confcience 
leads them to, without farther Examination. In the firlt Cafe, 'tis evident, that we can't determine or attempt any 
Thing but with an unwarrantable Rafhnefs. In the other, wc muft of Neccfhty fufpend our Judgment and Aftion, 
till we are fully fatislied. All the Inconveniences and Evils which are confequent upon a mifufed Confcience, come 
under the Breach of one or other of thefe Maxims, which are eafy to be obferv'd by fuch as love their Duty. This 
appears chiefly in Matters of Religion, as every Man's Experience will teach him. See Biblioth. Univerf. Tom.i. p. ;43, 
344. and Parrhafiana, Tom. ii. p. 97. as alfo Biblioth. Choijie, Tom. x. p. 336. 

' was 


'. III. 

as it concurs to moral Adioiis. 

was firft introduc'd by the Schoolmen, and has 
been maintain'd in thefe latter Ages by the crafty 
Cafuifts, for the better fecuring of Mens Minds 
and Fortunes to their own Authority and Advan- 
tage. But if we have regard to the true and ge- 
nuine Signification of the Word , to do a Thing 
againft Confcience, is nothing elfe but to commit 
a voluntary Evil, knowing it to be fuch j and is 
oppos'd to tranfgreffing out of Ignorance and 
Miflakc. And this we mean by Confcience in our 
prefent Enquiry , recovering it to its antient Im- 
port , and exploding the new Abufes that have 
been obtruded on its Signification. 

V. Confcience rightly inform'd is of two Sorts; 
for either it clearly underftands that the Perfuafion 
which it holds concerning fome Performance or 
Omiflion, is built on certain Principles, and agrees 
with the Laws, which are the Rule of A6tion and 
of Confcience; or elfe it efteems, indeed, its Per- 
fuafion as true and certain, and fees no Reafon to 
doubt of it, tho' it cannot reduce it to a formal 
Demonftrationj but, on the contrary, relies chief- 
ly on Arguments from Prabability. In the former 
Cafe it is commonly term'd a ' right , and in the 
latter a probable Confcience. Concerning a right 
Confcience this general Maxim is eftablifh'd , That 
every voluntary Aftion againft its Suggeftion, and 
theOmiflion of any A£tion which it declares to be 
neccfliiry, is Sin; and fo much the more heinous 
Sin, as the Perfon had a more perfe£t Knowledge 
of his Duty ; becaufe a Tranfgreffion under fuch 
Advantages argues a greater Pravity and Corrup- 
tion of Mind ' . 

The Difference of a probable Confcience from a 
right., we conceive not to be in reference to the 
Truth of the Perfuafion, but upon account of its 
Ignorance and Inability to reduce this Truth ar- 
tificially into the Exaftnefs of a Demonflration j 
for which Reafon it has not fo evident and un- 
jhaken a Knowledge of its Certainty. For (as the 
Logicians fpeak) nothing is probable in itfelf, but 
only with refpeft to our Underftanding. And by 
this Rule of Probability the greateft Part of Man- 
kind are fteer'd and govern'd in their Proceedings. 
For few Perfons are able to apprehend human 
Duties as they flow from their firfl Origin and 
Foundation. And moft Men rely with fo much 
Security on the Tenor of common Life '", on the 
unquetlionable Authority of • unfufpefted Teach- 
ers, and on the manifell: Decency or Conveniency 
of fuch and fuch Aftions ; that they think it a 
fuperfluous Trouble to make a more curious En- 
quiry into the Reafons and Foundations of them. 
In the fame manner as the greateft Number of 
Artificers are f^itisfy'd with performing their Work 
by Inftruments mechanically prepar'd, and leave 

» See Liikexii. 47,48. ^ Vide Lih.x'i. Ch.cxx. § 13. 

Wendrochius, and Sam. Rachel. 

the Mathematicians to demonftrate the Reafons of 
their Operations. And Men are apt efpecially to 
content themfelves with thefe probable Appear^ 
ances, when the Propofition in Debate is remov'd 
at a vaft Diftance from the firft Principles; and 
therefore requires a tedious and troublelbmc De- 
duftion, which is commonly above the Capacity 
of thofe who have not run the Courfe of the Sci- 
ences, nor cultivated their Reafon by a learned In- 
ftitution. Yet hence can be drawn no Protedion 
for that pernicious • Probality maintain'd by the 
later Cafuifts, and efpecially by thofe of the Or- 
der of the Jefuits., which refolves itfelf into the 
fole Authority of a fingle Doftor, tho' deftitute 
of Reafons, and oppos'd by all other Judgments. 
For this Principle tends to the utter Subverfion of 
all Morality , and feems defign'd only for the 
keeping under the Senfcs and the Confciences of 
Men, and making them depend entirely on the 
Pleafure of the Priefts : as has been prov'd at large 
by others ' . We need only obferve farther, that 
they a£t not at all fairly, when they confound 
Probabihty of Fa£t with Probability of Judgment, 
and of Law. For indeed, in Matters of Fad the 
Authority of one great and credible Perfon may 
raife a probable Prefumption , and obtain at leaft 
half the Force of a full Proof But in defining 
Matters of Law, 'twould be the higheft Abfurdi- 
ty and Rafhnefs to attribute fo much to the De- 
clarations of one Man, not grounded on good Ar- 
guments, and at the fame time contradided by 
Perfons of equal Rank and Power, as that it fhould 
be fafely admitted for the Square and Standard of 

VI. For the Information and Diredion of a 
probable Confcience., there are many Rules common- 
ly laid down, concerning which our Opinion is 
this, That they take place only where there feems 
to be a Clafhing between ftrid Law and Equity ; 
or when both fides of the Queftion are alike free 
from the Obligation of the Laws ; yet fo as that 
one of them may feem to approach nearer to Ho- 
nefty, or may appear more likely to produce fome 
Convenience or Inconvenience than the other. For 
in Matters abfolutely determin'd by the Command 
or Prohibition of fome Law, there is no room 
left for fuch a free Choice, as that we may rejed 
one Side, and take the other ; becaufe pofitive 
Laws will not be fatisfy'd with Equivalents, but 
demand a pundual Obedience to their Decrees. 
And therefore this Freedom of Eledion muft be 
confin'd to indifferent Things, to which the Laws 
do not extend their Sphere and Authority. The 
chief Rules are thefe : 

I . In a probable Confcience two Opinions being 
propos'd, neither of them contrary to the Laws, 

' Vid. Lud. Montalt. in Lit, Provincial, and upon tliem 

M-.Barb. NOtES. 

* This Epithet is not well apply'd, for our Author owns a right and probable Confcience are the fame, a little lower : 
He ought rather to have called it a clear Confcience ; but his Divifions are not exaft : Thefe are better ; an antecedent Con- 
fcience is, I. refolved, 1. dubious. The refolved Confcience declares pofitively, not only about the Qiiality, but E.vecution 
of an Aftion ; in which, ititmiftakes, 'tis erroneous ; if it judges well, 'tis right; which will be clear or probable accord- 
ing as the Reafons which Men give of their Opinions, are certain, or only probable. A dubious Confcience is either (imply 
fo, when the Underftanding hangs like a Balance, not knowing which Side to take, or whether the Aftion begoodor evil, 
and fo can't put it in Execution ; or fcrupulous, when we are determined about the Morality of the Aiftion, and Execution 
of It, yet with fome Fear of being miftaken. Gott. Gcrh. Titius's Obferv. on Pufend. De OfUdo Horn, CT" Civ. Obf. xvii. 

* Seei,4.ii. c^.iii. §.13. 

» SeeBxrfi/ewj'sDifcourfe, De Scefticifme Morali, J, 31. iaWisAnaUa.HiJl. Philof. 

E z 


23 Of the Under/landing of Man, Book I. 

one of which is founded on better Reafons, the tage of Things bearing a great Force in our Pro- 
other is more fafe j either of the Two may be fol- ceedingSj according to that of the A poiile, iCor. 
low'd without Blame. vi. i z. All things (that is, all Things v/liich he iiad 
2. Two Opinions being propos'd, of which one been there fpeaking of) arc lawful for mc -, ' but all 
is built on weaker Reafons, the other is the more things are not expedient. And in Civil Bufinefs, Af- 
fafe, the latter ought juftly to have the Preference, fairs are many times committed to the fole VVif- 

5. In 7i probable Confcience a learned Man may dom and Conduct of the Perfon employ'd; in 
follow that Opinion which feems to him to have which Cafes a Man is conceiv'd to have acted ill, 
the greatefl: Degree of Probability, tho' perhaps if, by Imprudence or by Negligence, he has taken 
it may appear different to others, unlefs he is un- the lefs profitable Courfe. in Debates therefore, 
der Apprehenfion of incurring fome Inconvenience arifing about fuch Things to which we are bound 
or Damage upon account of diffenting from the by any Neceffity, or any determinate Obligati- 
common Judgment. o" ( for Neceffity excludes all Deliberation and 

4. An unlearned Man may fafely follow the Au- Debates , and determinate Obligatior.s leave no- 

thority of wifer Perfons. thing to the Agent, but the Duty of Execution) 

f. A Subjed, or one plac'd under the Com- this is laid down for a Foundation, That nothing 

mand of others', may, upon the Order of his Su- ought to be undertaken, from which, in moral 

periors, fairly do a Thing which he does not cer- Eileem ( or as far as human Forefight can pierce 

tainly know to be unlawful, tho' in his private into the Obfcurity and Uncertainty of future E- 

Judgment he docs not think it very probable that vents) there docs feem. likely to follow as much 

it ought to be done. Eval as Good *, or more Evil than Good. The 

6. In things of little Moment and Concern, ' if Reafon of which Maxim is evident : For as much 
there are probable Arguments alledg'd on both of Evil as any Thing has join'd with it, fo much 
hands, either Side may be taken. it lofes of its Goodnefs > and confequently, when 

7. In things of great Moment » if there arife the Good and Evil are in equal Degrees, the for- 
probable Arguments on both Sides, the fafer Part mer is fwallow'd up by the latter, and the Thing 
is to be preferr'd, or that from which there can- is depriv'd of the Nature and Denomination of 
not follow fo great an Evil, tho' we are never fo Good Hence that Field is reckon'd very unpro- 
much miftaken, as there might have done, had fitable, which does not in the Value of its Fruits 
we err'd in the oppofite Opinion. exceed the Charges of Tillage " . For thofe Mat- 

VII. To proceed} tho' according to our prefent ters which make the Subjefts of fuch Delibcra- 

defign , we are engag'd only to treat of what's tions as we are now fpeaking of, are undertaken 

good, and what evil, what juft, and what un- purely on Account of the Ufe and Advantage 

jufl: } leaving the enquiring about Things profita- which may accrue to us from them xenophonv 

ble and •♦ unprofitable to another Part of Know- ' '' . As Corollaries from this ge- j^'oyj, ^t ^ 

ledge } yet it will not be much out of the Way, neral Truth , we may fubjoin the are mferted 

if we here confider in ihort, what Rules the Un- three Rules eftablifh'd by Grotius ' : "//^'"'J^'jJ/l 

derflanding ought to have regard to, in Delibera- i. Jf the "Thing under Debate has an ' ' '''^'"' • 

tions concerning Ufefulnefs and Convenience ; e- eqtial Efficacy or Ability for the ProduElion of Good 

fpecially becaufc the Direftions already laid down and E-Jil, that is, if we may as eafilygain as lofe by 

depend very much on thefe ; the Profit or Advan- it, ive may then venture on it, when the good Confe- 

^ Catode R. R. i. i. A Field that is fertile, if it be at the fame timechargeaMe, turns to little Account. 

^ Xenoolion. Rer. Gisc. Lib. vi. , They are very far from deferving Commendation, -who having cirried off Glory and Vidoryfrom 
many Encouners, doflill continue to engage, till being at length Jlian.efully overcome, they lofe their former Honour and their former 
Labour. The Cafe is tht fame with thofe Gamefters, who once meeting with a Run of good Fortune, are entic'd to venture on, till they 
lofe double to their former Gains, and, in Conchipon, are commonly Beggars. Thefe Examples ought to warn us in our Martial Af- 
fairs, that we never fuffer our felves to be drawn into fuch a Combat, where we mujl of NeceJJity either win all, or lofe all. 
Lucan. Lib. i. v. zii. Par Libor atque metus pretio majore petuiitur. 
An equal Labour for a greater Prize. 
Ifocrt. Aichidam. Two Things being propos'd, the one plain and evident, the other doubtful and perplex' d; would it not be ridi- 
culous for you to reject that which is beyond Difpute, and to choofe that which IS controverted and uncertain > ' Lib.\\.Ch. xxiv. §,5. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

' See Lib. viii. Ch. i. §. 6 

* Tins hatli Place commonly in Regard to thofe Judgments, which we are obliged to make ex tempore, upon fome urgent 
Occafions, wherein Neceilities of Lire oblige us to aft. S^e Biblioth.Univerf Tom.w ^.544. 

' As for Example, If the Debate be about putting a Perfon to Death, it is better to run the Risk, and let a Criminal efcape, 
than punifh an innocent Perfon. This was the Decifion, both of feveral antient Philofophers, which are quoted by 
Grotius, Lib. ii. Ch. xxiii. $. 5. n. 2. and of the Emperor Trajan, who would have no Man condemned for Sufpicion, as he 
■v;me.s'n\\-\\$ Kefcript to Afid. Severus. For it is better that the Crimes of the Guilty efcape unpuniflied, than tiint an innocent 
Perfon fliould be condemned. Digeft. iii. xlviii. Tit. 19. De poenis. Leg. i^. For, A%lA\.Bruyere fpeaks, in his Chapter of 
Certain Cufioms, />. 506. If a Criminal be punifhed, 'tis a Terror to the Gang ; but if an innocent Perfon be condemned, all 
honefl Men are affrighted. In fine. War brings Evils upon many innocent Perfons : Ifthen Judgments be divided, wemuft 
incline to Peace. 

* Tiie Author does not mean by the Word Inutili, unprofitable, but noxious, or hurtful, as he plainly ufes it. Lib. ii. Ch. i'. 
§.9. fee the Note, §. to. It is certain, that in Matters cf Morality and Politicks, tliat which is oppofcd to pro- 
fitable, is noxious. 

' The Words of the Apoflle have no manner of Connexion with what went before-, but on the contrary, refer nianifeftly 
to what follows, either to the Liberty of eating ccrtainMeats, without any Regard whether it offends others, or not ; or rather, 
tho' Si. Paul applies it indeed to that particular Subjeft, it is a general Maxim, and extends to all Things indifferent ih their 
Nature. See C^. ii. §.8. >.Ve4. above. 

* Here isaplain Inverfion of the due Order of Things, contrary to the right Way of Reafoning, and Sequel of tlie Dif- 
courfe. This Blemifh is fo notorious, that 'tis a Wonder the Author did not mend it in his laft Editions. 

» Thefe Words of Jre«ci;>/)i7» aredefigned only to fhevv, that when one has got an Advantage or Gain, he ought to take 
Care to preferye itj and not Run to the utmoft Bounds of his Fortune. 


Chap. III. as it concurs to moral Adions. 

quence is a greater Good^ than the illConfequencc is an 

Evil : that is, if we are like to gain more by be- 
ing fucccfsful in the Attempt, than we can lofe 
if we prove ' unfuccefsful. Thus it would be 
noRafhnefs or Imprudence to hazard Ten Pounds, 
fuppole in a dangerous Adventure, when we may 
get an Hundred, if the Chance prove fortunate" . 
2. If the Good and Evil which may proceed from the 
'Thing in Debate^ appear equal^ we may then choofe it, 
with this Provijion, that it has a greater Efficacy or 
Ability for producing the Good than the Evil: that is, 
if 'tis more eafy that Gain Ihould arife from it 
than Damage. In which Point we cannot omit 
the noble Argument ot Armhius '' / " Since that 
" {(ays he) is the Condition of future Things, that 
they cannot be felt or held by any anticipating 



'tis the Part of a wife and cautious Man to abftain 
from luch a Matter, unlcfs he is driven on it by 
urgent Neceffity. 

VIII. When the Judgment of the Underftand- 
ing is at a lofs, and cannot difcern whether a Thino 
be good or Evil, and confequently , whether ft 
ought to be perform'd or omitted,' we call this a 
' doubtful Confcience. Concerning which this Rule 
ought to be obferv'd. That as long as the Judg- 
ment cannot, by the Force of any Arguments, be 
inclin'd to one Side more than to the other, the 
Aftion is to be fufpendcd ; and that therefore, he 
who proceeds to do a Thing , about wliich his 
Confcience ftill hangs in an jEquiUbrium, commies 
a ' Sin i becaufe, as much as in him lies, he has 
rrangrefs'd a Law. For he declares liis Mind to 


Touch, is it not much the clearer Reafon, of this EfFe6t : / am not indeed certain., whether or no 



two Uncertainties, the Expe6tation of which is 
equally doubtful, rather to believe that which 
brings feme Hopes along with it , than that 
which brings none ? For in the former Cafe 
there can be no Danger, tho' the Matter ex- 
pe&ed never come to pafs : bur in the latter we 
incur the higheil Damage, if what we disbe- 
lieved fhould not prove a Falfity in the final E- 
vent of Things '. " 3- -//^ the Good and Evil 
feera to be unequal^ and the Ability of the Thing to 
produce them not lefs unequal, then we mufl determine 
our Choice by one of the two Conditions , either that 
the Ability for produdng Good compar''d with that 
for producing Evil, be greater in Proportion, than the 
Evil itfclf compared with the Good (that is, if the 
Excefs of Evil be left than the Ability for pro- 
ducing Good) or, if the Good '!:' greater, compared 
with the Evil, than the Ability fur producing the E- 
vil, compaf d with that ^uv producing the Good: that 
is, if the Power and Efficacy which feem to incline 
towards the Produftion of the Evil, be lefs confi- 
derable than the Degree by which the Good ex- 
ceeds the Evil To which we will add this fourth 
Rule, That where botli the Good and the 111 Ef- 
fect of a Thing, and likewile its Ability for produ- 
cing of both, remain uncertain and undetermin'd, 

this Action is repugnant to the Laws ; but whether it 
be or no, I a?n rcfolv'd to undertake it. 'Tis good 
Advice (fays ^ Tully) to forbear doing a Thing, whera 
•* we doubt whether it be fair and'jufl, or foul and 
injurious: For when %ve are certain the Thing isjufl, 
we have a clear Light and Guide to proceed by j but 
to a6i with an unfettled Judgment , does not free us 
from theThuughtsand Intentions of offering an Injury. 
Grotius^ (zys. That this Rule, of abftaining from 
a doubtful Aftion, does not hold when we are obliged 
to do either this or that, and yet are unj at is fed in either, 
whether it be juji or not j for then we are allowed to 
choofe that Side which appears lefs evil or unjufi. For 
whenfoever we are under the Neceffity of making a 
Choice, the leffer Evil affumcs the Charahcr of Good. 
This Obfervation, we think, ought rather to have a 
Place in Evils of Damage, than in thofe of Mo- 
rality ; becaufe in the former it is reckon'd a Gain 
and an Advantage, to avoid a greater Evil by ad- 
mitting a lefs. But it cannot be applied to moral 
Evils , without a very dextrous Conflruftion. 
Properly fpeaking, therefore, of two moral E- 
vils, neither is to be'chofen. Yet it frequently 
happens, that two Laws, either both Affirmative, 
or one Affirmative and the other Negative, fliall 
feem to clafh with one another j fo that we cannot 

* Comp. EpiHet. Enchirid. Ch. xxxv, xxxv> 
e Lib. ii. Ch. xxiii. §. ii. n. z. 

b Lib. ii. c Add. Penfees de M.Pafchal. Ch. vii. d Off. Lib.i. Ch.ix. 



* Our Author, in his laft Editions, quotes an excellent Paflage of Arnobius to this Purpofe : " Since future TIi 
" are of that Nature, that no Man can clearly difcover them, nor foreknow their Events ; no Man of Senfe, but ot 
" Things equally uncertain, will choofe that from which he may hope for fome Good, rather than that from wliich he can 
" hope tor none." In (hort, if the Evil that threatens us, hasnoEffeft, we run no Rifque ; whereas we are expofed to verv 
great Danger, and hazard All, if, when the Time comes, we find by fad Experience, that we were not ahaid withoiit 
Caufe. Adv. Gentes, Lib. ii. See Lib. ii. Ch. iii. §. 21. ». 6. Our Author miftakes, in annexing this to the firft Rule 
of Grotiui, whereas Mr. Pajcal, in his Thoughts, Ch. vii. proves it ought to be joined to the fecond. 

' Mr. Thomafius, in his hiftit. Jurifpr. Diviri. Lib. i. Ch. i. §. 59. affirms. That there is no fuch Thint; as a doubtin'^ 
Confcience, becaufe Doubting is no Determination of the Soul, but a Sufpending the Judgment only. "But Mr. TitiiTs 
will not allow this to be a fufficient Reafon to take away the Diftinftion ; for befides the Sufpenfion, there is a De- 
termination, by which the Confcience is put upon an Aition, the Doubts which ought to prevent it ftill rcmainin". 

» Mr. Titiiis (in his Obfervat. on Piifend. Ohfer-v. 19.) affirms. That this Maximls not abfolutely true and without 
Reftriftioni For (fays he) when an Agent has no more Intention to do Evil than Good, he is not Blame-worthy, un- 
lcfs the Aftion be found contrary to the Law ; for he afts not according to the Nature of the Aiftion in itfelf ;' and 
therefore whatfoever produces that Quality contrary to the Defign of the Agent, hinders the Imputation of a Crime 
to him, if theAaion prove evil. In fine, if we fuppofe the Agent to be carelefs whether he does Good or Evil, and 
that the Reafons for and againft him are altogether equal, his Difpofition, neverthelefs, is corrupt before God, be- 
caufe he has refolved to aft without a certain Knowledge that what he is about to do is good, or, at leaft, harmlefs, 
^1?*^ ^°\^^ renders himfelf liable to fall into Error, and confequently engages himfelf, as' much as in him lies, in all 
the evil Effefts. This hath Place in Matters of the greateft Importance, as when we condemn any one, and do hiiu 
any Mifchief any Ways : for the Juftice of an Aftion ought to be fo clear, that they to whom it is done, may ac- 
knowledge it fuch. See Parrhafana, Tom. ii. p. 406. 

'Tis a Maxim of Holy Scripture, which teaches us, T^;i/ zvhutfiever we do without Faiih, i. e. v.itiiout a thorough 
Conviftion of the Goodnefs of it, is Sin. And all the Heathen Wife Men, both Creeks and Barbarians, have given us 
the fame Rule. e>ui m zero dnbitat. male agit, cum deliberat : He that doubts of the Truth, does 111 while he delibe- 
"'^*- ^"^^: i'y- See Grotius Lib. ii. Ch. xxiii. $. 2. The Scholars oi' Zeroaftres had this Rule, If it be dubious, whe- 
ther an Aftion be good or Evil, we muft not do it, till we arc informed by our Doftors. ^ydt ni Sadder, P^rta 30. 


qo Of the Underftanding of Man, 

fatisfy both at the fame time' . In this Cafe igno- 
rant Perfons are apt to fanfy , that a Companion 
is made between two Evils, or Sins of Omiflion, 
and that we are to do that, which it would have 
been the greateft Sin to have left undone. But 

in Reality, we do not here of two Sins choofe ture, and from the Chriftian 
but that Action, which without 

Book I. 

the leller 

this clafhing and interfering had been a Sin, now 
ceafes to be finfui, when we are oblig'd to a con- 
trary Duty, by the Force of a ftrongerLaw. Thus, 
for Example, when there feems to be a clafhing 
between the affirmative Command, Give Jims ^ 
and the Negative, Do not Jieal, without doubt we 
mufl not be guilty of Thievery to gather Matter 
for our Almsj according to that of the Apoflle, 
we mufl not do Evil, that Good may come of it. Yet 
in this Cafe, not to give Alms, is not properly a 
Sin, becaufe Affirmative Precepts exert not their 
Force of Obligation, when there remains no Sup- 
ply of Matter to furnifh out the Aftion. So again, 
when a clafhing is made between the two Affir- 
mative Precepts, Obey God, and Obey the Magi- 
fir ate , no Queftion but we ought to obey God 
rather than Men ' ' : Not becaufe, of two Evils 
the leaft is to be chofen , but becaufe it is not an 
Evil to deny Obedience to the Magiftrate, when 
it cannot be" given without violating the Duty we 
owe to God ». For a weaker Obligation al- 
ways yields to a ftronger, when both cannot be 
fulfill'd together. 

IX. To a doubtful Confidence a fcrupulous one is 
very nearly related ; and this is, when the Judgment 
of the Underftanding is poffefs'd with an anxious 
Fear, left the Thing which we fanfy to be Good, 
fhould prove Evil, or vice verfia. Now when 
fuch Scruples are founded on probable Arguments, 
the Action is to be fufpended, 'till they can be 
taken away and clear'd up, cither by the Force of 
Arguments, or by the Authority of wife Men : 
But whcnt they proceed only from a melancholy 
and a fuperftitious Softnefs and Indifcretion, they 
are by all Means to be difcouraged, and 
driven out of our Thoughts 
good Remedy which Cartes ^ prefcribcs againft 
Fluctuation of Mind, and the Bitings of Con- 
fcience which precede an Action , to accufiom our- 

,^^^, ....^ forcibly 
Therefore 'tis a 

felves to the forming of certain and determinate Judg- 
ments of all Things that offer themfielves to us. But 
we muft obferve farther , that thefe Judgments 
ought to be drawn from genuine and folid Sci- 
ence, or from the Doctrine of the Laws of Na- 

Religion, purg'd 
from the vain Additions of fuperftitious Men. For 
tho' without this Security, the Mind may indeed 
be fo far harden'd, as not to perceive any Fluctu- 
ation, or to feel any Remorfe of Confcience ; yet 
fuch a Firmnefs and Obduracy is neither of long 
Continuance , nor free from the Imputation of 
Sin. Whence we cannot approve of the latter 
Part of Des Cartes'^ Prefcription, where he tells 
us, IVe fiiould aliiiays think our Duty is dificharg'd, 
ivhen ive have done ivhat vje jadg'd befi , altbo' ive 
have made the 'worft Judgment that can be. For 
this is not to cure the Dileafc, but by an ill-tem- 
per'd Opiate, to bring a Drowfinefs and Stupidity 
on the Mind. 

X. When the Knowledge of the Underftanding 
is wanting, as to the Performance or theOmiffion 
of any Thing, we call x.\(\% Ignorance. Which, as far 
as concerns our prcfent Delign, may be divided, 
either with Refpeft to its ♦ Influence on the A£lion, 
or with Refpeft to its Origin. With Reference to 
the former, it is of two Sorts, one being the Caufe 
of the Thing ignorantly done, and the other not. 
The firft may be call'd Efficacious, and the other 
Concomitant. The firft is the Negation of fuch a 
Knowledge in the Underftanding, which, had it 
been prelcnt, would have hinder'd the Aftion. 
Such was Jbimeleclfs Ignorance, Gen. xx. 4, f. 
who, had he known Sarah to have been Abraham^ 
Wife, had never entertain'd any Thoughts of 
taking her for himfelf The latter is a Negation 
of fuch a Knowledge in the Underftanding, as 
would not have hinder'd the Faft , fo that the 
Man, tho' he had known what he was indeed ig- 
norant of, yet would have done the Thing never- 
thelefs. As fuppofe a Man ftiouid kill his Enemy 
by a chance Blow, whom he would otherwife have 
kiU'd, had he known him to be in that particular 
Place, where he now threw his Weapon cafually, 
and without any Intention of Hurt '. Thus the 
Boy who flung a Stone at a Dog, and by miftake 

" This was the brave Dedarntton 0/ Socrates, I honour and efteem you, O ye. Athenians ; but in point of Obedience, 
my Duty to G o d is to be faiisfied before my Obligation to you. Plato Jifoiog. i" De Pallion. Art.. 170, & '77. 

M-.Barb. A^or^^". 

' See Lib. v. Ch.xW. §. 23. 

* This Saying of Socrateslh by many learned Men compared with the PafTage in the Afls, Ch. iv. xir. v. 29. but, 
as Mr. Le Clerc obferves, Ars Crit. To. i. he fpeaks of his Daemon or Genius, and not of the True God. 

' Hurodes fpeaks much to this Purpofe, in his Difcourfe of the Honour and Obedience due from Children to their 
Parents, and therefore is worthy our Notice. His Words are. Com. inaur. Pythag. Carmina, p. 53. Ed. Land. Ifithapfent 
that the Will 0} oui- Parents is contrary to the Lav; of GOD, what can they do, who fall under fuch an Ofpojitionof Laws, 
other than is ufualh done, when any ;Duties are incompatible f Tor when the Choice of two Things is offered, the one Good, the 
other Evil, wc mufl necelfarily prefer the Good, if we can't fairly difcharge ourfehes of both at the jame time, &c. 

* The Di\ifions of our Author are neither clear nor compleat enough; and therefore Tnius, in his zjd Obfervation, 
rectifies them, by confidering Ignorance, i. With Refpeft to the Influence of the Objed upon the Thing we ad; 
whence ariles efficacious and concomitant Ignorance. 2. With Refpecf to the N.iturc of the Ohiect, confidered in itfelf, 
which produces an Ignorance of Law, and an Ignorance of Fact. 3. With Refpeft to the Conl'ent of the Agent ; whence 
refults voluntary and involuntary Ignorance. 

< This Definition comes near the Opinions of the Peripateticks, which diftinguifli the Sorts of Ignorance and Error, 
by the Sorrow or Penitence which the .Igent fliews, or not, after the Aftion, Ethic. Nicom. Lib. iii. Ch. ii. which, if 
it be allowed, fcarce any one but would eafily avoid the Imputation of his Crimes. But Mr. Pufendorf's Definition, 
depends not only upon a falfe Suppofition, but is inconipleat, becaufe it agrees not to Aftions allowable and indifferent. 
Kothing but want of Knowled^ie, which hinders afting, renders Error efficacious, and confequently not to be imputed. 
Now fuch Ignorance is thus diftinguiflied ; 1. It is efficacious, when it refpefts the neceffary Knowledge of the Aftion 
we are about, either as to the Nature of the Thing, or Intention of the Agent; fuch Ignorance hinders Confent, and 
being involuntary, can't be imputed. This may be eafily applied to particular Aftions, as well lawful as unlawful. 
On the contrary^ 2. Concomitant Ignorance is that which refpefts that Knowledge which has no Relation to the Af- 
fair we are about, and which, not hindring Confent, can't preferve us from Imputation. It is voluntary or involun- 
tary, and having no Influence upon the Bufmefs in Q."eftionj can't contribute any thing to caufe an Alteration. Tit.Obf.z^. 

» hit 


Chap. III. as it concurs to moral xA^Hons. 

hithisMothcr-in-Law andkill'd her, ^id ', account of not knowing what was to be done' or 

T ccvtO/UccIov v]/xc^v xaAAiw (iuKiUiTcti^ tortune what to be avoided, which Ignorance he calls /t- 

had a better Aim than I. Some diftinguifh thefe norance in Election^, or Ignorance of Uni-vcrraJs *" 

two Species of Ignorance in this Manner, That for thefe every Man was oblig'd to know Bu 

what is done by the former fhall be faid to be done that Ignorance of Particulars is the Thincr whici 
out of Ignorance, what by the latter, to be done by renders an Aftion capable of being conftrued invo- 
one that is ignorant. Yet even in the latter Cafe, luntary. Thefe Particulars ai-e, who what about 
no Murder, according to the ftrift and proper what, and in what, 'withwhat Infirument forzvhit 
Senfe, is committed. For tho' that ill Affc£tion Caufe, and by what Manner. All thefe no Man in 
of Mind was in itfclf vicious, yet it contributed his Senfes can be ignorant of together becau'fe he 
nothing to the Fact. With Reference to itsOri- is atleaft apprehcnfive of his own afting, and there- 
gin, Ignorance is divided into voluntary zndi invo- fore can refolve the firft Qiieftion {fVho?) But 
luntary. The former is by fome term'd confequent ' in all the other Circumftances Jcfnorance mayin- 
and vincible, the latter antecedent and invincible, tervene. Thus Perfons offend who fay ' what thev 
The former, whether it be direftly afc^ed, or pro- ought not, not knowing that what they have faid 
cecds only from Idlenefs and Unattention, is when ought to be kept fecret. And the fame is the Cafe 
a Man knows not that which he could, and ought of a Man who intending to fhew his Friend fome 
to have known : the latter, when a Man knows not ^looting Engine, fhould let it go off, and kill him. 
fuchThings,as he bad neither Ability nor Obligation An Inftance of Ignorance about what, and in what 
to know. This invincible Ignorance IS cither fuch in it- (which are the fame Thing) may be when a Man 
felf^ andnot inits Caufe,ore\{thothin !t/elf,andinits kills his own Son, miftaking him for his Enemy 
Cau/e too. The former is, when in doing a Thing a Ignorance of the Inflrument is, fuppofe aMan fhould 
Man is not able to overcome the Ignorance from throw a pointed Spear at another, and kill him ta- 
which it proceeds, and yet is in Fault for falling into king it to have had no Point. For what Caufe co'mes 
that Ignorance. Thus frequently when a drunken to beconfider'd ir\ Ignorance, in fuch a Cafe as this • 
Man commits a Sin, he does not know what he is do- Suppofc aMan fhould applv a Remedvto another 
ing, yet he is culpable for not knowing it. The latter with dcfign of preferving his Health, and the Re- 
is, when a Man not only is ignorant of fuch Things medy fhould (againlt his Knowledge) prove mor- 
as could not be known before the Action, but is tal. The lull Circumftance is, ?■» wZ'^Z' »^<2w?fr- as 
alfo free from any Blame upon the Account of his if a Man in teaching another fhould intend only 
falling into that Ignorance, or his continuing in to give him a flight Blow, but fhould by Accident 
it. On this Point is obfervable what Ariflotle has defperately wound him \ The Rotnan Lawyers 
faid in his Ethicks, Book iii. Chap, i, ii. and what have treated under a peculiar Head concernin<^ JV- 
Euflathius has commented on the Place. Where he norance of the Law, ^.nAIgnorance of the FaEl * ^But 
diftinguifhes between what is done by one being ig- they did not confider Ignorance fo much for the 
mrant, and what is done out of Ignorance. For In- Force and Ufe it had in moral Anions as for the 
ftances of the former, he brings the Actions of a Influence it had on Matters of Right and as it 
drunken, or of an angry Perfon ; for fuch Men, made for the keeping, or ' acquiring, or lofino- of 
tho' they often know not^ what they do, yet the any legal Poffeffion or Qualification. But their 
Ignorance is not the Caule of their afting, but the numerous Reafonings about both Kinds may be 
Drunkennefs, or the Anger, of which 'twas in their reduc'd to this fhort Iffue, That Ignorance of 
Power to decline the former, and to reftrain the the Law is, for the moft part, join'd with fome 
latter. He adds farther, that thofe Perfons cannot Degree of culpable Negligence'", but lo-no- 
be faid to do a Thing unwittingly, who fin upon ranee of theFacl is notj and that therefore Equity 

M-.Barb. notes. 

I Plutarch, who mentions this Sentence, in two Places of his Works of Morality, makes this to be the Speech of 
the Step-Son, Ot)d" 'ara ; 'twas not badly thrown. Dc anlmi tranquil, p. 467. Ed. Wech. 

' This Divifion is not very neceflary, for only the laft fort of Ignorance is involuntary or invincible; for in Mat- 
ters moral, volinitary comprehends not only what is formally confented to, but what preceeds Confent, if it be a 
necellary Confequent of it. Tit'ius Obf. xxvii. 

» ;. e. When we are ignorant which of two Things propos'd to us is moft advant.igeoiis, or with what View we 
mull acl; as for Example, when we prefer a profitable or agreeable Good before an'honeft one. 

* Such is the ignoraacc of the Law of Nature, at leafl of its common Principles ; and the Ignorance of the Civil 
Laws of the Government to which we belong : So that tho' we may kill or poifon another without any fuch Defi'in, 
we can't innocently perfuade ourfelves thar Murder or Poifoning is allowable. ° 

' There are fome other particular Circumftances, the Ignorance of which is as incxcufable as that of general Prin- 
ciples. As tor Example, If one fhall fhoot off a Gun in a publick Place, and kill a Man, it will be no Excufe that 
he thought no Man would pals that Way. becaufe he muft needs imagine that fuch Places are much frequented. 

' Thus fays Ariftotle ; yEichylus the Poet, being accufed for publiflnng t'he My/feries 0/ Venus Elufina, was acquitted, be- 
caufe he knew not, that thofe Things which he had fpoken were to be liept fecret. For the Ignorance of a Thing as to the 
<S>uality, or what, confijls not in being ignorant of what is done, but of its being of fuch a Nature, or having fuch atgluaUty. 

'' Two other Circumftances may be added ; as, i. The Time ; for we may be ignorant whether a Day be holy or 
not, a Feftival, or Working-day, ct'c. ^. The Place, whether it be coiifecrated or common. 

See the Digeft. Lib. xxii. Tit. vi. and Cod. Lib. i. Tit. xviii. fee alfo Mr. Daumat'i Civil Laws in their natural Or- 
der, Part. i. Lib. i. Tit. xviii. $. i. 

' Ignorance of Right (fay the Digefl. Lib. xxii. T;V. vi. £e^. vii.) hinders not from preferving our juft Due, but is of 
no Ule to acquire any Thing. As to Crimes, their Judgment is, that Ignorance of what is forbidden by the Law of 
Nature, or Nations, or by the revealed Law, is altogether inexcufable ;"but as to what is contrary to the Civil Laws, 
Ignorance or Error excufes fometimes, either wholly, or in part ; in which Cafe Men are confidered as having Means, 
or not, to know the L.iw. 

■ 'u "^1 ^*.^'°" '^' becaufe the Law may, and ought to be clear and determinate, but Fafts are often very intricate, 
lo the wifeft Men can't unfold them; and thereupon, in Matters of Fad, when Ignorance isgrofs, it can't be al- 
ledged is a Realon available. Ibid. Leg.ii, v vi. <J' ix. §. 5. fee Cujas Obferv. v. 39, 


Of the Underjlanding of Man, 


direfts us to interpret « the foiiner to the Man's 
Prejudice, and the latter not. 

XI. When not only a Knowledge of the Truth 
is wanting in the Und'erftunding, but a falfe Per- 
fuafion has intruded into its room, which pafJes 
itfelf for Truth, then we fay a Man has an erro- 
neous Confciencc^ or that his Mind is ponelt by an 
Error. This Error is (like Ignorance) either vin- 
cible or invincible : The former is that which a 
Man could and ought to have overcome, by ap- 
plying fuch Diligence as is ' morally poffible, or 
as the common Condition of Humanity admits and 
allows: The latter is fuch as a Man could notvan- 
quifh by all Diligence morally poffible. Where it 
muft be obfer\'d, that fliould we approve of that 
Saying of the Emperor Jntonimis^ Bookix. Chap, 
xlii. IVhofoever fim^ docs in that decline from his 
p-opos'd End^ and is certainly deceived ' ; yet if the 
Error were not infupcrable, the ill Actions pro- 
ceeding from it cannot be exempted from the 
Number of Sins properly fo caird,nor ought to be 
pardon'd in Grofs by a promiicuous Indulgence '. 

XII. But it ought efpecially to be remark'd, 
that Error different Effects in Actions, which a 
Man may undertake or omit as he pleafcs, or the 
Exercife of which is left to his free Will ; and in 
fuch A£i:ions as are enjoin'd or forbidden him by 
the Law or the Command of a Superior. In the 
former kind of Actions, the Error is fuppos'd to in- 
tercept our Conient : And thei-efore thofe Confe- 
quences do not flow from it, v/hich are othcrwifc 
apt to follow on fuch an Action as we have thus 
confented to j efpecially if the Error did not fteal 
on us thro' fupine Carelefsnefs and Negle<St. And 
therefore in Bargains an Error about a Thing, or 
about its Quality, upon Profpeft of which a Man 
w;is induc'd to come to fuch an Agreement, ren- 
ders the Bargain void. For in this Cafe the Man 
is not conceiv'd to have agreed abfolutcly,but up- 
on Suppofal of the Prcfence of fuch a Thing or 
Qiiality, on which, as on a neceffiuy Condition, 
his Confent was founded: and therefore the Thing 
or Quality not appearing, the Confent is under- 
ftood to be null and ineffectual. Which Point 
fhall be difcufs'd more fully in its proper Place. 

XIII. But the Cafe feemsto be very different in 
neceffarv Actions, or in fuch as are commanded 
or forbidden by a Superior. Where we mult firft 
enquire, whether the Error arifes in the Theory, 
or in the Practice j that is, whether a Man enter- 
tains a falfe Opinion concerning the Neceflity of 

Book I. 

fome A6tions, thinking thofe ought to be omitted 
which fhould have been perform'd, or lice ver/a • 
or whether fome Error occurs in the very Exer- 
cife of an Action, by Means of which the Action 
is not applied lb rightly as it ought to have been. 
The former Kind of Errors do not, in our Judg- 
ment, at all hinder the Imputation of an Action to 
the Agent, according as it fliall appear to agree of 
difagree with the Rules prefcnb'd him, bccauie 
they muit upon all Accounts be efleem'd lupera- 
blc : For he that would reltrain the Actions of an- 
other by a Rule, ought at the fame Time to make 
a fufficient Declaration of his A\^il], that it maybe 
clearly known by the Perfon whom he is to oblige. 
For otherwife 'tis the moft unjuit Thing in the 
World to require Obedience to a Law, when either 
the Law is unknown, or the Difcovery of itsSenfe 
exceeds the Capacities of thole whom it aftects. 
Therefore, if a Man errs in "Theory^ that is, if he 
fanfy a Thing to be commanded which is really 
forbidden, or, "vtce icrfa^ he is fuppos'd not to 
have apply'd lufficient Diligence, and therefoiehe 
cannot refulctobcar the Imputation of Faults com- 
mitted upon fuch an Error. This Doctrine is by 
fome Caiuilts thus explain'd in other Words: If 
the Conlcience entertain a vincible Error about an 
evil Thing, the Man fins, as well if he afts for it, 
as if he aCts agiiinlt it : That is, if he has per- 
fuaded himfelf that an A6tion was commanded, 
which was indeed forbidden, or that an Action 
was forbidden, which v/as indeed commanded, he 
fins by performing the former, and by the forbeai- 
ing the latter > bccaufc fuch a Performance and 
fuch a Forbearance are repugnant to the Law, but 
the Agent might and ought to have known the 
Law, according to its true Import and Significa- 
tion: And yet * the fame Man has finn'd no lef% 
if he has torborn an Aftion which was indeed 
forbidden, but by himbeliev'd to be commanded j 
or if he has perform'd :ui Action really command- 
ed, yet fuch as he imagin'd to be forbidden. For 
tho' in thefeCafcs there be no external Acts repug- 
nant to the Law, yet becaufe the Man thinks his 
falfe Notion and Conltruction of the Law to be 
right, therefore the contrary Intention fhall be 
imputed to him as Sin: For the evil Intention of 
the Agent makes the Aftion appear evil, at leait 
with Refpeft to the Agent himfelf From all 
which it appears, that from an erroneous fudg- 
ment no AAion can proceed which may be im- 
puted as good and right to the A6tor, and th;u: 

' Add. Aiiiaa Epiftet. Lib. i. Ch.\\\\\\. v Ch. v. §. 13. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

« For 'tis a Rule of the L.nw, Tli,it Ignor.ince of the Law hurts any M.nn, but of the Faft not. T)tgeft. ibid. 

' See Ch. vii. § 16. The Queftions about invincible I<;norance and F.rror, have been much debated in France, in or- 
der to maintain the Rights of Coufcience in Matters of Religion, againft the .'Attempts ot fucli Teachers as are againll .i 
Toleration, and are for profecuting all that differ from them ; for which 'tis convenient that the Curious confult the Books. 

• It is certain, that when Men are arrived at the Height!) of Wickednefs, they (in not for iinninu's fake, but arc 
ordinarily feduced by their Paflions, which on a fudden divert the Mind from the Thoughts of their Duty; but tho* a 
Man confiders not the Sin formally in the Inftant of finning, he is not lefs to be blamed, becaufe his Ignorance rc- 
fpefts Things which he might and ought to know; and (o the Maxim of M. Aiitonine, if underftood with the Re- 
rtriftion bcforementioned, will rectify the Error of the philofophical Sin of the Jefuits. About which, fee Biblioth. 
I'miverf. Tom. xv. In fine. Since we never refoive upon an Atlion, but upon the account of fome pofitivc Know- 
ledge, and a fimple Deteft of Light rarely carries us to any Action, Ignorance and Error are often confounded in 
Moralitv, and what is faid of the one, may be applied to the other. 

* Moreover a Man likewife fins as much in doing a good Action contrary to his Confciencc, as bv doing a Thin'' 
evil in itfelf, in following the Motions of an erroneous Confciejice. The Reafon is, becaufe in the firft Cafe he iV- 
reftly and deliberately dlfobeys God, which is the moft aggravating Circumftance of Sin ; and befidcs, all the Ciood 
that can be in the Adion, can't be imj)uted to the Agent, who could not but be feniible that he had no Defign to do it. 
Whereas in the other Cafe, there is no formal Contempt ot the Authority of the Lawgiver ; nay, on the contrai^y, there is 
aDclign to obey him; which fliews that the Action contains in it fome moral Goodnels, altho" in fome Refpefts it 
may be accounted Evil, if the Eiror appears not unconquerable. See the Philofof hick Comment. &c. Tom. ii. Ch. yiii. 


Chap. III. 

as it concurs to moral Actions. 

when a Man is fnljly perfuaded that fuch a Thing 
is unjull S the Thing is unlawful for him to do, 
fo long aS his Perfuafion fhall continue uncor- 
reded. Jcld. Lib. Ixvi. §. 8. D. of thefts. 
■ XIV. But if a fpeculative Error be entertain'd 
concerning a Thing indifferent j that is, if a Man 


neft Intention, tho' with an inconfiderate Libera- 
lity, conferred a Kindnefs on a wicked Perfon, 
who will abufe it toward the maintaining of his 
Difordcrsj he cannot at all boall of havincr done a 
good Aftion, yet he ihall be excus'd from any 
Share in the confequent WickednefTes, and not 
be reckon'd to have contributed any Thing toward 
their Commiffion. But when a Man has been par- 

fhould be perfuaded that he ought to do, or to 
omitfomewhat, which was indeed left free on both 

Sides, he will only fin, if he a£ts contrary to what ticularly commanded to difcover and obferve pre- 
this falfe Opinion fuggcils, upon the account of cifely the Objc£t, the Place, or Time of acting, it 
the Pravity of his Intention, but will not fin, if he will be a hard Matter for him to efcape the Impu- 
a61:s according to the Directions of his Error. For tation of thofe Effefts which fhall proceed from 

the ill applied Action, unlefs he can demon ftrate 
his Error to have been morally infuperable and un- 
avoidable. Thus if you give your Servant a llri6t 
ror appears very harmlefs, which does not give Oc- Charge to wake you at fuch a certain Hour of the 
cafion to fin. Yet it is plain, the Aftions under- Night, it will not ferve him for an Exxufe of his 
taken upon the Motions of fuch an Error, cannot Default, to fay, that he niiftook in telling the 
obtain thofe good Effcfts which otherwife follow Clock ; yet if by any Cafualty the Clock went 

indifferent Things are plac'd without the Bounds 
•f the Law j which cannot be tranfgrefs'd by 
their Performance or Omiflion: And that Er- 

the hke Inftances of Obedience to the Laws: 
Thus, if a Legiflator had conflituted fuch a Re- 
ward to thofe who comply'd with his Injunftions, 
this Reward could nor be challeng'd by one, 
who through Error and Miflake fhould have ob- 
ferv'd fome indifferent Thing.', fanfying them to 
be pofitively determined, and legally enafted. 

XV. But 't!S much more uiual that an Error 
fliould intervene in the Praftice and Exercife of 
Aftions commanded by the Laws : As fuppofethe 
true Objeft of the Aftion fhould be remov'd, and 
another fubflituted in its Place ; or if we fhould 
miflake the Time or Place of the Execution en- 
join'd. Such Aftions, as they are not follow'dby 
thofe EfFefts which are otherwife due to Aftions 
rightly apply'd ; fo neither are they attended with 
the EfFeifts proper to bad Aftions, becaufe the Er- 
ror was not cont rafted by any culpable Negli- 
gence: Which fome Authors thus exprefs in other 
Words, An intervening Error hinders the Aftion 
from bging imputed on either fide, making it neither 
good nor evil. fFbocver (fays Seneca Here. fur. v. 
1257.) gave Error the Narne of Wickednefs? Thus, 
tho' otherwife you would be freed from your Obli- 
gation by paying a Man what you owe him, yet 
fhould you pay him undefignedly, and by pure 
Miftake, you will not indeed have committed a 
Sin, but you will by no Means have cancell'd the 
Obligation. ~' 

Thus when a Man has, with an ho- 

wrong, or was out of Order, the Servant fhall be 
free from all Offence and Blame. 

XVI. It frequently happens too, that an Error 
intervenes in the Exercife of a bad Aftion, while 
the Aftor mifles the Objeft at which he aim'd. 
In which Cafe, the Malice oi the Aftor fhall con- 
tinue the fame as if he had not mitlaken, but the 
Aftion itfeif fhall be elfcem'd more orlefs heirious, 
according as the Objeft is on which it cafually 
lighted. Thus a Perion who intending to kill his 
Enemy, accidentally kills another Man, fhall be 
neverthelefs guilty of Murther. See Lib.xvui. §. 5. 
D. of Injuries^ 13 Lib. xiv . D. L. Corneliam de Sicariis^ 
(3 Grot, in Sparf.Florum ad h.L Yet the Murther 
fhall receive more or lefs Aggravation, according 
to the Dignity or Meannefs of the Man, who has 
been fo unfortunately flain. Hitherto mufl be re- 
ferr'd the Cafe of a Man's killing another outright, 
whom he intended only to wound, or to hurt in 
a lefs Degree i for here the Faft itielf mull be the 
Rule to go by in Judgment : But when in the Ex- 
ercife of a faulty Aftion, a Man by Miflake lights 
on a lawful Objeft, fuch an Aftion will be no far- 
ther evil, than as it flows from an ill Intention 
in the Aftor; fo that this Error fhall hinder the 
Faft from coming under the Name of the Vice 
defign'd to be committed. And therefore that Say- 
ing of Seneca^ of the Conjlancy of a wife Alan, Cb. vii. 
will not hold, at leaft ' in human Courts and 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

» 'Tis on this ' ccount tli.nt the Roman L.iw has decreed, he that takes away any Thing from another, think- 
ing that he does it without the Confent ot the Owner, conTmits a Robbery, tho' afterward he find that the Proprie- 
tor was willing he fhould take it and have it for his own ; but he that has as much as in him lies committed the 
Robbery,'t be profecuted in Law as a Thief. The Law is this; If I againft the Will and Confent of the Own- 
er, as I believe, do meddle with his Goods, tho' the Owner is willing 1 fhould, whether am I guilty of Theft ! 
And Pompon'ius fays, I am a Thief: yet it is true, that if I am willing he fhould have the \J(e of them, tho' he 
know it not, he can't be impleaded as guilty of Theft. Digefl. Lib. xlvii. Tit. ii. Of Thefts, Leg. xlvi. §. %. 

» Indeed before God it is real Adultery; for, as the Author has obferved more than once before, and as he here- 
after fpe.iks. Chap. vii. $.4. an evil Intention renders the Aftion evil, which othei-wife is good and innocent, as to 
the Matter, and in itfelt : tho' a good Intention is not fufficient to render an Aftion materially evil, or cood. 
Whereas, on the contrary, if a Man defigns to do a good Aftion, and happens (thro' Mirtake) to do an ilfone, 
there is no doubt but God will accept of that Intention, as if he had efFefted the Good that he propounded to him- 
felt to do ; and although it gives Place, by Accident, to fome Sin of another Nature, 'tis no lefs commendable for 
the Good which he would have done, unlefs the Execution of a pious Defign either become unprofitable, or be 
hindred by the Change of certain Circumftances. So that the Maxim which our Author has laid down in the laft 
Seftion, I mean. That eiery Aifion, in doing of -which we rnay fall into an Error, can neither be imputed to us as Good, 
nor E-jil: Tliis Maxim, I fay, had need be underftood with fome Reftriftions. Nor is it generally more true, that 
thefe fort of Aftions muft always want, before human Judicatures, thofe Effefts which they would have, if they were 
well applied. As for Inftance, If a Man not knowing it, marries a Woman who hath a Husband already, or is a Re- 
lation within the Degrees forbidden, as he is no Adulterer or inceftuous Perfon, fuppofing that it be a real Error; 
fo their Children cannot be reputed BalVards, provided that both the Father and the Mother be under an invincible 
Ignorance in that Refpeft. This is the very Example that Mr. Hertius alledges here, and we may alfo confult his 
Difcourfe ot a Stippofed Marriage, Tom. i. of his Commentaries and fmall Woi-ks. Printed in 1700. 




Of tie Will of Man, 

Book L 

Confideration ""j 'that if a Man lies with his own 

Sen. of Benefits, Lih.n.Ch. xix. ^ Lib.v. Ch. xiii. 
mfe"fanfying her to be amther's, the Man flmll be in the End. And compare Libanius Declani. xxxv. 
anJdulterer,tho' thelVomanhe noAdultevefs. Add. f. 780. of MorelUus's Edition. 

* Confult alfothe new Letters of Mi'. Sa'^k, written upon the Occafion of his general Criticifing upon Mr. Mahn- 
beurg's Hiftory of Calvinifm, Lett. ix. §. ii. 

Of theWill of Man, as it concurs in, or confents to M o ral Actions. 

The Contents of every Sedion of the fourth Chapter. 

Certain Difpofitions of the Body flir up the Will. 
As alfo fame Habits. 
And Paffions. 
Alfo Intemperance. 

I. Of the AEls of the Will. 

II. Of the Liberty of the Will. 
in. that the Will muft of Neceffity be indifferent., 

i. e. not forced to choofe Good or Evil. 
IV. H01V the Will is inclined to good things., and 
to Goodnefs in general. 


VI ir. 

IX. Anions of a mixt Nature. 

X. Involuntary., and forced Anions. 

THE moft wife Creator being pleas'd to 
make Man an Animal governable by 
Laws, for this Purpofe implanted a 
Will in his Soul, as an internal Di- 
reftrefsof hisAftionsi that theObjeas being pro- 
pos'd and known, this Power might, by anintnn- 
fick Principle, and without any phyfical Neceffi- 
ty, move itfelf towards them, and might choofe 
that which feem'd moil agreeable and convenient, 
and rejeft that which appeared unfuitable and in- 
commodious. The Will is conccrn'd to govern 
human Aftions by the Adminiftration of two 
'Faculties, by one of which it is faid to ^Qc fpon- 
taneoufly^ and by the other * freely. To Spontanie- 
ty.y if we may fo fpeak, are attributed certain A6ts 
and Motions, of which fomc are interior, com- 
monly call'd » Eliciti, others exterior, generally 
term'd Imperati. The former are fuch A6ts as are 
immediately produced by the Will, and termina- 
ted in the lame Power. Some of thele are em- 
ploy'd about the End, as Volition, Intention, 
•Fruition > others about the Means, as Confent, 
Eleftion, and Ufe. Volition is that A£t of the 
Will by which it is ftmply carried toward fome 
End, without Regard had whether the End be 
prefent or abfent j or that Aft by which the End 
is barely approv'd of Others call this the Will of 
fimple Approbation, by which a Thing is under- 
flood to agree with the Nature and Inclinations of 
fome Perfon, though he has not yet aftually and 

effectually mov'd himfelf towards the producing or 
obtaining t)f it. Intention (or Proarefis) is a De- 
firc efficacious toward the obtaining of an End., or it 
is an A6t of Will, by which it effeftually tends 
toward an abfent End, and endeavours actually to 
produce or to acquire it. This Aft being join'd 
with the Hopes and the Attempts of procuring an 
End, we may eafily conceive what ibrt of Things 
it is employ'd about : and they, to be fure, muit 
be Things pofTible in themfelves, and Things in 
our Power ; as Ariflotle has more largely obl'erv'd. 
Ethic . ad Nicom . Lib .ni.Ch.'iv. EkSiion * is concerned 
only about thofe Things which are in our Power. E~ 
very Man purpofcth to do that alone which he imagines 
'' himfelf able to compafs. Again,L/^.vi. Ch.\\.jf^at 
is already done., cannot be the ObjcU of our Choice and 
Purfuit ; for no Man confult s of what is paji, but of 
what is to come., and is changeable and contingent. 
Whereas what is already done cannot be altered or re- 
called. And therefore Agatho well/ays. This alone is 
bey fid the Power of God himfelf to make that never to 
have been done., which hath really been done. For it 
enters into the very Definition of Intention or 
nQj)xipiaic, that it may be made with Reafon and 
with Thought. Tho' there be many Degrees of In- 
tention, with Reference to its different Height and 
Force ; yet as far as concerns the Occafions and Pur- 
pofes of civil Life, 'tis fufficient to divide it into ple- 
nary and femi-plenary. The former is that by which 
the Will determines on any Thing after a full Ex- 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

« See what is faid about this unprofitable and ill-defigned multiplying of Faculties in the fecond Note of the firft 
Chapter foregoing. 

* Mr. Locke feems to have Reafon to believe^ That Liberty is nothing elfe but a Power properly appertain- 
in'-' to Agents, and not an Attribute or Modification of the Will, which is itfelf nothing but a Power. See his Phi- 
lofophkal^EJfay about the Under/landing, Ch. xxi. where this whole Matter about the Will, and Liberty in general, 
is treated on at large. Mr. Le Clerc, in his Latin Tre.-itife about Spirits, Se,-f. i. Ch. iii. is of the fame Opinion 
with Mr. Locke, "as to the Seat of the Will (as I may fpeak) but he elfwhere enters upon a more particular Mat- 
ter of the Hypothefes of that great Philofopher, and (hews, that his Notions are neither exaft nor Sec his 
Choifie Biblioth. Tom. xii. Art. iii. f. S3, e/c and Tom. xvii. Art. vi. f. 236, 237. 

•The Author makes ufe of the School Diftinftion here, of AS^us Elian ; i.e. Afts fpringing up (as we m.-iy fay) 
from the very Bottom of the Will; which being Terms not ufed in the Frertch Tongue, they are better exprefl'ed by, 

Tht immediate Atls of the Will. . , • , . . .11 

* Our Author in all this (Quotation follows very unfitly fome Latm Tranllation, which had rcnJred the Gree';, 
xfoaiffo-.?, Eleftion, of Deliber.ation, Confultation, or Counfel. ^ ^ __ r r r ■ n- 

' This Writer bein" deceiv'd by the Latin Interpreter, tranflates, i<r« 'ourai k> v«si^ i\ aurts, qut ex Jeje fieri pojje tx- 
ijiimavent; i.e. which he thinks may Le done of themfelves ^ which bein" a Miftake, the E»^li/I> Tr-inflator has truly a- 
voided it, as I have done, by rendiing it, xvhich he believes himfelf able to e.xecme. 


Chap. IV. m it concerns moral Adlions, q t 

amination of the Matter, and without being dri- ^ich a Place, and at fuch a Time We muft add 
ven to It by the Violence of the Paffions. The ferther. That tho' the Reafon," which makes a 
latter, when due Deliberation has not been taken, Thing defined or avoided , does not depend upon 
or when the Hurry of the Affeftions has created the Will, but upon the Condition of the Objed 
a Confufion and Diforder in the Reafon. Fru- according as it bears the Face of Good or Evil \ 
ition ' is the Reft, or the Delight of the Will in yet that Appetite, and that Averfion, which thus 
the End now obtain'd and prefent to it. To which follow the Appearance of the Objea, are not of 
is oppos'd Repentance, or an Averfion (common- fo much Force and Sway, but that there flilj re- 
ly join'd with Shame or Grief) to fomewhat mains in the Will a Liberty, whether or no ic 
which we have before defign'd or affefted. Con- ^all determine itfelf to any external Aft about 
feni is our fimple Approbation of Means, as we fuch an Objeft j efpecially fince fuch an evil 
judge them proper for our Work : And thefe Means, Thing may bear the Countenance of Good, and 
when they areplac'd within our Reach and Power, confequently be defireable, as long as it Ihall be 
imply the two remaining Ads mentioned in our fet in Oppofition to a greater Evil. And there- 
firftDivifion ; for Ekaion determines, and Ufe ap- fore to refute that Notion oi Hobbes^ De Homine 
phes them to the compaffing of the End propos'd. Cap. xi. §. 2. that Appetite and Averfion necelTarily 

Thofe Afts are call'd Imperati^ or enjoin'd, which follow our Pie-conception of fome Pleafure, or of 
are perform'd by other human Faculties upon the fome Uneafinefs hkcly to proceed from the Ob- 
Motion and Appointment of the Will. jeftj no room being thus left for Free-will we 

II. Liberty is a Faculty of the Will, by which, muft carefully diftinguifti the Volition of fimple 

all Requifites of afting being given, it may out of Approbation, from efFeaual Intention or ulo- 

many propos'd Objefts choofe one or more, and aioian ♦, of which the latter does not fo necTf- 

rejeft the reft > or It one only Objea be propos'd, farily depend on particular Obieas In the 

I'^f Wh'J' °^-"°^,^f"^'J,'^> .^y'l"' o[."ot Words following this Afl-ertion, he applies a verj 

do It. What we call the Requifites of aaing, idle Piece of Nicety, while he obferves ThZ 

W^f^Pfl r^n J^^'^^'r'-^r ;•■ ""^^ -^hen'wcfayaManbl^frcePrmofdoingthis'ortbl 

r' n' I \t- ?'?™'"'''°" .^1 V^^- ^^^f. 'I ""' '^^^^ ^^""^y^ "^ mderftand:t Lh LconditioZ 

conceiv d as a Thing, which being added Ifhepleafes, for ^tisabfurdtofaythataMan bafrc 

to the other Requifites, we immediately proceed Will of doing Ms or that, whether he mil or no For 

to Aa.on; and therefore thole Requifites, menti- no Body is foftupid as not to apprehend this Con- 

ondm the Definition of L;^.r/;; do not include trad.aion: And 'tis extream foolifh to add the 

that Share which the Man h.mielf bears in the veiy fame Thing which the Propofition aflerted 

A6tion, but are contra-diftinguifti'd to it. But as a Condition to it. To fay that a Man mav 

more particularly, we call ' theF j^ f choo- freely will the doing of a Thing if he will, is the 

fingone or more out of many Objeas Liberty of fame thing as to fay, Peter runs if he runs: And 

Speaficatton.ox o? Conlrartety and the Faculty con- who would ever give this Claufe the Name of a 

cern d in the Admiffion or Rejeaion of one only Condition ? From what has been faid it likewife 

Objea, Liberty oi Contradiaion.ovUhtxty of Ex- appears, how we are to judge of thofe Notions 

xL, Ti , ■ r M r J J o laiddownbyMonfieurLeGra»^inhisInftitutions 

^0^ Liberty is fuppos d to fuperadd to Sponta- of Philofophy, Parfm. Art. v. as if it were impof- 

neoufiiefs, firft an Indifference of Aas as to their fible for a Man not to defire what he clearly and 

Exercifej fo that the Will is not oblig'd necelTa- diftinaiy perceives to be good ; and as if a Man 

nly to exert one of its Aas, as to defire or refufe: finn'd only upon this Account, in not havine a 

*°''„^'l? '" S^"^""^' ^^ ^^ impoffible but it fhould clear and diftina Perception of Evil ' 
affea Good, and refufe Evil, as/»ch, yet in Refe- HI. But the chief Affeaion of the Will, and 

rence to any particular Objca propos'd, it may what feems immediately to flow from its Nature 

determine on which Side it pleales, tho' perhaps it is an intrinftcal Indifference, upon the Account of 

may feem to have a greater Propenfion toward the which it is not reftrain'd to any certain, fix'd and 

one than toward the other. Another Thing that unalterable way of aaing j and which cannot be 

Liberty iu^ex^dds to the Notion oi Spontaneoufnefs, entirely extirpated by the Force of any external 

is the Freedom of Determination; fo that the Will Means. And this Indifference we are the more 

may, upon an internal Impulle and Motion, exert firmly to affert and maintain, becaufe, upon the 

either ot its Aas of wiihmg or loathing, juft in Removal of it, all the Morality ' of human 

M-. Barb. NOTES. 

» This Term (FrKimn or Enjoyment) is very improper (as any Man may obferve) bec.iufe the Notion of It which 
he here lays down, is the EfFeft of Fruition, and not Fruition itfelf. It is true, that the Latin v/ovd Fruitio comes fome- 
thing near it; but it is very hard to find a word in French (or any other modern Languaoc) fit to exprefs the Moralifts 
Kotion upon which thefe Divifions are built, ^ ^ r 

* See Chup v. §. 5 following. 

» This Diftinftion does not appear to be very necefTary. The Liberty of Contrariety Implies no more than a double Aft 
otthe Liberty of Contradiftion. As for Example, If a Man is to choofe, whether he fhM read Greek ot Hebrew, he con- 
fults with himfelf, I. Whether he (liall read Greek- or no. and refolves in the Negative. Then, i. Whether he fhall 
CA iH'TT->°' ""' '*"'* f''Oo'« the firft. Thts Inftance h taken oHt of Mr. Le Clerc's Latin Difcourfe of Spirit!, Sefl. i. 

* T.h"istofay, Altho' we can't but be fenfible of fuch Impreflfions as particular Objefts make upon us, yet we are not 
necellanly c.irned to fearch for them, or avoid them; but a Man may bv Reafon deny himfelf the Pleafure which the 
Apprehenlion of it may flatter us with, and, on the contrary, expofe hiinfelf to that Grief and Uneafinefs, from which 
he might be exempted without thofe Confiderations, which have induced him to undergo them. See Note 5. upon Ch. v. 
5. 1 3. following. ° '^ 

1 w^ '^^ *""""' *^'^='P"='' ^'^i- 3^- ^"' 4. and Chap.y. §. 13. following. 

We may add to thefe Quotations another Saying of the fame Epiaetus ; AurW a-p.«ipiV.4>5 i yt>iTiu, rtfin®- i y.MT«., 
Ko Man n a Thief or a Tyrant of his own Wilt. See Gataker's Notes Upon Marc. Antoninus, Lib. xi, J, 36. where the Em- 
peror quotes the Words of the fame Philofopher, 

F 2 Aftions 


Of the Will of Man, 

Book I. 

Aftions is inevitably overthrown. Sojirrian on E- 
pEletm^ Lib. i. Ch.xvii. What can overcome an Ap- 
petite? Another Appetite. JV hat can conquer aDeftre 
or anAverfion? Another Defire^ or another Averjion. 
Tou will fay. He that threatens me 'with Death com 

by Fate. For thus Proclus (ad tiitiaum) divides A- 
theills into three Ranks and Orders > two of which 
he makes thofe ivho deny GOD the Care of human 
ASliom and Affairs > and thofe ':xho attribute fich 
a Care to GOD, as impojeth an abfolute Necef- 

pelsme. I deny it; 'tis not the terrible Propofal which fity on all Events, utterly depriving Men of their 
lays the Force upon you, but' tis your oivn Choice idoich Freedom and Choice. So alio Sahift the Philofo- 
inctines you rather to the Commijfion offuch a Deed, pher fpeaks in his Book De DUs ^ Mundo: To at- 

than to the Dcfire of Death. In this Cafe therefore, 
as well as in all others, nothing compelPd you but your 
own Opinion; that is, nothing overcame your Will 
hut your Will. Idem Lib. i. Ch. xxix. The Will is 
not conquerable by any Thing but by itfelf. Add. Sim- 
plic. ad Epi£let. Ch. i. p. 22. Of which wicked De- 
fign thofe Men are in a great meafure guilty, who 

tribute Injufiice, or Luft, and JVantonnefs to the over- 
ruling Influence of Fate , is to make ourfelves good, 
and the Divine Natures wicked. Again, in Plautus 
(Julular.iv. io.)\vhcn one (zys, I believe this was the 
II 'ill of the Gods, for otherwife I am certain it could 
never have come to pafs. Another anfwers him 
merrily, And I, for my part, believe, 'tis the Will 

fanfy fome llrange Kind of phyfical Predetermina- of the Gods, that I fliould take you, and hang you 
tion in human Deeds, by which the Motion in it- up for a Rafcal. 

felfj and as it is a natural Being, is fo determin'd by 
the firliCaufe, that it cannot be done in any other 
Manna- j tho' it afterwards receive its Morality 
from the fecondCaufe. Nor are they in a lefs Fault, 
who from the Divine Prefcience would derive an ab- 
folute Neceflity on all our Proceedings. For tho' 
this Attribute of God cannot be deceiv'd, yet that 
it does not take away the Indifference of the Will, 
may be eafily underftood , if we either clear the 
Word Prefcience from the Imperfeftion which it 
fecms to imply, as do all other Terms taken from 

iV. For the right Underllanding of this Indiffe- 
rence of the Will, fomewhat ought to be premis'd 
concerning the iSlaturc o^ Good in general : Now 
tho' Good by many ' of the Philolophers is con- 
fider'd abfolutely, fo that every Being really exi- 
llent may be pronounc'd Good -, yet we without 
regardmg this Signification, which we judge to 
be very uielefs, will only conlider Good, as it de- 
notes Refpeft to others, and as it is (aid to be 
Good to one, ox for one. According to which 
Senfe the Nature of Good ' fcems to confill in 

human Things, and applied to the Divine Nature that Aptitude, by which one Thing is difpos'd to 

(fincein God there canbe noSuccefTion of Time) 
or if we fay, that the Divine Concurrence does in 
fuch a Manner accompany fecond Caufes, as ifill 
to leave them the Power of afting in the way ori- 
ginally alTign'd them by their Creator, not deba- 
ling them with Reference to moral Acbions from 
principal into meerly inftmmental Cauics. Add. 
Lucia?!, Minoe, S Jupit. Confut. Anton, le Grand Infi. 
Philofoph. Cart. p'.8. Ch.xvii, xviii. How prejudi- 
cial fuch Notions are to a State or Kingdom, Gro- 

benefit, preferve, or compleat another ; becauie 
this Aptitude, depends either upon the Nature of 
the Things themlclves, or inch Properties as they 
have naturally, or by Virtue of human Indullry ; and 
therefore this Good, to which we may give the 
Name of natural , is firm and uniform , and has 
no Dependance on the erroneous and various 
Opinions of Men. But becaufe Good does not ex- 
cite the voluntary Appetite of Man, unlefs it be 
known, at leail under a confus'd Notion ; and be- 

titisxi well aware, when he obferves, Obferv. de caufe Knowledge arifing from Scnfe, gives but a 

Do^at. Reip. Nox. That thofe who utterly difcird 
the DoSrine of Free-will, can hardly avoid making 
GO D the Author of all Wickednefs ; an Attempt 
which ■ Plato himfelf declared ought not to be born 
with in a Commonwealth ; De Repub. Lib. ii. Toiv 
K!tKMV oi/\>C ccrla. Oil ^nleiv TO alrixt a AA' a' 
ToV S-go'i. Wc ought to affi.x any other Caufe of E\n\, 
but never to refer it to GOD. To the fiime purpofe 
Suetonius fpeaks well when he makes Tiberius {Lib. 
Ixix.) aContemner of all Religion, fay, ^uodomnia 
fato agi crederet, for believing the World to be guided 

grofs Reprefcntation of the genuine Natures and 
Confequence of Things , fo that the Underftand- 
ing is often clouded with Error, and diforder'd by 
the violent Noifcs of Senfe and Paflion > hence it 
comes to pais, that many Men inveil things falfly 
with the Name and Notion of Good, and this is 
what we call imaginary Good. And farther, every 
particular Perlbn, as he underftands a Tiling to 
make for his Profit , his Prefervation, or his Per- 
feftion, loves anddefires it ; and, on the contrary, 
what he conceives to be Evil for him, he hates and 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

• The whole Sentence oi Plato, of which our Author cites only the Lift P.-irt, is very ; God, liecatife lie 
is good, can't he the Caufe of ail Things, as' fome ajjert, hut is only the Caiije of fome few Things among Men ; and no Caufe of 
7nany ; for good Things are much feu'er than evil among us, and none can Le the Caufe of good Things but Cod ; hut we muft 
feek out fome other Caufe of Evils than him. Thefe Words are but a little before the Place where tliat Philofopher deli- 
vers the Words which Grofias refers to, xaxav -j alnov, 6cc. We mujl with all Zeal oppofe them who aJJ'ert, That God, who 
is good, is the Caufe of an'j evil: Nor muft it be endured in any well-governed City, that any Manwhatfoever, either young or 
old, no not fo much as a Poet by way of Ftclion, fliould hut lightly, much lefs plainly, either ffeak, or hear any fuch Things, 
as are neither pious, convenient, nor confonant in themfelves to be mention' d, when fpoken. 

* All the Metaphyficians. 

» According to the Definition which Mr. Loch gives of Good ( in his Philofphical Effay upon the Human Underftand- 
ing. Lib. ii. Ch. xx. §. 2.) every Thing is fo called, which is proper to produce and increale Pleafure in us, or to lef- 
fen and fhorten any Grief; or is able to procure or preferve us in the PoU'cffion of any other Good, or a Freedom 
from any Evil. And, on the contrary, every Tiling is accounted Evil^ which is proper to produce or increafe Grief 
in us, or lelTen any Pleafure ; or is able to caufe any Evil to us, or deprive us of any Good. Tliis Definition, which 
refpefts the Eft'ecl chiefly, thai Things good or evil work upon our Spirits, is confcquently more natural than that of 
our Author, which refers to the Difpofitions and Qualities of tlie Objctls, as to the Effect which they produce, with 
relation to the Conftitution of our Nature in general, not diftinftly exprclFing tlic Senle of Pleafure or P.iin, vvhicliin 
all Languages, and in tl'.e Opinion of all Men, are comprehended under the Notion of Good and Evil. In fine, Tho' 
the Pliilofophers diftinguifh ibmetimes between agreeable and profitable, and in fome Cafes thefe two Things maybe 
oppofed one to the otlier, yet 'tis certain that every real Good is both agreeable and profitable, as every real Evil 
is difagreeable and difadvantageous, if not at prefent, yet at leaft in the Confequcnts, and at the End ofa certain Time, 
Set i\'ete 5. of the following Page. 

3 avoids. 

Chap. IV. as it concerns moral Adtions. 

avoids. But as it is not requifite to the Nature of 
Good, and to its Power of moving the Appetite, 
that it fhould be confider'd precifely as Good only 
for the Perfon defiring, and abftrafting from the 
Advantage of others j efpecially fince upon ac- 
count of the Society and Conjundtion of Men, 
the Good of others may redound to our Benefit 
and Uie; lb amongft Mankind there is fo fair an 
Agreement about the general Nature of Good, 
and its chief Parts and Species, that barely on the 
Score of their being divided about feme Particu- 
lars, there's no manner of Reafon either why we 
fhould deny the univerfal, and unfhaken, and 
uniform Notions of Good, or why, in a State of 
natural Liberty, we fliould make it depend on the 
bare Opinion of every private Man, in a State of 
Government on the fole Judgment of the fupreme 
Magiibate, as the only proper Meafures and Rules 
for Its Determination. Add. D. Cumberland, De 
L. N. iii. where he refutes Hobbes's Notions of 
Good, (Jc. Ch. i. §. to. As for the moral Good 
which appears in human Anions, it fhall be difcufs'd 
by and by in its proper Place. 

From the foregoing Obfervations this manifeft- 
ly appears to be the Nature of the Will, that it is 
always defirous ' ot Good in general, and always 
averle to Evil in general : For it implies an open 
Contradiftion, * not to incline towards that which 
feems agreeable, and to incline to that which feems 
difagreeable to us. And therefore in this general 
Inclination of the Will there can be no Indiffe- 
rence admitted, as if it could (with the Appetite 
of fimplc Approbation) fometimes defire Good 
and fometimes Evil. But they are the particular 
Goods and > Evils, which give room for the In- 
difference of the Wills of particular Men, who at 
different Times, and upon different Occafions, 
are very various in their Scents and Purfuits. And 
there is this evident Reafon why it fhould be fo, 
becaufe there are fcarce any Goods or Evils which 
appear to a Man in their native Colours, and 
without fuffering any Mixtures, but commonly 
they are blended and ihufHed together ; Good is 
adulterated with Evil, and Evil is fweetned with 
'' Good} to which, if we add the flrange Incli- 
nation which we find to fome good Things in 
particular Perfons, and how all Men have not the 
Ability to diftinguifh folid and durable Enjoy- 
ments, from thofe which are ' only painted and 


tranfitoryj we fhall fee how there muft needs a- 
rife hence an infinite Variety in the Wills and In- 
clinations of Men; and how all purfue what they 
think their own good, but in different Paths and 
by different Means. Befides, many Men do not 
know what Things are good for them, and there- 
fore do not defire them ; many more prefer the 
fair Face and Semblance of Evil to real and fubftan- 
tial Good, and lb rcjed what they ought to de- 
fire, and defire what they ought to rejedt. To 
which purpofe Ariflotlc well obferves, Ethic, ad 
Nicom. Lib.'m. Th-xt to be defireable by the 
Will, /imply and properly [peaking, which is truly 
Good, but that/o be dc fir cable by every particular Man 
which he imagines fo. What Gunther writes to Li' 
gurinus may be here applied, Lib.m.'ver.z'is). 

Tanlum falfa loquendo 

Falkre nemo potefi : verifub imagine falfum 
Influit, S fmtim deceptas occupat aures. 

When Falfhood bare and undifguis'd appears. 
It never can deceive : but when it wears 
The Garb of Truth, it cheats the heedlefs Ears. 

Thus then in almoft every Thing and every 
Aftion many Species of Good and Evil, both real 
and apparent, croud themfelves into our Thoughts, 
and when thefe have for fome time variouily agi- 
tated the Mind, and driven it one while to favour 
one, and one while another, at lall the Will by an 
intrinCcal Force determines itfclf to the embra- 
cing of one Objcd, and difcarding the reft. And an 
Action perform'd in this Mannei, is call'd fponta- 
neous or voluntary, which Ariftotle thus defines, 
Ejhu. ad Nicom. Lib. ni. Ch.m. Jo Uiaiov H^eav 
av direct, a f, dp^h ^ ajoTcfi, e^oVi ra xaB' 
ixasa d* o;s r\ ir^^ii. T'hat is to be ejleemed fpon- 
taneous,the Principle of which is in the Perfon ailing.^ 
who likewife imderftands the Particulars in which the 
AUion confifts. Euftratius comments on this Place 
to this purpole : Both thefe Conditions are necejjary 
to the conflituting a fpovtaneous AElion, that the 
Principle be in the Aitor, and that the Aclor know 
the Particulars. For he that acts out of Ignorance 
has the Principle of aSling in himfelf; and he that 
knows the Particulars, may yet a£l by the Conpul- 
fionof others. And therefore ncitherof thefe Condi- 
tions by itfelf can make a Thing properly voluntary. 

Mr. Barb. NOfES. 

' This is wliat is implied by that common Maxim, That all Men natxrally and unrnoveably defire the'ir own Happ'mefs ■ 
for true Happinefs conlifts not only in the Enjoyment of all good Things, of which they are cipable^ but in a Free- 
dom from all Evil ; the leaft Pain being fufficient to mar our greatell Pleafure. 

' The Quotations Vv'hich are annexe(5 by the Author a little lower {viz.. at the End of the Paragraph in the Englifli 
Tranflation, and are noted by a,b,c) are more properly to be put in here, and efpecially the lall of them. I (hall 
add, upon this Occafion, a PalTage out of the Emperor Marc. Antoninus, Uuc, vz ^l^'"' 'Vi,&c. Is it not a cruel Thine to 
hinder Men jrom furfuing Things, -which they believe to be ufefiii and agreeable to them! Lib. vi. §. xxvii. See Gataker's 
Notes upon the Place, where he has gathered feveral Sentences out of anticivt Writers to the fame Purpofe. 

' Such are all thofe that concern tlus Life. 

•* Every Objetft (lays this Author in \\ii Abridgment of the Duties of a Man and Citizen, Lib. i. Ch. i. §. ii.) makes 
oifferent Imprellions, as it works upon Man in different Places : As for Example, Some work upon him by way of 
Eftecm, or according to the great Value he has for himfelf Other affeift the Senles with Pleafure; and move him by 
Selt-love, which engages him upon Self-prefervation. He looks upon the firfb as honeft and convenient; the 
fceond, as luitable; and the laft, as profitable. Every one of thefe Goods in particular draws him with more or lefs 
Violence, according as the Imprellions, which it makes upon the Heart, are more or lefs ftrong. See Note 3. of the 
foregoing Page. 

' Mr. Locke in his Phil. Ejfay of Hwman Underfianding, Lib. ii. Ch. xxi. §. 58. fpcaks well to this Purpofe ; The 
prefent Jiiigment of Good or Evil, -juhich -we make, is alzfays right. Indeed, Things cor.jidcred as we atlually enjoy them, 
are what they fecm to be, Jo that in this Cafe, Good apparent and real are the fame thing; for Grief and Pleafure being efteem- 
ed fo as we feel them, and no more ; the Good or Evil frefcnt is really no greater than it appears : and, by Consequent, if 
fVery one 0} our AcTions be rcfpeiled in itfelf, without any regard. to its Confequences, ive can never miftake in our Choice of 
Good, but muft always injaUtbly adhere to the better Part. Compare thefe Words with what goes before and follows^ 
where that great Philofopher clears this Matter with much Soliditv and Exadncfs. 

.,-! V. But 

g Of the mil of Man, Book I. 

V R„t it doesnotalwavs falloutthat theMind of Conftimtions, the Will fometimes feems un- 
A'^^nTiST^qmB^^^^^^ able to hinder their Exiftence, or thexr brealang 

tf,n^^^^oi'^lt^a:^'^l without any confide- out into Adion, yet it may fo fa,, as to 

to difable its Powers, As the Manner does no And thus /-W d Ipwe , . ^^^^ ^^ 

jlways cut the Sea «■* - eve" nnd^F°|^-u „ ^Sdlthe Cam State, they might yet 
Gale, but fomctmies oppos d by furious winas, ^ , „ bv the Laws, if rightly fram'd and 
he hardly holds the Helm, and fomaimcs being "^ lupp«" "V "= ^ '^ J^ , ^ ^^ - j f 

violentl/ftaken outof his S=Y;"'!|S°S'™"i hTtlt, ,,f CVS othershaveJclL'd 

he is obhg'd to commit his Veffl to the Rage of ^™' ™«';^_^ ^^^,.^,„ Manners and Inclinations 

theTempelt. „i,u :,, /ifrhefeveral Aees of Life: Thus, for Example, 

Among the Things then which a^^^^^^^^^ "f^ d Men are fSlently iuclinM to Comouiifs, 

^^l^'-^^rXi^^ ™' SSMns of their NerghSours." A5d. 

^^t^l^rf^htNatur^oftheClin^eand «»'• ^-/Sg^: inclines the Willve- 

ol the Soil, as Lucm. Ui. vni. »r. 566. fpealcs, ^^^^'„,i^,°romeparticular Adions, is the frequent 

Emollif gentes dementia caeli, Repetition and Cuftom ot thofe Aftions ; whence 

The Heavens fweet Clemency it comes to pafs that they are undertaken very free- 

1 ne Heavenb iwcct v^icm j r Difpatch, and that when the 

Softens the Tempers of the Men. ly -d -^l^^g'^^Vents^tfelf/the Mind feems, by a 

And Herodot Calliop It is the fettled Appointment kind of Magnetifm, to be drawn towards it * . And 

fflSr L/^^^ breed foft Men, and thefe Inclinations being join'd with an exceeding 

hatt flThlMIhouU never be famous for the Defire and Dexterity ot pais conrimonly 

ExJif^/^r/z^rFrL, and for the Vigour of the under the Name of Habjts, which, as they are 

iSS/ To which zddCharron de la Sagejje, concern'd about moralJclms, either good or e- 

TihVch^Xn )from the Temperature of Humours vil, are call'd either Virtues or Vices. There s 

Lib A Ch^^n.) ti om t'le i empeiai no Reafon why we fhould tire ourfelves to reckon 

The'^DTt^tSHr^^^^^^^ u fhefeaccorLgtotheirfaUTaleandNumber, 

partS PerfonsTfrom the Conformation of thofe fince moft Authors who have hitherto profeffedly 

Sai^i which the S^ul employs i treated of moral Ph.lofophy, have fimfied the 

Dude?' .^d from the hke CauL ^ Concerning mam Part of their Bufinels and of their Science 

Swhurhkmuft be m general aflerted, That none difcharg'd, by explaining only the eleven Words 

of Them asX bebn^g to the Produdion of a that ftand for fo many Virtues. It will fufhce o 

mo al A'aTon al-e of ff great Force and Vehe- obferve in general, that thofe Difpofitions of the 

mence as to ender k impoflible for the Will to Mind are Virtues by a Man is inclm d to 

uk^ the contr"rv Side ^ And tho' ' as to fome Adions making for the Prefervation of himfelf, 

paicicular rpiJ^e^s'arifing from the Difference and of human Society, and that thofe on the 

' Add. Hobbi de Ho?mne. Ch. xiii. 8c Bacon De Augment. Scknt. Lib. iv. Ch. i. 
tton, mayattaiv. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

' A little Ci>e -indDili''ence(adds this Author elfewheie) feldom fnils of taming, and confidei-ably amending thef= 
intuial Diflofitons iu 1 fon etimes it doth not peffeftl/ fucceed, it at leaft prevents the Comm.iLon o^. f"ch out- 

. d Aa as r puninwble in the civtl Judicatory, and the Difficuky which we find ,n conquenng thefe kmd of In- 
clinations, i^ abun'damly recompenfed bj the HoAour confequent upon fuch a Vflory. The Duty of a Man and Cm- 

*'"'stfrJ;.'fwods fi-nlfy no more than this, as Charpenuer has very well tranflated them ; /M. my Of.nion. that all 

not fuffer us to doubt that this is Socrates's Meaning. So that thefe Words are nothmg to the Puipol. ot our Authoi, w no 
be nl deceived by the Latm Tranflation, thought tty fignified, 1, » my Opinion that all Vmuesmay be '^^fh^Z't... 
hlCclTp xiii. of Tome i. of Mr. B^y/.'sAnfwer t"o the d^eftions of a Provincial, where you 11 hnd fome cur ous 
PtfTaees abou't tie Power of the Conftitution. But if we refleft ferioufly upon this Matter, we muft acknowledge 
fh\tlofe over whom Nature has fuch an abfolute Command, are commonfy hich Men as will take l.ttle or no Pams 

o conquer tIeiilncUnations, or have taken no proper Methods to do it. Thefe depraved Inclmations are a kmd of 
naturaSemper, yet not altogether incurable, as 0«r. very well obferyes who alleges ^""'^^le Example to th.s 
Pupot ir that of 6.c.^r«, wto freely confeded, that he naturally inclined to thofe Vices which a Phyfiogno- 
^X maed 1 in, as guilty of, but that he conquered them by the AlMance of Reaion : 0..r. s Word are e^ 
.r LSri Tmntur laemd] V.. Such Perfonsas are faU to be by Nature pafflonr.te, meraful, env,ous, ortheUkeare 
TZ"ebrfom e^^^^^^ ^f he Mmd, but are curJble ; as Socrates i.>./, ^'he. Zopyrus, who profeffed h,mfilf to 

i„r/w. Z«'7L3-'^y tlA^ure ofh.s Face, had ,n a ,rea, Ajfemhly loaded hnn wnh manyVuesJor Mheu,as 

luMahyaUthereft-, bit Socrates cleared h.m of any Miftake. by faymgthathe had once fuch Incl.nat.ons.buthe had 

tdii^neaatvyaii,imn.ji,<^» r ^ n <, ■ (-t xxxvii See a fo the fame Author concerning f<irc. Chap. v. 

mafiered them perfectly by hit Reajon, Tufc. i^uaslt i.j&. iv. u«. xxxvu. occ .■■ A„,h„r fiipak-t in Tn<: Abridpment 

^ We may add. Or tf tt beahjent.n hopes for_ it with very great Exfeflatm ; as oui Author Ipeaks m h.s Abridgment 

of the Dutiti of a Man und Clt\:.eni &.c. Lib. i. Ch. i. J. 5j '3- 


Chap. IV. as it concurs to moral Adions. 

contrary are Vices, which addi£t us to Aftions 
deftruftive of oui-felvcs, and of the Community 
to which we belong. And here Mr. Hobbes muil 
fall under Cenfure for that Allertion in his Book 
DeHomine^ Ch.y^m. §. p. where he declares, that^ 
except in civil TJfe^ there can he no common Meafure 
found out applicable to Virtues and Vices^ and that, 
confequently , in a State of Nature there can be no 
fuch Meafure ejiablifl:''d^ by whicb^ as by a Standard^ 
thofe 'things ivhich ive call Virtues and Vices may be 
fettled and determined. For the Definition which 
we but now fet down, will reach even to a natu- 
ral State : and whatever Things are enjoin'd as 
Virtues in civil Communities, ought to agree to 
that Definition} and if any Things fhould be or- 
dain'd contrary to it, they ought to be reckon'd 
ablurd and unreafonable Commands. 

The Diverfity which appears in the Laws of fe- 
veral different Communities' ,does not hinder, but 
that there may be Ibme univcrfal and uniform De- 
finition of the Virtues. For this Diverfity either 
is concern'd about fuch Things as are plac'd with- 
out the Sphere of natural Laws, or it arifes from 
hence. That what is really a Precept of the Law of 
Nature, is in one Place inverted with the farther 
Force of a civil Law, and in other Places not} or 
laftly, it is an Evidence, that fome Legiflators, in 
framing their Edifts, were not befiiended by good 
Reafon. Of which we fliall have more to fay by 
and by \ 

Farther, tho' Vices and ill Manners confirm'd 
by long Ule and Habit, feem to pafs into a kind 
of fecond Nature, fo as not to be without great 
Difiiculty refilled, as Calpurnius Placets fpeaks, 
Declam. ii. f-Vhen Modejly bath once lofi its Influ- 
ence^ no Ruin^ no Horror appears deform d to 
Minds bent upon Wickednefs; and Lucian againft 
an unlearned Man, J Dog that is accujlomcd to eat 
Tfipes, can hardly be brought off from it, (Add. Ba- 
con's EJays, Ch. xxxvii) yet Aftions proceeding 
from them ought neverthelefs to be reputed volun- 
tary. And altho' Aftions which precede any Ha- 
bit, and by which it is introduc'd, are undertaken 
with a fuller Intention, and with a more urgent 
Endeavour, than thofe which are pcrform'd after 
the Habit has been contra£tcd, when as it were 
without ftaying for the Command of the Will, 
the other Faculties rufii fwiftly upon the Objeft ; 
yet neither the Goodneis norPravityof theAftions 
feem upon this Account to be at all diminifh'd. 
For 'twould be a Thing of very ill Confequence, 
if a good A£lion were therefore to be reckon'd 
Icfs good, becaufe it has been often repeated, or if 
a Man were to be efteem'd lefs a Sinnci-, becaufe 


he had f^^equently finn'd. EfpecialK-, fince every 
Man IS the Caufe of his own obtainin<T a Habit 
or of his afting fo fuddenly and expeditioufly yf- 
riftotk has an Obfervation very clofe to this pur- 
pofe in his Ethicks to Nicom Lib. iii. Ch. viii. 

il<Hi. Tup /j,iv yap sresl^icriv avr' ap;^5 pi^i^^Qjt., 
TgA8; WQ/.o( ia/LAZv, ei^Tii TO xa9' hxTcc- T 

?^i y'^^f^®^-> ^°'^^? ^ ccfpccgtSv. aAA' oTl i(p 

l>c8o-(oi. ^£iions and Habits arc not fpontaneous in 
the fame Manner-^ for as to our JSiions we are Ma- 
flers of them from the Beginning to the End, becaufe 
we undcrjland all the Circumftances that belong to 
them : but of Habits the beginning only is properly in 
our Power, continual Additions being beyond our 
Knowledge or Prevention, juft as it happens in the 
Increafe of Diftempers. But 'becaufe we had original- 
ly the Power of doing fo, or otherwife, therefore the 
Habits likewife are to 'be conftrued as fpontaneous, up- 
on account of the Principle whence they fpring. On 
which Place Eufiratius thus defcants } H^e have a. 
Command only over the Beginnings cf Habits, not o- 
ver their Increafe or their End. For the Progrefs 
and Improvement of them is unperceiv'd and unre- 
garded, while they rife and advance by fiknt Degrees; 
.whence it happens, that fome Men run deeper now 
and then_ into Wickcdnefs and Vice than they intend- 
ed \ This may be feen particularly in Drunkennefs 
and Uncleannefs, in which Men fometimes go];i<r on 
freely and heedlefly, as if it were left to our Pkafure 
whether we foould get a Habit or no, by a Continu- 
ance of bad Praaice, contrast a Habit before they are 
aware. Nor is it in Vices only that the Additions 
and Augmentations are undifcover" d, but in Virtues 
likewife the Advances are made by fuch fecret Steps 
that a Man may fooner obferve his own Proficiency 
than he can know how he came by it. ''. 

VIL Thofe Motions of the Mind which they 
call PafTions or Affeftions, chiefly excited by the 
Appearances of Good and Evil, have likewife a 
great Force in driving the Will violently to fome 
certain A61 ions, befides their ill Influence on the 
Judgment, which they frequently cloud and ob- 
fcure \ How many thefe are, by wliat Means 
they are either rais'd or allay'd, and what Ufe 
and Service they have in Life, is moft excellently 
fliewn by Des Cartes '■ and his Follower Le 
Grand'; to whom maybe added Mr. Hobbes "*. 
It is enough to our Defign, if we only remark, 
that however violent the Afte£i:ions may prove, they 
can never quite extinguifh the Force of our Will. 

» Pindar in liis Olymp. Od. vii. ver. 55. fays, «'< ^ (p^imv, A troubled Mind -betrays into Millake the wifeff Headi 
b Cartes de P.iffion. §.50. ^ J j j «<«^. 

t Le Grand. Inft. Phil. Cartef. f. 7. Ch. i.v. 
A Leviath. Ch. vi. cr de Hom'.ne, Ch. xii. 

Mr. Bare. NOTES. 

' Sec what I have faid in my Preface, §. 3. 
' See Book viii. Chap. i. 

» The natural Confequence of this is, that we nuifl ever omit, and avoid, whatevef has the leaft Tendency in the 
World to engage us in an ill Cuftom. See what I have faid iji my Treatife of Games, Lib. ii Ch iii §. 2 

■* See the Author's Abridgment of the Duties of a Man and Citiz.en, Lib. i. Ch. i. «. xiii. 'and what he' ihy; in the 
loUowing Chapter, §.13. ' 


.Q Of the Will of Man,\^. \^. BookI.^ 

But thiit M^^ of ^^^^ "weakeji Souls may obtain ' an ert rheir Force j and unlcfs thcfe are diligently 

abfolute Command over their * Pafions, if they ufe a kept under, the avW<tl oi^ion or Confent certain- 

Jufficient Diligence in managing and direSling them, as ]y follows, when the Power of the Soul, which 

Des Cartes has prov'd '. Ovid's Medea put a' was conflituted for the governing and rellraining 

Cheat upon herfelf, when {he faid, of the AfFeftions, idly lets go the Reins, and per- 

„ , , • • •, » «• mits itfclf to be drage'd by thofe it ouehttotruide. 

Sedtrahit invitam* nova Vis. ^,^*'-^^ , ^f, ■' .^ r . u ^ i 

u(r«f'£W" rpj^ij avfKccTci^iaii ihen, or Conient, he declares 

efpecially fince fhe acknowledges, that the Judg- to be voluntaiy, and to be perform'd at the free 

ment of Reafon oppos'd her Paflion. Plealure of Man : But he tells us farther, than 

alitid^ue aipido f''°'" diligent Attention and Exercife, but more 

Mens aliudfuadet, video meliora^oque , facially from the M^ .Spirit of God fuffiaent 

Deteriorafequor.--- Metam vii. Ip, &c. Affiftance may be obtain d even agamlt thefc firft 

■' ^ Motions (which the Philolophers compare to the 

'T\\tOh^tx\'ztior\o£Groti!ts on Matthew twinkling of the Eyes) fo as to hinder them 

is very applicable to our pi elentPurpofe: He con- from any long Continuance , or any forcible * 

fiders three dillinct Things in Anger, the na9©. Sway. 

or AfFedion, the 'O^fM or Impetus, and the Befides, that Man is arm'd by Nature with 

a'J\y.a.ld^imi or Confent. The Ilafi©- or Facul- fome peculiar Inftruments for moderating the 

ty, enabling us to be angry, being implanted in us Paffions, and that he is engag'd by a ftrifter Ne- 

by Nature, cannot be extirpated ; but it fhould be ceffity to reftrain them, in as much as he incurs a 

rank'd among thofe indifferent Things which we far greater harm to his Health and Life from their 

may make either a good or a bad Ufe of '. But Violence and Rebellion, has been fully made out 

becaufe that Part of the Mind where the Tla-dn by Dr. Cumberland ^ To conclude this Point, 

or Paffions are feated, is in itfelf irrational, hence fince fome of the Paffions are excited by the Ap- 

it comes to pafs, that without expefting the Judg- pearance of Good, others by the Appearance of 

ment of Realbn, the'Ojj/^ai or fudden SaUies, ex- Evil, and accordingly fpur us on toward the pro- 

» Senec. de Ira. II. iv. b De L. N. Ch. ii. §. z6, 27. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

* This wholly depends upon our Endeavours timely to conquer thefe dangerous Enemies. 'Tis a known Speech of 
Ovid's, Remed. Amor. ver. 91, 92. 

Pnncipiis ohfla : Sero Medicina paratur, Oppofe beginnings: Med'cine comes too late. 

Cum mala per longas irtvaluere moras. When long Delays have haften'd on our Fate. 

Indeed, as Mr. Montagne fays {EJJayi, Lib. iii. Chap, xiii.) if a Man looks clofely into the Motions and Circumftances of 
his Paffions, which prevail ufually upon him, he may obferve how they come, and abate a little of their Furiouf^ 
nefs and Courfe. They don't fali upon him all of a fudden, and, as I may fay, take him by the Throat, but they 
threaten, as it were, and creep on him by Degrees. Seneca has fome fineReffedions of this Nature, which I can't pafs 
over without Notice (Epiji. cxvi. at the End, and De Ira Lib. ii. Ch. xii, xiii. which deferve alfo our Perufal) Scis 
quare non poffumus ifta > iS^uia nos pojfe non credimus, crc. Do you know why we can't command our Paffions ? 'Tis becaufe 
we can't believe we can. There': more in't. We love our Vices heartily, and therefore we become the Defenders of them, 
and of banijhing them, we do all we can to excufe them. Nature has made us able enough to rejiji them, and to fret 
ourfelvei from their Dominion, if we would make ufe of our Forces, if we would rally them, and employ them wholly in our 
own Caufe, or at leaft would not turn them again/l eurfelves. Our only Hindrance is, we will not, and the Inability that 
we plead is a vain Pretence. There is nothing Jo hard but the Mind of Man may compafs and acciiftom itfelf to it, ly fre- 
quent and daily Meditations. There is no Paffion fo fierce and commanding, but Education and Care can tame. The Soul 
can govern itfelf as it pleafes. Some have found out a Way to reftrain Laughter altogether, others have forborn IVine, Venery, 
and all forts of Drinks ; others have accuftomed themfelves to long and aimoft perpetual Watching, tinlejs with Slumbers for a 
fmall Moment; others have learned to dance upon a Rope, to carry vaft Burdens, which have feemed 10 be above all human 
Abilities, and to dive very deep into the Sea, and flay a long time without breathing. See wliat Ihall be f.tid on Chap. v. 
§. 13. Note 6. & Hefiod de Oper. & Dieb. ver. 290, &c. Edit. Cleric. 

» That is to fay (as our Author fpeaks in his Apology, §.22.) at leaft, that they do not produce any Adion that 
is punifhable in human Judicatures. Indeed if we examine all the Laws of the World, we fhall rind none that whol- 
ly excule Offences committed in a violent Padion ; an Evidence, that all Legiflators fuppofe, that it is in the Power 
o^ a Man to reftrain his Paffions. ./^ri/Zc''" has obferved the fame Thing in thefe Words, TmsTOi? i' 'imy.!. Sec. To thefe Things 
agree not only what's done privately by every one, but what's done by L.iw-gners themfelves, who pnni/l) and corretl all forts 
of Offences, except fuch as are done through Force or Ignorance, of which they are not the Cauje. Ethic, ad Nicom. Lib. iii. Ch. vii. 

' Did. loc. Art. v. Sc Cicero Tufc. (^e&. Lib.iv. Ch.xiv. fpeaks thus. All Difeafes and Difturbances of Mind arife from 
the Scorn andthe Kegled of Reafon. 

'* There is a in Xenophon'sCyropidia, i.e. the Book of Cyrus' % Education, which contains fome notable Reflec- 
tions to this Purpofe : " A Mede, named Arafpes, maintains there. That Beauty has no Force naturally to incline a Man 
" to depart from his Dirrj', whether he will or no; for if it were fo (adds he) it would have the fame Effeft upon all 
" Men, as Fire burns every one that comes near it. But we fee that fome .ire affefted with Beauty, and fome not; 
" one loves one Beauty, and another, another. In a word, 'tis a voluntary Thing, and every one loves whom he 
" pleafes. A Father does not fall in Love with his Daughter, nor a Brother with his Siitcr : Fear and Law rcilrain us from 
" entertaining a Defire of fuch Perfons as others love. Whereas were tiiere a Law ftriftly forbiddin" Men not to be 
*' hungry, becaufe they have nothing to eat ; or not to be thirfty, becaufe they liave nothing to drink ; nor to feel 
" Cold in Winter, and Heat in Summer; no Man would obey fuch a Law, becaufe 'tis above theirPowerto doit. But 
" Cyrus objefted to this Aftertion, If it be in our Power to love or not, w'hy can we not ceafe to love as we pleafe > 
" How comes it to pafs that Love tyrannizes over fo many Men, who facrifice all to that Paflion, and put themfelves 
" upon a thoufand mean Actions to pleafe the Objeft loved ! What is it that makes their Chains fo flrong, and m.ikes 
" them avoid all Means that may free them from their Slavery ! Arafpes anfwers. They are Men of vicious and loofe 
" Tempers, lazy Souls, and Slaves to their Appetites, whotho' they wifh a thoufand Times that Death might deliver 
" them from their Torments, yet they have not Courage to undertake it themfelves, tho' nothinij were more eafy, 
" it they defired it. Men of this fort fcruple not to thieve to fatisfy tiiemfelves, and as they are in the Judgment of all 
" the World punifhable, becaufe nothing could force them to rob another, fo we may fay, that the faireft Counte- 
" nance does not force a Man to love it, orfeek that which he ought to abftan from. So that a Man who gives himfelf 
" up to his Lufts, without Referve, abfurdly accufes Love of conftraining them, when as indeed 'tis nothing but his 
" own Weaknefs. Such as itand upon their own Honour and Integrity are fubjecl: to thefe Affeftions, as well as o- 
" thers, they love Money, fine Horfes, and handfome Women, but they eafily pafs tiiem by when they can't be at- 
" tained without a Crime." 'This is the Subftance of Xenophon's Words, K«i i ...sno-x®- 'Acutrztin, &c. Xen. de Inftit. Cyr. 
Lib.v. Chap.'i. §. 5, o, 7. Edit.Oxon. Sec alfo Chap. ii. Pag. 19. Note 2. 

« See Seneca of Anger, Lib. ii. Ch. iii, 4. 

- curing 

C H A P. IV. as it concurs to moral Anions. 41 

curing the one, and avoiding the other: This dif- Motion, and by thefc Means lendeis AJcn ex- 

feience is obfcrvablc between them ; that the for- Ireamly prane to Lull in the fiilt Place Propert. 

mer Kind afford little or no Excufe, if any Thing Lib.'w.El. g.vcr. 6. 

be done otherwife than it ought to be, by then- _ p^^^ ^^^^^ 

Inftigation; but the latter deierve the greater De- ■^ • 
grec of Favour and Pardon, according as tlie • Her Sparks file doubles in her Drink, 
thrcatning Evil which excited thcni was more un- 
grateful to human Nature. For 'tis much eafier to and not much lefs to Anger and Ralhnefs: Upon 
want a Good, not neceffary to the Prefervation of which Account Lycurgas us'd to call Wine an e\ii 
Nature, than to admit an Evil tending to theDe- Potion (or a magick Draught) becaufe it chang'J 
ffrudtion of our Nature : Whatever ^r<7?o//6' ^ has and turn'dMens Minds. Hygln. Fab. cxxxii. Jfo- 
affirm'd to the contrary in that Maxim of his, "''^t- ad Demonic. The Mind^ when debauch'' d with 
XaAevrwrJeP" ''^o''? M-cix^'^i^ "^ ©t^aa, ' It's Liquor^ is intbe fatne Condition as a Chariot thai 
harder to refejl Pleafure than Anger. When a Man ^-'^^' ^oft its Driver: The latter is not more fatally hur- 
has done an ill Aftion out of Obedience to an itch- ''^'^^■^ 'ni" Danger.^ than the former into Sin. And for 
in^^Luft, he is fuppos'd for the fake of the prefent '^he fame Reafon the Crctians rcceiv'd this, among 
Pleafure, voluntarily to run the Hazard of bearing other^Laws, of their flimous Minos^ M^ a-JiJi.'Tn 
whatfoever Evil may thence enfue; and therefore mv ccAPiriXon a^^u^-, Not to drink tvithone an- 
whcn he has alieady had the Enjoyment, which other fo far as to Diforder and Excefs. Among the 
he thought equivalent to the Evil that might arife Indians Drunkennels lies under the heavieil "Cen- 
from it, he cannot upon any Pretence plead for the furc, being rank'd in the Number of their five moft 
Mitigation of that Evil. But he that has done a- heinous Sins, which are laid to be thele : i.To lie 
mifs upon the Fear of an impending Evil, has all the tvith one's Mother^ which takes in both a Mother 
Infirmity of human Nature apologizing and inter- inLaw, andthe Wifeofa Mafler or Teacher. t.To 
ceding in his Behalf, fince the only Caufe of his M/^Brachman. 3. ToftealGold. 4. To be drunk. 
Mifcarriage was his being willing to admit what f. To converfe and keep Company with Per fans guilty of 
he imagin'd to be the leall of the Evils likely to any of thefe Crimes \ Mahomet too, under theNo- 
befal him. Butof thofe Cafes we fiiall hereafter tion of Religion, found Means to prohibit his Peo- 
have a larger Field to confider and determine, viz. pie the Ufe of Wine, tho' they were natuially 
in Z./^.viii. Chap. iii. §• ip, ii- more addifted to it than moft other Nations K 

VIII. Laflly^ The Vice ' of Drunkennefs is a Whofoever is voluntarily guilty of this Vice 

great Inciter of the Will to fome particular Kinds fince he knew, or at leaft might prefume what 

of Adions j and this is procur'd either by Drink, Effefts would follow it, can with no more Rea- 

or by fome other Sorts of Fumes, or by Opium, fon defire to be freed from the Imputation of 

a Thingof fo univerfal Ufe in the EafternWorld, Faults committed under its Guidance, than he 

the Effed of which is, that it difturbs and drives can with a good Grace complain of a Shower of 

along the Spirits of the Blood with a moft violent Rain falling into his Houfe, when he himfelf 

» EtWic. Nkom. Lib. a Ch. ii. ^ Plato, Minoe. Add. Plin. Lib. xiv. Ch. xxii. Arijloph. Vefp. Drunkennefs is all Mif- 
ehief and all Terror : It tears down Gates and Doors, and defies Ofpofition. And then •jou pay for it doubly the next Mof-ii- 
i»g> in y""" Poi^ket and in your Head. 

f^ Manil. Aftron. Lib, \.zz6. Ar deficit vitio vitium, virefque tninifirat 

Bacchus, c? in flamma fisvas exfufcitat iras. 

One Vice adds Fewel to another's Fire, 

And Bacchus makes their Fury blaze the higher. 

Mr. Creech. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

* Our Author nlight have obfervcd, that Ariftotle contradifts himfelf, for elfewhere he thus fpeaks, -^ciMxt^Tiptf <S, 
&c. It is harder to hearGriefi, than to ahfiain from Pleafure, Lib.Wi. Ch.x'n. See alfo the Beginning of Chap, xv and Lib. 
■vii. Ch. vii. where he maint.iins, that Intemperance is more voluntary and fliametul than the Tranfports of An-rer. 
Muretus endeavours to prove the Truth of the firft of thefe contradiftorv Propofitions in his pofthumous Comments, 
printed at Ingolftadt, 1601, but his Reafons are very vifeak ; and I don't obferve that he fpeaks any Thing about thofe 
Places that I fhall quote prefently, to reconcile them with that he was treating of. He had a good Opportunity, and 
I doubt not but he might have prevented fo palpable a Contradiftion. All that can be (aid for Arifiotle is, that after 
he had advanced fuch a Paradox, he thought it ncceflary to maintain his Propofition, and forgetting himfelf, reafon'J 
at length from the Light of common Senfe and Experience; for the Pliilofophers hold this as a conftant M.ixini, That 
he that yields to Pleafure is more to blame than he that is overcome vjith Grief, becaufe 'tis eafier to conquer the firfi than the 
laft. Ariftotle does but repeat what his Mafter Plato aflerted before him. A &. NJj i» ^onsv., 6cc. Ath. Shall we 
jay that he is worfi who is conquered by Grief, or by Pleafure ? Cl. He jcems to me worfe who is conquered by Pleafure, for 
Tve all agree, that he who is conquered by Pleafure is fiiamefully baffled by himfelf, but the former is vanquifiied by grief. To 
this we may add the Authority of the Imperial Philofopher Marcus Antoninus, Lib. ii. Ch. x. where he thus fpeaks: 
Theophraftus, in his Comparifion of Crimes, follozving the comm.on Opinion, determines as a great Philofiophcr, That thofe 
which come from Luft, are greater than thofe that proceed from Anger ; for thofe that are moved by Anger feem to 
aft againft Reafon, contrary to their Purpofe, and with a fecret Remorfe ; but they that follow their Lufts, and are 
conquered by their Pleafure, appear more intemperate, and efieminate in their Faults. So that it is with great Rea- 
fon and Truth, which is an Honour to Philofophy, that he adds. The Crime that is done with Pleafiure, is gre.>.ter and 
more funifijable, than that tvhith is committed with Sorrow and Grief. Indeed he that is angry refembles a Man, who 
having received an Offence, is provoked by Grief to revenge himfelf, whereas the Voluptuary is moved by his own 
P.a(fion to do an Injuftice for his own Satisfaftion. See further what is faid on Chap. vi. §. 14. Note 4. 

* This Author elfewhere joins thofe fort of Vices, which deprive us of the Vis of our Reafon, cither for a Time, 
or for the reft of our Life. But, to fpeak truly, the Effeft of thofe Vices, as well as Drunkennels, is not (b much 
to incline the Will to certain Things, as entirely to dertroy the Principle of human .'Vdioiis, becaufe in tl;at a Man 
knows not what he does. Titius Obf. xxxvii. upon Pufendorf 0/ ?Wi' Duty of a Man and Citi~eii, Chap. i. J. 15. 

' See what is related in the Univerfial Library, concerning the Inhabitants oi Si.a/i, Tom. x. p. 519, 

'J G out 


0/ tie trill of Man, 

Book t. 

out of a petulant Humour, has been pulling off 
the Roof. Plautus ' has a menyjell to this pur- 
pofej fVim (fays he) ^vould be too cheap at the Price 
it now brings^ if a drunken Man might do whatever 
he pleased, without being caWd to an Account. 

Yet in indifferent Actions, which are left to e- 
very Man's Pleafure to performer omit, Drunken- 
nefs is allow'd this Favour, that the Effcft which 
would have follow'd any fuch Aftion, had it been 
' deliberately perform'd, fhall now be utterly in- 
valid, fince the overtaken Pcrfon afted with much 

And thofe Caufes which we have hitherto 
reckon'd up, are the moft conflderable among fuch 
as impofe a kind of phyfical Biafs and Tendency 
on the Will. That which morally inclines it moft, 
or at leaft, ought to incline it, is Obligation : And 
yet this, how great foever, neither takes away 
the Will's intrinfick Liberty, nor renders theAe- 
tion voluntary, tho' the Lulls and Paffions may 
ftrive vehemently to cppofe it. Hither may be 
referr'd that Sentence of ^?"i/?o//f, czroTTor to, a- 
x-daix <pivai, Siv ^« cpg^jo9ar.i, '?"« abfurd to call 
thofe Tthings involuntary, lijhich we ought to defire 
and to purfue. Ethic. Nicom. XiZ'. iii. Ch.m. 

We fay. Obligations ought to incline the ff^ill-y 
for fuch is the perverfe Difpofition of human 
Minds, that frequently the very forbidding of a 
Thing, raifes a Delire of doing, or of enjoying it 
* , as Ovid AniK)r. iii. 4. fpeaks, 

Nitimur in vetiltimfemper, cupimufque negata. 
^licquid fervatur, cupimus rnagis i ipfaque fiirem 
Cura vocat. • 

— «-— — 'Juvat inconceffa "voluptas. 
Cut peiccare licet, peccat minus : Ipfapotefias 
Semina ncquitlte languidiora facit. 

We court the more what Men the lefs will grant > 
Warm when deny'd, and fiercer by Rcftraint. 
What's cloiely kept, improves in ourBeliefj 
To hoard the Gold is to invite the Thief 
Forbidden Ple;ifures have a quicker Tafte. 
They that have Freedom ufe it leaft j and fo 
The Power of 111 doth the Defign o'erthroW. 

Sir Charles Sidley. 

Which Unhappinefs, if we confider its clofer and 
nearer Caufes, may be referr'd, partly to the vici- 
ous Curiofity of Mortals, who admire every 
Thing that they ai-e Strangers to (which Opinion 

is ftrongly confirm'd by the HanTinefs of the E- 
dift, and by the Care and Trouble of Obedience) 
and partly to the Hatred and Obftinacy which we 
bear towards the Forbidder, whence we difdaiii 
that our Liberty ftiould be abridg'd by a Perfon 
who looks fo ill in our Efteem ; whereas, on the 
contrary, it's the Nature of Love to make usv/il- 
ling to comply with the Commands and Deiires 
of the Party we affeft. 

IX. It is Eirther obfervable. That fometimes 
upon the Approach of extraordinary Dangers, and 
fuch as are fuppos'd to exceed the common 
Strength and Firmnefs of human Minds, the Will 
is fo vehemently urg'd and preis'd, that it gives 
Confent to fomewhat, which had it been free from 
that Neceffity, it would have utterly abhorr'd. 
Aflions of this Kind have theNameof ?ai;y/, being 
partly voluntary, and partly involuntary. Thus 
far they are to be efteem'd voluntary, in as much 
as their Principle is in the Agent, who is acquaint- 
ed with the Nature and Circumftances of the 
Thing he is going about : And in as much as the 
Will for the prefent Time and Neceffity, inclines 
toward them as toward a lefTer Evil, or toward 
one Part of an Evil, when otherwife a greater or 
an entire Evil muft be undergone : And this lefTer 
or partial Evil turns into a kind of Good, when 
both it and the Evil compar'd with it, cannot be 
both avoided together. Arifiotle Ethic, ad Nicem. 
Lib. v. Ch. vii. fays, A lefj'er Evil, if it be compafd 
with a greater, may be efleeni'd a kind of Good. So 
^iin6lil. Inftit. vii. Ch. iv. In comparing EvilSy 
that which appears Ughtcfl, mufl pafs for Good. A- 
riftot. Ethic, iii. i. Simply and abfolutely fpeaking.^ 
no Man in his Wits willingly throws away his owa 
Goods, but for the Security or Prefervation of bim- 
felf and others. Such Anions then are to be account- 
ed mixt, tho" they approach nearer to voluntary than 
to involuntary. 

But the ftme Aftions are likewife in fome De- 
gree involuntary, becaufc the Will fccms to be 
driven on them contrary to its Inclinations, and 
would never undertake them, if the impending 
Evil were by any other ^Jeans poflibly to be e- 
fcap'd. For which Reafon they have this Qiiali- 
ty in common with involuntary A6lions, that the 
moral Effects and Confequences attending Actions 
meerly voluntary, do in thefe, in a great Mea- 
fure, if not totally, fail '. For tho' fometimes 
a Man may have fo ftrait an Obligation laid up- 
on him, that even upon the Threats and Appre- 

' jixluLir. iv. X. 10. 

A/r. Barr. notes. 

* If we will make a more cuvions and exaft Diftinaion of the Effcfts of Drunkennefs, wc muft obferve how a Thing 
inay be imputed to a Man which is done in his Wine, according; to the feveral Degrees of Drunkenncfs, viz. The one 
moderate, which does not hinder a Man's aftini; freely, and with Deliberation; the other ftrips him entirely of the Ufe 
of his Reafon. This laft Sort, if it be alfo involuntary in the Original, that is to fay, if a Man falls not into it by his 
own Fault, brings forth Aftions altogether involuntary, and confequently furnifhcs him with a fuflicient E.xcufe; but 
if Drunkcnnefs be voluntary in its P'rinciplc, then we muft diftinguifh Aftions indifferent from Actions unlawful. 
As tothefirft. If a Man, for Example, make a Contraft, that hinders the Effefts of an Imputation, becaufe thofe fort 
of Aiftihns require a particular Knowledge of what is done, and the Fault which went before them, and from which 
they derive their Original, is not fufficient to make it of Force. See Lil/. iii. Ch. vi. §. 5. But it is not the fame in 
unlawful Aaions ; foi^if a Man be in an Eftate, from whence 'tis his Fault if he fall, becaufe he might and ought to 
hinder it, his perfed Drunkennefs will not excufe iiim from the Crimes which he has committed thro' Excefs of 
Wine. And it he puts himfelf into that Coiidition on purpofe to execute fome ill Defign, he delerves a double Pu- 
nifhment. Titius Ohferv. xxxviii. 

* See Montagne's HJf^y, Lib. ii. Ch. xv. />. 451, &c. Edit. Fol. At Paris, 16^7. 

' The Author fpeaks nothing here of good Aftions, or indifferent, but contents himfelf to fpcak of ill ones only,' 
Mixt good A£lions are accounted for notliing ; and every one may fee the Reafon. Indiflerent Aftions done in the fame 
M.inner, can no more be imputed to the Agent, for tho' there is a kind of Will, it is not fufficient to produce an 
Obligation. The Injufticc of the Autlior of Violence, rendring him incapable of acquiring any Right by that Acfion, 
which is not fully voluntary, and confequcntly laying no Obligation upon hinij who never confentcd, but with Re- 
gret, Tims Ohfeirv.x]. See lil/. in. Ch. yi. §. 10. 

I henfions 

Chap. IV. as it concerns moral A6lions. 42 

henfions of Death, the moft terrible of natural fpeaks, Ethic. ad Nkom. iii i ^ Thofe Thims Teem 

Evils, ' he ought not to recede from it > yet to be involuntary ^'which arc' dole either upon Force or 

where this does not exprefly appear, it is not eafi- tipon Ignorance. An Aaion cannot be (aid to have 

ly prefum'd and fuppos'd, as being too Iharp and been performed involuntarily out of hnorince unkalt 

rigorous for the Condition of Humanity : And befolloiv'd ivith Sorrow and Repentance » ' Now a 

where there is no fuch fevere Obligation impos'd, Man is properly fiid to be compelVd, when by the 

It would be downright Folly not to come off as Forceof aftrongcr extrinfical Power he is broueht 

cheaply as we can, and not to luffer as fmall a to apply his Limbs otherwife than he would lo as 

Share of Evil as wc may compound for. And to exprefs his Avcrfiition and DifTcnt bv minifcft 

therefore many Things, which ' would have de- Signs, and elpccially bv corporal Refinance and 

ferv'd Reprehenfion, had they been undertaken Reluftancy As if {ionic Jrifiotle'sE^^mvhs) the 

without luch a Neceffity, when they are done fi^md, orMenfuperiortous'inPo'wer llmdd vio- 

under the Urgency of fo hard a Cafe, are com- lently carry us any where againfi our ConLt Tullv 

mended by all fair and equitable Judges ; ' other in his fecondBook oi Invention, Lib ii Ch xxxii 

Things delerve Pity rather than Revenge ; others gives anlnflance alter this • Tlie Rhodians 

again are for the fame Reafon, either entirely, or had a Law, that whatever be.alid VefTcl Ihould ac 

for the moft part ^ cxcus'd, and in others the any time be found in their Harbour, it Ihould be 

Odium and Fault of the Aftion is devolv'd upon condemn'd as Prize, and expos'd publicklv to Sale 

the Perfon ' who reduced him to that unhappy Now the Quellion is, Whether a Veflil of this 

Extremity S the Man who perform'd the Deed be- kind, being driven into their Ports by a Tempeft 

ing declar'd innocent. Arijlotle difcourfes well on ought neverthelefs to fuffer the common Penalty > 

this Point', Ethic. ad Nicom.Ub.m. C\i.\. For thefe 'Twas upon this Topick, that the Friends of the 

hndofjaions^i^'sht^ Men are fometimes commended., ravidi'd Lucretia ' comforted her under her deep 

■whenfor the Jakeof great and honejiThings^tbe\ have Affl:cT:ion, by turning all the Guilt on the vile 

fiiftain'd fome Indecency or Hardfloip. To fo)ne Things, Author of the Crime, telling her, Thzi the Mind 

tho' we allow no Praife, yet we grant a Pardon, when only properly ftmf d, and not the Body : and that there 

a Man has done what he ought not, upon the fear ofE- could be no Fault where there was no Deliberation or 

vils exceeding human Nature, and not tolerable by Defign. 

mortal Strength. Jnd there are fome Things perhaps. This Reludancv in Civil Courts is prefum'd to 

which no Man can be fore" dor compeWd to commit, but have been us'd in ilich Actions or Paflions as are 

ought rather to endure the utmofi Extremities, and not vulgarly thought to be willingly perform'd or 

Death itfclf. Add. Eujirat. ad loc. But I queftion undergone, and where all Signs of an aftual Con- 

whether it were proper (efpecially for a Chriltian fent are wanting ; whence arolc the Term of in- 

BilTiop) to give this Example of a ml^t A6lion, terprctative ReluSiancy. 

Familiarity with another Man's IFife, though m it- Thus, whereas by the JewifJo Law a Virain is 

felffoulandfinful,yetceafcthtobefo, if undertaken fuppos'd to have fuffcr'd Raviftiment if Ihe loil 

on the Account of killing a Tyrant. her Honour in the Field, without WitnelTes- vet 

X. Laltly, fince to make an Aftion voluntary, Philo the '^ew '" denies the Favour of this Law to 

there is requir'd not only that the Principle of Mo- reach a Maid, who admitted a Debauch willin'^Iy 

tion be in the Agent, or that the Agent addrefs tho' in a Solitude: As neither can the fame Law 

himfelt to work by the Impulfe of his own Will, hurt a Maid in the City, who in the like Danger 

but hkewife that he knows what he is doing j upon either could not cry out, or cried to no Purpde 

the want of both, or of either of thefe Conditions, and without Relief ' 

the Aftion is rendered involuntary, as Arijktle A forced Thing may be fo either in itfelf, and 

* Liv. Lib. i. Ch. Iviii. *> De Legib. Special. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

' See Lib. ii. Ch. vi. § 2. follow! njr. 

' As for Example. When a Woman, or Maid, flays the Man that makes an Attempt upon her Chaftitv See Lib fi 
Ch,\. §. It. toUowing. '^ •'■ i-'". ■!, 

' Such is the Cafe of a Woman who, in a Famine, is forc'd to eat her own Child, as it happened in the Sie^e of 
y:f""\^'- ^^^frf^'' '^'''- V". de Bell. Jud. Ch. viii. and as it befel the feven EuglifimJ/oi which otu Author 

^ As when a Woman or Maid, flays herfelf to avoid the Lofs of her Chaftity, with which fte is threatned by an 
extravagant Man whow. 1 lat.sfv h.s Lufts at any Rate. See I;i. ii. C^. iv. J. ,9. l^llowin., where Mr. if.m«/refers u" 
to what -..e Author fpeaks L,( u.Ch. v. §. ,,. of an Husband who flew his Wife's Gall.^nt, or his Wife, when he 
took tnen, m the Heat of then- Luft. But this is the Effeft of a furious Anger, and Defire of Revenge, whidi oaaht to 
be referred to §. 7. above, and not to m.« Aft.ons, fuch as our Author calls them. 1 fay the fame ot^n Example whicli 
Uv.Henms gives of a Woman, that poifoned her Husband and Son, becaufe they had killed a Son of hers bv a for 
mer Husband. See Vale,: Max. I;i. viii. Ch. i. in the End, and ^ul. Cell. Lib.xU.Ch 7 ^ 

rJ„^'!.l'l^'/''"°'''',"° ^A'^- ^f- -^^'i "P'T- T'''.' ^" Application, not very proper here, out of Jujiin, of the Pho- 
fn f 'h°/"'"§ ''^^^"!['=1^'« ^'?"'''^ °V-''"'' ^""'''' ^'''"' ""'^ Children, went and robbed the Temple of Dehhos. 
> ^'^°''^" 'f'^' "P°" " ^5 -^ Thmg not to be excufed altogether ; though they that committed it were lefs 
v;orthy of Blame, than thole who had brought them to tins Cafe of befpair. Fo? fo he fpeaks, I™ Si IV ^irPho! 

Tt,f!'lllr!'^ ^^^'^ "''""'J'Ti " T" 'K'-f "'■""' "( ''" ^^"''h'. Tt tl^e Thebans, byu'hom they vjere compelled to 

this ^ecejjity, were more detefied than they. Lib. vni. Ch. i. ^ / / 

a Sabl«> t"'^'"r '"'^'"'"''' 1*°'""^ with£«yZ«m;, another Bilhop more famous, who fell upon n loofe Thought about 
?her cone.. ^ r^r"'c'' "' r"' °^ Tr.'-'' ^''^^^^')'- ^"'l M''- -B-^y^c's Dictionary under the Head ^.y«^««.. See fur- 
UDon de TmI"^ A. ". '"'•"' ^^'°"'' "P"" ''^= Account of which fome Evil in itfelf is committed, what is faid 
upon the tollowing Chap. §.9. Note 2. 

« ^r^ fi ^' '"' ^' '°" •^''-"' '°" ■''^°''^g°'"Sj about the beginning Kote ,-. 
^^n 1-W\'^l' •^";'-",'^'J n°t "^e •">" immediate Force upon Lucretia, as when a Woman defends herfelf, as much as fhe 
finod? nrn r!' ^ ,' T .^^^'^- ^''' ^^' "°' ^°''"^' ^"V Otherwife than fuch are, who rcfolve to cafl their 
UrRe,,K , °' f'^-V"^ Perifliing. She refilled his Threa.nings of Death; but when Sexttu threatned to expof; 

t. r^ 'p? "'"^ eternal D.fgrace. fl^e d.dwhat he wiflied, and fiew'herfelf. So that this Example does not weUaJr e 
to this Place, where he is treating of mut Aaions. See Mr. BayleV Dictionary . ^ 

G Z „gf 

Of moral Anions in general, &c. Book I. 


not in its Catifes, or elfe both in itfelf and in its 
Caufe. The firfl: is, When a Perfon remains in 
fuch aState at prefenr, as to be unable to repel the 
offer'd Violence, and yet was in a Fault for get- 
im^ into fuch a State. Of this Kind was the Rape 
ofZ)zW^, Jacob's Daughter'! for the Virgin 
ought not to have wander'd among Strangers. 
The latter is, "When the Perfon has, not by his 
own Fault, been brought into thofe Streights, 

a Genefis xxxiv. 

which now occafion the Compulfion of him to any 
Faft. By the not being his own Fault, wc mean, 
if he has done nothing but according to the Laws of 
Prudence and of his Duty. For if a Man performs 
the Office cnjoin'd him, or ufes his Right any o- 
ther way, and afts not rafhly or inconiideratcly, 
whatever Violence over-powers him, he v^'ill have 
no Guilt imputed to him, and no Sin to anfwer 


OfMoRALAcTioNsin general, and of their Application to the 
Agent, or their Aptnefs to be imputed. 

The Contents of every Seftion of the fifth Chapter. 

i. What a moral AUion is. 

II. Its Matter. , ^ /• 

III. Its Form, where ive treat of a moral Lauje. 

IV. A moral J5lion confidefd in itfelf is a pofi- 

tive Entity. 

V. the Caufe or Ground why a Hjing may be tm- 

puted^ or not. 

VI. Ihings not to be imputed to a Man, are Things 


HAV I N G, in Purfuance of our Defign, 
examined and explained the Will and the 
Underfl:anding,as the Principles whence 
human Aftions obtain the Privilege of 
beintr ranked in a different Clafs from the Opera- 
tions of Brutes, the next thing which we are con- 
cern'd for, is the general Difquifition of moral Ac- 
tions, fince in difcovering their Reditude, or Pra- 
vity, the Science we are now engaged in is chiefly 
employ 'd. Moral Aftions then, are the -voluntary 
Deeds of Men confider'd in common Life., as they in- 
clude the Imputation of their Confequences andEffeEls. 
We call thofe voluntary Deeds, which in luch a 
Manner depend on human Will as on a fi-ee Caufe, 
that without its Determination (proceeding from 
its ' internal Afts drawn forth by the previous 
Knowledge of the Underftanding) they would never 
have been perforra'dj and which therefore, as to 
their being done or not done, muft be referr'd to 
the Power of Man. And thefe Aftions are here 
confider'd, not as they are bare Motions produc'd 
by fome Power according to the natural Conftitu- 
tion of Things, but as they proceed from the Deter- 
mination of the Will ; a Faculty difpos'd to em- 
brace either Part of two contradiftory Choices. For 
a voluntary Aftion contains fomething material and 
fomething/om«/ > the firfl is nothing elfe but the 

VII. 'The Operations of our I'egetable Faculties . 

VIII. Things impoffible. 

I X . Things compeird., where meer Execution is treated of. 

X. Things done through Ignorance. 

XI. Things doncy or feen in a Dream. 

XII. E-vils to come. 

XIII. But evil ASlions., proceeding from an Habit, mufl 

certainly be imputed. 

XIV. How other Mens Actions may be imputed to us. 

Motion of a Power exifting by Nature, or its Ex- 
ercife confider'd barely by itfelf j the other is the 
Dependence of that Motion or Exercife on the 
Determination of the Will, as on a Caufe that is 
truly free, and afts by its own Refolution. The 
Exercife confider'd feparately and by itfelf, is, for 
Diflinftion iai'.e, rather call'd, an AHion of the 
Will, or of the willing Power, in a Man, than a 
•voluntary Action. 

We may Eirther confider the AHion ' of the 
Will, either in itfelf, and abfolutely, as it is a phy- 
fical Motion, undertaken upon the previous In- 
junftion of the Will, or elfe reflexively, as the Ef- 
fefts of it may be imputed to the Aftor. Now 
voluntary Anions, as they comprehend this Refle- 
xion, are, by a fpecial Appropriation of the Word, 
call'd human Actions. And becaufe from thefe 
Aftions, as they are perform'd well or ///, as they 
are agreeable or repugnant to their Rule, the 
Law, one is faid to be a good or an /"// moral Man 
(the Inclinations of the Mind refulting from fre- 
quency of afting, being likewife term'd Morals ) 
hence it comes to pafs that moral Anions fcem only 
another Name for human. 

II. The EfTence of moral Aftions, ' accord- 
ing to the lafl Way of confidering them, may be 
divided into two Parts or Notions, ^Material 

iVfr. Barb. NOTES on §. i. 

» The Ori-inal is, AfftbtnEUMs, which is better .-endied, Immedtate Afl^ ,^''f.-'- °^ ^'^^ P[^"^. "§ Ch 

» The Oi-i"in.Uis Mho Volmtatu ; which Exp.effion, tho' 'tis ufed .n all the Editions and his hUm^ms 

■ rJl ri.dla-v vet 'tis a plain Miftake of the Author, contrary both to his own Diftinftion, and the 

PaT-Cf his iifcouke • fo^ he Lys pofitively. When moral Acl,o>. .ncMc \r,. &c. The £«5/,/7; Tranflator wa. 

ot" this. 

On §. 2. 
' That is to fay. As they arc voluntary Aftions, whofc Effefts may be imputed unto Men. 

of the V- 
not aware 


G H A p. III. OJ moral Anions in general , &c. 

and a Formal. The material Part, or the Matter ing himfelf down a Precipice, the Piper is aCcufd as 

of a moral Aftion, is of a very wide Extent : Such the Per/on ivho had caused his Death A Club of yoiin<r 

may be firll any phyfical Motion, whether it be Pcrfons, ivho had freo^tient Meetings and Entertam- 

of the locomotive Faculty j or of the lenfitive ments, one day made an Agreement to [up toietherU 

Appetite} or of the external , or of the internal the Sea-fide -, 07ie of the Society bein^ahfent the others 

Senfesi or of the Underltanding, fo far as con- ivrote his Name upon the Stone Table whkh they had 

cerns the Exerciie of Apprehenfion. For the Aft reared: The young Man's Father at his Return front 

of Judgment depends fo much on the Quality 
which appears in the ObjecEt, that it is not capa- 
ble of the Dircci:ion of the Will, tho' in forming 
of that Judgment, our Free-will and our Induftry 
' are allow'd fome Influence and Power. The 
Aft of the Will it fclf may likewife be the Matter 
of a moral Deed, if we confider it in its natural 
Conditionj or as it is precifely taken, for anEfFe6t 
produc'd by a phyfical Power, as fuch. So like- 

a long Voyage^ landing in this Place ^ and reading 
the Infer iption on the Stone ^ took it for his Son's 
Monument^ and hang' d himfelf for Grief . The Com- 
pany is hereupon impeaclfd as acceffbry to his Death. 
Laltly, the Admiflions or Receptions of another 
Man's Deeds, as Hir as my Default contributed to 
their Produftion, may be the Matter of my own 
moral Aftions. Thus a Rape is partly imputed to 
the Woman, if it appear that ihe ralhly ventur'd 

wiie may be the Privation of any phyfical Motion, into fuch a Place, where flie might have exnefted 

which a Man might have produc'd either in it felf, to meet with fuch violent Treatment 
or in Its Caufe : For a Man may render himfelf III. The Formality of a moral Aftion confifts 

obnoxious toPunilliment, as well by Omifllons as in the Imputativenef of it, if we may fo fpeak bv 

by Commiflions. As alfo the Inclinations of the which the EfFeft of a voluntary Aftion may be 

natural Powers toward certain Objefts (acquir'd imputed to the Agent, or eftecm'd as fomething 

by the voluntary Aftions that have already pafs'd) properly belonging to him, whether he himfel 

at Icalt io far as they are Spurs and Incentives to phyfically produc'd that EfFeft, or whether he 

atting. Nor are my own Motions and Habits, caufed it to be produc'd by others. And from this 

or the Privations of either , alone the material 
Parts of my moral Aftionsj but the fame Moti- 
ons and Habits or Privations proceeding immedi- 
diately from others » , provided they could or 
ought to have been direfted by my Will. Thus 
the Spartan Inamorato''s were to "■ fufFcr for the 
Faults committed by their Minions " . Nay, 

Formality of the Aftion, the Agent likewife has 
a Share in the Denomination of Morality, being 
call'd a moral Caufe. Whence we may eaflly 
underftand, that the Ratio Formalis of a moral 
Caufe, in Striftnefs and Propriety of Speech, con- 
fifb in Imputation, confider'd with Reference to 
the Perfon in whom it terminates i and that there- 

,, ^ r „J r-Cr,,' "',"■'' <-"^^>-">^"'" wuuiu iL Lcmunacesi anu mat tnere- 

the Operations of Brutes, of \^cgetables, and of fore fuch a Caufe can be nothing elfe but a volun- 

inanimate Things, may furnilli out the Matter of 
my moral Aftions, when my Will ihould have 
guided their Proceedings. Thus even in the Law 
of God, a Mii'chief done by a goring Ox is im- 
puted to the Owner, in cafe he knew before-hand 
that the Beaft was faulty this way '' . Thus a 
Vine-drefTer is refponfible, if; through his NegH- 

tary Agent, to whom the .Effeft is, or mufl be 
imputed, upon account of his being either whol- 
ly or partly the Author of it ; and that therefore, 
whether it be Good or Evil, both are to be reckon'd 
as owing to him , and he is hable to give an Ac- 
count for both. Thus one Man is the moral 
Caufe of Hurt in another Man, whether he has 

1 ' ,?.,.&":""*'"-&" v^au.v, ui iiuiu iij auuuici j.viun wnetner ne nas 

gence, the Vine has fpent all its fruitful Strength made his Head fwell by Blows of the Fift, or whe- 

and Vigour in fending out numerous and unnecef- ther he has broke it with a Club, or whether he 

lary Suckers. Thus the Damages by Fire are re- has fet Dogs or Murderers upon him. Thus Anah 

pairable by the Perfons who occafion'd itj and was the moral Caufe 'of Mules, he being record- 

Waftes caufed by the breaking in of the Sea, or edinG^^^/^xxxvi. v. z^. to have firft found them 

of Rivers , are to be made good by him who has out, or to have join'd the Mare and the AlTes to«^e- 

either broke down, or neglefted to keep up the ther for their ProducT:ion. So Jacob was the mmnl 

Banks. Canadian ' has propos'd two Declama- Caufe of the diiFerent Colours in Laban's Sheep 

tion Lemmas much to our prcfentPurpofe. A v. ^j. And thvs Lyfm (Or at. contra 

Piper had play d a Phrygian Ayre to a Man ivho ims Ayorat ) pleading againft an Informer, upon whofe 

opring Sacrifice ; the Man running Mad, and throiv- Accufations many Perfons had been executed, calls 

Lib.% M.Tu. IS. Ch.x^i. V.Exod. XXI. ^q. '^ Inft.Orat. Lib.lCh.x. ^^ 

Mr.^AK^. NOTE Son %.\\. 

* If we will find tlie Authoi-'s Meaning, we muft remember what he has fald, C^. iii §.^ 
„. ' 7,,'',"' T " ""' ""^J", °"^^''' '° ""S-^S^ others to do a certain Thing, or hinder him from it, or contribute to- 
wavdsthcbegettmg a ccrt.i.n Hab.t, or prevent it, he is refponfible for that which he did not properly do, and in which 
he was gmlty of nothing Dut pure Negligence or Want o/Acling, which is yet looked «pon\as a real Aftion in refpec" 
to the moral EtTec^ Th.s relpeds all them who are charged with the Management of others. See §. 14. following 
, Sec Mmn s (• arwus H,fiory L,b. n,. Ch. x. and Mr. Pen^onms's Comment on it. But that Example feems to be ill chof^n 
„"?/ r'Y'^ '""V^ °'';.''' "'"^'^ =>,''!= '^°"""0"ly to be had. It is poffible that this being fo unlike our Opinions and C.rtoms 
^vhth^ T ''.S;''''5''^"'i^ , F°'- they pretended, that this Love, To dear and conftant, h.-,d nothing but 

^^at n .as honeft m it, and feryed tomflame thole young Men who were the Objefts of it with the Love of Virtue, tho' m 
InZ ''ffTT^'^'\ '"'° •''" '"f-imous Converfation, chiefly among the Crcehs. See Potter's Ant,c,umes of Greece. Thefe 
inamo, ato s bemg then, as JElmn fpeaks, Ue conttnual Guardians of thofe they loved, 'tis no wonder they were to an- 
iwer tor their lienaviour. j j ^ ; 

On §.3. 

-ind fn l.f "-^'' ^°^\^ ""r ^7- '" ^'"' T''"' "^'''"'t *''-■'' Iduwc.vt was the firft that caufed AfTes and Horfes to couple together. 
Tot He ;mH?°'T ll' [P''i'"S. the Original of Mules. o^Q' is the Name of a People, and fo ought to be tranflated. 
nl'i- cl ^^ ' l'"; "' ^°"S''' 'S--""ft the :^minns, as Mr. B.r/,^« has fully proved in his Hierozokon, Part C 

^w. . o«.xxi. However, had the Thing in itf elf been true, this Author might better have p-ilTed over this Example. 



Of moral Adlions in genet al^ &c. 

So alfo 

Book I. 

him the manifefi Caufe of their Death. 
Ovid. Heroid. Epifi. ii. 147. 

Phyllida Demophoon leto dedit, hofpes amantem-j 
Ilk neci caufam prabuit., ipfci manum. 
Poor Phyllis dy'd, by him fhe lov'd opprefs'd } 
The trueft Miilrefs, by the fiilfeft Guefl:: 
He was the cruel Caufe of all her Woe; 
But her own Hand perform'dthe fatal Blow. 

Mr. Pole Y. 

Yet it does not always happen, that a Man who 
has barely given Occafion to the Fad of another 
Man, Ihould be ' reputed the moral Caufe of that 
Fa61: : and therefore the Sentence pronounc'd by 
Pifo, which tofr^ fpeaks of, was cxtream fool- 
ilh as well as cruel, when ordering a Soldier to be 
led to Execution, upon Sufpicion of whofe Mur- 
der another Soldier had before fufFer'd Death, he 
gave his Reafon in thefc Words ', I order you to he 
executed for being the Caufe of the Condemnation of 
your Fellow Soldier. There feems no great Neceffity 
that welTiould here, with the Author of the Trea- 
tife De Principiis Jufti ^ Decori% diftinguifh be- 
tween a moral Caufe by it felf, and a moral Caufe 
by Occident. For a Caufe by Accident is a Term of 
vaft Obfcurity, and very likely to create and en- 
courage vain Difputcs : And befides, if we cannot 
rightly impute the Ef?c£t of an Aftion to a Man, 
we cannot upon any Account, call him a moral 
Caufe by Accident, tho' he contributed never fo 
much to the material Part of the Aftion. Yet 
thus far we mull plainly acknowledge , that in 
weighing and rating the Greatnefs of the Imputa- 
tion, it is a very important Query, whether the 
Aftion proceeded from fuch a Perfon as the Prin- 
cipal, or as the Acceflbry? as Hkewile, whether 
the Agent diredly intended fuch an Effeft, or 
whether it proceeded from his Inadvertency, or 
any other concomitant Reafon ? For if the lalt 
of thefe Cafes appear true, the Confequence will 
be, that the Aftion fhall not be imputed to the 
Perfon, as if committed againlt the Laws of Ju- 

ftice, but againft thofe of Prudence and Fore-fight ; 
and that therefore he fhall not be reckon'd to have 
afted wickedly, but only rafhly or unadvifedly. It 
will not be amiis to examine more clofcly wha: the 
above-mentioned Author lays down in the i'ame 
place. Firft, therefore, he eltabliilies this as a Max- 
im, Whatever is Evil in its oivn Nature^ fo that it can 
never be changed into Good^ yet may by Accident follow 
upon the Exercife^ or upon the Defence of my Right, 
without my incurring the Guilt of Sin ; and therefore I 
am not obliged to decline the Ufe of -my juft Right in fuch 
Cafes. Grotius likewife '^ propofes a Rule much to 
the fame Purpofe, in his Third Book'', but judi- 
cioufly tempers it with ' a good Reftriftion. But 
our Author proceeds : A Sin is faid to follow by 
Accident upon another free Acl,^ when upon the Ufe of 
aThing., to which I have a Right , fome EffeSl follozvs, 
which 1 have otherwife no Right to produce. For an 
Inftance in this Cafe may be alledg'd what Divines 
call Scandal or Offence taken-, concerning which 
they tell us. That a Man ought not to omit an 
honeft, a pious, or a due Aft, though a wicked 
Perfon lliould take never fo much Offence at it> 
and this Rule they confirm by the Authority of 
our Saviour. But now this very Example might 
have taught our Author to lay afide his Term of 
Caufa per Accidens -, fince even in that reftrain'd 
Scnfe it would be little lefs than Impiety to call 
him the Caul'e of Evil, who is the Spring and Foun- 
tain of all Good. We ought rather to fay. That a 
Man who exerts a good and necelTary Aftion, is by 
no means the Caufe of Sin in another Man, who 
fhall thence take Occafion of offending. Thus we 
commonly fay. He who ufes his own Right, does 
no body any Wrong. But he further adds. Since 
every Man has a Right of prcfcrviKg bis Health., it is 
lawful., for the Recovery of Health., to make ufe of a 7?ie- 
dicinal Potion., thd" upon the taking of this Potionfliould 
follow Diftrutlion (for fame little time) or Drunken- 
nefs., or {voluntary) Pollution., or Abortion ' (in cafe 
both the Mother and the Fat us mull othcrwife infal- 
libly periih) and that therefore the Perfon who takes 
the Medicine is only the Caufe of fuch Effefts by 

Velthwjfen, Pag. i6i. 

•> Ch. i. 5. 4. and Ch, xi. §. 9. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

* Hemuft (as our Author r^c:\ks'\n\\is Elements of :heUniverfalCivil Law, p. 5,4.) either do, ornegleft todo fomctliing that 
he was oblii^edto, otherwife another Man's Aftion has fo necellary a Connexion with what lie hinifeit does or neglefts, tliat 
it cannot otlierwife liappen. Further, we muft confider how far he, that gave the Occafion, might know tlie Effect tiiac 
would follow upon it, and that it is not necedary that he (hould certainly know it, 'tis fufficient that there was fome Probabi- 
lity. I will explain this by an Example : If I leave a Piftol charged, or fome other dangerous Weapon, upon a Table, in a 
Room where every body has Liberty to come, 1 am not lure that a Child, or any other Perfon will come, who, not know- 
ing the Danger of the Weapon, will run the Hazard of killing or hurting himfeU, by meddling with it out of Curioiity ; ne- 
verthelefs, becaufe theThing is pollible, I might fear fuch aThing might happen, and I am certainly to anfwer for it.The fame 
mav be faid concerning the Good of which we have given Occafion. As it can't be attributed to us, if we were the Caufe of 
it w'ithout our Knowledge, and had no fuch direft Defign, fo on the other fide, 'tis not ncceiTiry tliat v,'e be fure ot the Suc- 
cefs of what we undertake for another's Advantage ; 'tis fufficient, that we had Reafon to believe it ; for tho' the EfFcft was 
notobtain'd, the Intention is very commendable at all times ; as, on the contrary, the Neglect is not altogether excufable, 
although it luckilv had no ill Confequence. 

' iencM's Words are {De Ira. Lih.i. Ch.x\\.) Te duel jtileo, quia caufa damnationis ccmmUitam fiii/li. 

■* This Rule (according to Gro/i«j) takes place in the juft Defence of a Man's felf, which this Autlior explains in ano- 
ther place. Andfoit does alfo when we labour after the Recovery of what belongs to us; for if we can recover the full Va- 
lue, we haveaRiLjht to take it, nevertlielefs, upon Condition that we return the Over-plus, if any be. So alfo we may 
cannonade a ShipYull of PiiMtes, or an Houfe full of Thieves, altho' we know there are fome Children, Women, or other 
innocent Perfons in it, who are in Danger of being involved in the Ruin ot thofe that deferve it, lii. ih. Ch.'i §.4. Knm.i. 

' He further adds, in the fame place. Num. ii. That thofe Things that a Man hath an indifputable Right to do, are not to 
beallowedhimtodoinallRefpecfs. Love to our Neighbour often hinders us from ufing that Right, and obliges us like- 
wife to avoid thofe Things which do, or may happen, contrary to our Intention, at leaft, it the Advantage we aim at be not 
sreater than the Damage which may juftly be feared ; or if there be an equal Probability of Benefit and Damage, or the Hope 
of the Benefit be not better grounded than the Fear of Damage; but this muft be left to every Man's Juds;mcnt and Prudence. 
But this ought only to be obferved. That where there is a Doubt, we ought to incline to that Side, tliat is more lavouvablc to 
another than to ourfelves, asthe fureft Part. See what follows, and C^. .xi. J.?, of the lame Book. Sec alio what has been 
faid above, Ch. in. §.7. 

* See Book vi. Ch. ii. §. 6. following. ' 


Chap. V. Of moral Aclioiis in general, (Sec. 

Accident. On wliich Doftrine wc only oblervc, 
that it had been much jildner to have laid, that 
thofe Effects are not co be accounted Sins in the 
Cafes here mention'd. Neither do all the Exam- 
ples brought by the fame Author to illuftrate the 
Kwral Caajc per fe, or that which is truly and pro- 
perly fuch, rightly hold. For a Criminal, as he fpeaksj 
whoii tofuffar, iho'hego on to the Place of Execution, 
and afcend the Ladder, cannot meerly upon this Ac- 
count be call'd the moral Caufe of his own Death, 


that whatever neither in itfelf, nor In its Caufc, 
was in a Man's Povv-er and DifpoiiU, cannot be 
rightly imputed' to him ' . Nor is it any Breach 
of this Rule, that fometimes a Man is obH"'d to 
perform a Buiinefs depending on Chance^ and 
confequently not in his Power. For this Cafe can 
never happen, unlefs the Man voluntarily takes on 
himfclf fuch an Obligation ^ . Thus much there- 
fore is in the Man's Power, to bind himfelf to re- 

of his own Death, pair a Damage, proceeding from Caufes not capa- 

bccaufeif he had refus'd to go wiUingly, he had ble of human Dirc£tion. I o conclude then, that 

been dragg'd along by the publick Officers. And an A.ftion or Faft fhould be imputed, it is fuffici- 

yct there Is no Reafon why one Man who drinks ent that it was not involuntary, acccording to our 

immoderately, or another who waftes his Strength Difcomfe in the preceeding Chapter, §. lo. and 

in honeii and neceffiiry Labours , may not be re- 
puted the moral Caufe of their own untimely 
Deaths ; tho' the former Perfon fins, and the latter 
notj and tho' neither, properly fpeaking, can be 
caird a Murtherer. But ilich a one wc fhould 
rightly call the vtoral Caufe of his own Death, who 
is therefore condemn'd, becaufc he would not de- 
clare fuch Matters as might demonilratc his own 

IV. It mufl be farther obferv'd, that this Impu- 
taiivenefs which we have made the Formale of a 
moral A6tion, bears the Nature o? apofttive Form, 
from which, as from the Spring and Root, all the 
Affections, Properties, and Confequences of fuch 
an Aftion refult. And therefore a moral Aftion 
may be call'd a Pofitive Being (at lead in the Order 
oi Morals, if not ahvays in the Order o^ Naturals) 
whether the Matter of it be a phyfical Morion, or the 
Privation of a phyfical Motion. For to conffitute 
a politive Being in Morality, 'tis fufficient that we 
conceive fomething in it, from which there arife 
true Affedions of the fame Kind > fince as a Non 
Ens can have no Affeftions, fo whatever has cer- 
tain and pofitive Afteftions cannot upon any Ac- 
count be Itil'd a meet Non Ens. 

V. Now, that a moral Adtion fhould belong, or 
iliould be imputed to any Man (in which we have 
alTcrted the ratio formalis of it to confiil) there can 
be no other Reafon or Caufe , but that the Man 
had Power and Ability to do it, or not to do it ; 
to perform or omit it. And this is ib manifeff a 
Truth, that the mofl: ignorant and unskilful Mor- 
tals, when they are accus'd of any Omiffion, or 
ofanyFaft, think they cannot bring a fairer Ex- 
cufe, than to (;ty in the firft Cafe, 'That they could 
not do it, and in the other, that they could not help 
it. So that It is to be effablifh'd as a prime Maxim 
in Morals, That a Man is accountable for thofe Ac- 
tions, the Performance, or the Forbearance of which 
were both in his Power : Or (what comes to the 
fame thing) that every Action dirigible by a mo- 
ral Rule, which a Man is able to do, or not to do, 

that it was fubjeft to the Guidance of our Will. 
But to make an Omiffion truly imputable, 'tis re- 
quifite that there have been both Power and Op- 
portunity for Performance, which Conditions of 
Power and Opportunity feem to conclude thefe 
four Things, Firfi, That the Obje6t be ready at 
hand. Secondly, That we have" a comm.odious 
Place, where we may neither be hindred by others, 
nor fuffer any Evil from them upon our a6ting. 
thirdly. That we have a convenient Time, in 
which we are not call'd to the Difcharge of more 
necefl-iry Duties, and which is equally feafonable 
for thole v»'ho are to concur with us in the Ac- 
tion. And, Laflly, That our natural Powers ad- 
miniff:er fufficient Strength for the Bufinefs, When 
any one of thefe Conditions is wanting without the 
Fault of the Man, it would be molt abfurd and 
unjult to lay the OmiOion of any- thing to his 
Charge. Cicero de Invent. Lib. i. Ch.xxvii. Occafion 
or Opportunity is a Part of Time im.plying a Conve- 
nience of doing a thing, or not doing it. See Cartes 
of the Palllons. Art. 144, 145-, 145. 

VL Thus much being premis'd in general, it 
will be worth our while to confider moie diftinft- 
ly and in particular, what Things may be imputed 
to a Man, which proceed from a phyfical Necef- 
fity, or from any Caufe placed beyond the Di- 
rc(Stion of Men. And therefore 'tis a finiple ' 
Pra6tice they tell us of the Kings o't Mexico, that 
at the Commencement of their Reign they us'd to 
promife their Subjects, that they'd take Care the 
Sun fhould rife and fet at due Times ; that Rain 
fhould fall as often as there was Occafion ; and 
that the Land lliould bring forth Fruit. Neither 
can it be imputed to Man, that natural Caufes 
produce this and no other Effect, or that they 
produce it in this and no other wayj as for In - 
Itance, that the Fire warms, and not cools us. 
Yet thus ii:ideed the EfFefts of natural Caufes fur- 
nifh large Matter for Imputation, as their a6tive 
I'orce IS drav/n out, or confirm'd by Man, ap- 
plying Actives to Paffives, or exciting their 

may be imputed to him : And, on the contr.ary, internal Strength by proper Means. On which 

Mr. Barb. N O T E S on Chap. V. §. v- 

Culfam autem nullameffe, cum id, quod ab hom'tne pmftarl non potuerit, evenent. Cicer. Tufcul. QiicEft. Lib. iii. Ch. xvi. 
^ See what is laid Lib. v. Ch. ix. followiiijj. Sometimes alfo we miift anfwei- for an accidental Miiciwnce without eng.-iging 
mit, bec.-iulc we li.ive net;Ieacd to do aThin;^ which wc were obliged to do^ altho' the Negleft itfcif did not contribute 
at all to the unforcfeea Accident. See Lib.iu.Ch.i. 5.6. Note ^. 3.a6.Lib.\. Ch. v. §. 3. following. 

NOTES on Ch^^.Y.^.Yi. 

» This Author ought to have mention'd who relates thisFaft. Mr. Titius {Obferv.^-.) relates a favour- 
able Explication, which a certain Perfon (viz. Kreh'iTreMKe De Lir.o' Lapid. Part.l.Clafsll. Se^.u. §.J.) gives of this 
rromile. According to him it is the Eiieft of great Wifdom, a"nd thefe orood Kings ■would have Men underftanJ 
r.o more by it than this: That a Prince by his good Laws, and by the Prudence and Jnftice of his Government , caninfome mea- 
jure fo order the Stars and Elements, that they Jhail promote the good of his Subjects Upon this Foot their Aflertion, as ab.. 
Jiirdas It may fccm at firft Sight, is not altogether without Ground, and proves, that even the ^wenV.j» Princes arc Icfs 
barbarous than many European. 



O/' moral Actions in general, &:c. Book L 

Account a Plenty of Fruit is imputed to the Hu{- 
bandman, iaafmuch as his diligent Culture ob- 
raia'd it trom the Earth : Thus the Damage of 
Fire is imnutcd to him that kindled it ; and thus 
the varied'Colour of Labarfs Lambs may be im- 
puted to the Subtilty of his Shepherd Jacob ^ A 
natural Effeft may be farther imputed to a Man 
as he has mov'd the fupream Caufe and Director of 
all Thing's to determine ' fuch an Effeft. Thus 
xhtT'lrrce Tears Drought m\^-\x. be imputed zo Elia-s^. 
As m fabulous Story a long Drought is laid to 
have ceas'd on the Prayers of ALaciis ^ . Thus too, 
the Death of the Men who fell in the Peftilence ^, 
might in lome mcafure be imputed to David^ tho' 
not to the Degree of a Murther. 

VII. Neither may we impute to a Man the 
Aftions and the Effefl-s of vegetative Faculties 
which appear in his Body, as they anfe from his 
Birth, or from other Caulcs beyond his Difpofal. 
Yet thus much is in a Man's Power, to fupply 
thofe Faculties with convenient or with unfuitable 
Object?, which may either maintain and cherilli, 
or weaken and extinguifh their Force j as alfo to 
diflort and abufe their proper Organs. Thus he 
to whom Nature has given a large, a found, and 
an able Body, is liable to no Imputation of Merit 
on that Score. But to corre6l aweak Conftitution 
by Indultry and Exercife, and to increafe the na- 
tural Powers, gives juft Occalion for Commenda- 
tion > and, on the contrary, to break ordeftroy 
the fame Powers by Idlenefs and Petulancy, turns 
to a juft Shame and Reproach. 

Hence no Man can be fairly reprehended for 
a weak, or a tender, or a diminutive Body j for 
diftorted, or for maim'd Limbs, or for want of 
Strength , provided that none of thofe Infirmities 
were contracted by this Default. ' Jrijiotle talks 
very pertinently to this purpofe. Ethic, ad Nicom. 
Lib. i'li. Ch. ■v'li. Qu /uo^ou ci^s oil v -^v^i Kccxixi, 
&c. " Not only Faults of the Mind (fays he) are 
*' Voluntary, but thofe of the Body too in fome 
" Perlbns, whom we therefore difcommend. For 
" we do not blame thofe that are naturally deform- 
" cd, but thofe who are grown fo by neglect of 
*' Exercife, and by a carelefs way of Life. And 
*' the Cafe is the fame as to any Meannefs or Un- 
" fightlinefs ariling from Diftempcrs, or from the 
*' maiming of any Part of the Body. For Men will 
*' not reproach, but rather pity his Blindnefs who 
*' had it from Nature, or from a Diftemper, or from 
*' an honourable Wound: But he will jultly fall 
" under univcrlal Scorn or Cenfurc who has loll his 
" Eyes by Drunkennefs, or by any other kind of 

" Intemperance." Plutarch dc jf:idie-f2d.Poet.Cpezks 
to the lame Purpofe : Ulylles doth not upbraid • 
Therfites iiith his Lamencfs^his Baldnefs^ or his Crook- 
hack^ but ivith his Scurrility and Impudence. Thus 
the wife Poet filently derides thofe who areafham'd 
of Lamenefs, Blindnefs, or the like Defeats > it be- 
ing his Judgment, that nothing can be Blame- vv^or- 
thy v%-hich is not vicious, and fiothing vicious the 
Caufe of which is in Fortune, not in ourfelves. Js 
thofe vjho brufi or jirike Cloaths touch not the Body, 
fo thofe ivho cenfure others for their ImperfeSlions of 
Birth or of Fortune, 'vainly and fooliflily firike the out- 
ivard Parts, but never reach the Soul, nor thofe Blc- 
mifies ivhich really deferve Reprchenfon and Correc 
tion. Ibid. Add. Sympof Lib. ii. Qu.i.' Yet it was 
not without Reafon, that among the antient G<?aZf, 
as lyZ/VT^o relates, Z-/^. iv. The young Men were fin' d for 
exceeding the Aleafure of their Girdle: Becaufe they 
took it tor granted, that fuch a large Paunch, at fuch 
early Years, could proceed from nothmg elfe but 
Lazinefs and Gormandizing. So Hiys Nichol. Da- 
mafcen. de Mor. Gent. The Iberians ufc aGirdleof a, 
certain Mcafure, and ivhoevcr fiffers himfelf to groia 
beyond thofe Bounds, is look'd upon as highly infamous. 

The fame may be laid of the other Faculties 
which Nature, and not our own free Pleafure, 
has implanted in us ; as that a Man has fharp or 
heavy Parts, quick or dull Senfes, a firm or a de- 
ceitful Memory ; unlefs thefe natural Abilites 
have been improv'd or impair'd by the Man him- 
felf Hither muft be referr'd that Obfervation of 
Ariftotle in his Ethicks % Many Things according to 
our Nature we do andfuffer, which we are truly con- 
fcious of, and yet which cannot be calVd Voluntary or 
Involuntary : as to grow old, and to die. Thele 
Things therefore are not proper Matter of Imputa- 
tion. Neither can the getting of wicked Children 
be imputed to Parents, provided they have not en- 
courag'd them in their Vices by ill Education. 
Whence the witty Turn oi Vindex will not hold in 
ftrift Truth, when he faid. That NeroV Mother was 
jujlly put to Death by her Son, for bringing fuch a 
Monfltr into the World ^ j . 

VIII. It's evident likewifc. That thofe Things 
cannot be imputed, which exceed our Strength, 
either as to the Hindrance or the Performance of 
them : Provided that this Inability has not been of 
our own finful ' Procurement. On which Foun- 
dation are built thofe common Maxims, That 
Impoffibilities are incapable of Obligation - j 
That no Man can be conceiv'd to have enjoin'd 
impofliblc Duties in a Law > and that therefore 
if any fuch ^ Thing occur in a Statute, or a Co- 

Apollodor. Lib. iii. Cli. \\ 

^ I Sam. xxiv. ij, 17. 

=> Gen. xxx. 57. •> i Kings xvii. i. James v. 17. 

t Lib. V. Cli. X. f Ph'iiojl. A^iWon. Lib. v. Ch. x. 

'We muft cxpl.iin the Words ot our Author, who fays only. Ad eum effeHum detennmandiim, f. e. to determine that 
■Effeft; for it appears by the following Examples, and by the Nature of the Thing, that he treats here not only of the Ex- 
illcnce of the EfFeft, but alfo of its Non-exiftence and Difcontinuancc. 

NOTES on §. viT. 

' Plutarch's Greek is, 'O ©spiri'T!!? iJsA> t5 'Ci'vositii, i ^uXoi, a ^«/«x(>'o?, s y-vfrci, a>i. ijcfiTojtAi;fl(^ ^we^iiritt 1 

O^T<a; "OiAijf^ xct)ays>.K x ai"^iv<i|«/!v4» sot ^^uXiryiTiy, « Tv^>.iT/,irn', XTt •ifixTct v,'/sim^®~ ri «/n «i^ •:», nn tti^fa to ^q «V 

S'ua-yiniot^ ovja i^'.^rsc,^ ji'^ tos cJtilo? iv)iivrra.i xifacj y^ otKJiJTAf?, 'f "^v^^ J\^ v S-tfyuvntnif zefi T ^A<jdfi;c iTxiD£Baffse>'i etoutuecy^ tc^ 
otiiiui. Plut. p. ;5. Ed. Wech. Tom. ii. 

' The Greek is, T-in yuc i/i/irifcc c* ^ly-f atrtxToijai, i^i^/i reiS.-o* 'srsxt. \ 

NOTES on §. viu. 

' In this 1.1ft Cafe we may lawfully be treated in the fame Manner as if we were in a State of atf ing. Otherv.ife, 
as foon as any Obligation we are under becomes in the leaft punifliable, or incommodious, w-e fhall find a Way to 
avoid it, by putting ourfelves on purpofe into a Condition un.ible to fulfil it. 

* ImpoJJibilwm nulla oiligatlo ejl. Digeft. Lib. 1. tit. 17. ' See Lib. iii. Ch. yii. §. 2, c/c following. 

^ venant 

C H A p. V. O/" moral Adiions in general, Sec. 49 

venant, ora/F///, it is either to be efteem'd as that the fulfiUingof the Law is mpoj(J!bU^and yet that 
null, or elfe a more commodious Interpretation of that Impojjibtlity does not injure the Liberty of the 
it is to be found out *. To this Purpofe we meet ^ill. For "tis equally i'npojfible for a particular Man 
with a pleafing Paflage in Hcvodottis *' j he tells us, to obey GodV Command in all Things and for a 
that when 1'hcmiflocles defir'd a Supply of Money Multitude to abfiainfrom all manner of Lyinj^,- ^^^ 
from the Inhabitants oi Andros^ fupported by the he is as able to preferve him elf from each particular 
two ftrong Goddcfles Perfuafwn and NeceffUy, ^5t of Sin, as the particular Citizens are to keep them- 
the Jndrians oppos'd him with two ftronger God- fel-vespurefrotn Lies ; and yet this is never likely to hap- 
defles, Poverty -isA Impoffibility . But here it mud />f«/w //j^/For/rf'. Which Do£lnnc,cs it is applied to 
be carefully obferv'd, that it is one Thing to be Theological Points, we leave to be difcufs'd by the 
phyfically, and another Thing to be morally impof- proper Profeflbrs. But if it keep with in the Bounds 
fible. The former ImpofTibility lays an Obllacle, of human Courts, it does not apoear why this 
which binds up the Will in fuch a Manner, that fhould not rather be admitted, than that Afiertion 
either it cannot break out into Aftion, or elfe that ofGrotius '^^ where, fpeaking of thcle Sins which 
it iTiall lofe all its Labours and Endeavours. But fomc call Sins of daily Incur/ton, he fays, It may 
a moral Impoffibility lays no Impediment furpaf- 'well be doubted whether fuch as thefe may rightly and 
ling the aftive Power which inheres in the Will, properly be called Sins, becaufe, though ivc arc at Li- 
but on the contrary arifes wholly from the Will berty as to the doing each Particular, yet we feem to 
itfclf And in this Manner, we lay, 'tis impofli- lofe that Liberty, -when we confider them in general. 
ble that all Men Ihould confpire together in deli- For how can thefe Failures, taken colleftively, c- 
vering down a Lie to Pofterity, without any Pro- fcape the Nature of Sin, when at the fame time 
fpeft of Advantage: Or that any Man fhould lead each Particular of them is acknowledg'd to be fin- 
si Life of fuch exadlHohnefs and Circumfpedion "*, ful? Tho' indeed fuch fmall Slips are in human 
as not to offend (at leaft through the Precipitancy Cognizance fcarce look'd upon as punifhable. 
of his Paffions) in fome fmaller Inftance of Duty. IX. Neither canthofeThmgs be imputed which 
Hence the Author of the Treatife Dc Principiis a Man does or fuffers ' upon CompuUion : For 
fufli 13 Decori " infers, That a Lcgiflator cannot in- they will belong, in moral Eltimation, to him who 
deed enjoin what is phyfically irnpofjible, but he may offers the Force, and he that recciv'd or executed 
exaEl Obedience to Things which include a moral Im- them is look'd upon only as anObjeft oranlnlbu- 
pojjibility. Becaufe in this he commands nothing con- menr. 'Tis a Rule with Dionyftus Halicarnaff'aus 
trary to the Liberty of the Will, fince all the Diffi- ' That every Thing which is involuntary deferves Ex- 
culty of obeying arifes from the Will it felf. Thus'' tis cufes. And Cicero ''argues with good Reafon, 
not impnffible for any Man to frame a Lie gratis; and when he fays. If we are obliged to pardon thofe who 
if not for any Man,thennot for the whole Multitude -j hurt us out of Ignorance, we are not bound to thank 
and yet His certain that the whole Multitude will not thofe who benefit us out of Necefjity. Now Com- 
do fb. In the fame Manner every Man has the Power pullion is fuppos'd to be apply 'd, not only when 
of fpeaking Truth, and confequefitly a whole Society the Principle of Motion is in another Man, who 
or Community; and yet 'tis -moft certain, that a Com- by Force bends the Members of a Perfon, to fome 
ip.onweaUh will never be fo happy, as to have all its A£tion or Suffering, of which the Perfon by 
Members ab/iain from falfe Speeches : yet this Impof- ftruggling and refifting, expreffes his Abhorrence j 
fbility does not take away the Liberty of particular but Ukewife, when a Man, by the Peril of Death 
Men, or excufe them from finning. Thus too we fay.^ or of any ' other extream Evil, is put upon the 

' Ov'id. de Pont. Lib. i. EI. 7. 

.Nulla poteut'ia vires 

Prsjlandi, ne quid peccet amicus, habet. 

So fai' c.\n no Decrees of Power extend. 
To purge all Frailty from a mortal Friend. 

&liintTdiin. Infl. Lib. vi. Ch. iii. We ufually reckon it inhuman to upbraid a Man with his ill Tortune; either becaufe it 
cones without his Fault, or becaufs it may be the Cenfurer's Turn to fiiffer next. *> Uran. ' I'elthuyfe/i, p. 174, 

<• Lib. li. Ch. XX. §.19. « ii^. i. f De Invent. 

Mr. Barb. NO TE S on §. vtii. 

* Mr. Hertius alledges here the Encomium which Valerius Paterculus gives Scipio /EmilianHs, viz.. That in all his Life 
he never did fpeak or think any Thing, bu: what was commendable. Lib. i. Ch. xii. 

NOTES on §.p. 

^ Our Author here fpeaks of the Extremity that one is reduced to by tlic immediate Violence of a Perfon, who will 
force us to futfer, or do fome thing. But he ought alfo to have fet down wiiat a Man is conftrained to do by otlier 
Circumftances, which are not lefs preding, and no lefs exclude ail Imputation. In a word, we ou'^ht to reduce to 
this Head all the Eft'efts o( NecefTity in general, of which we fliall elfewhere fee the Benefit, Lib. iC. Chab. vi. where 
the Padagcs in the Margin may refer to the Cafes of Neceflity, whicli are omitted. 

' Which he may fuffer in that very Inftant, as this Author adds, in his Abridgment of the Duties of a Man and Ci. 
tiz.en. Lib. \. Cha^. i. J, z^. 

H Execution 


Oj moral A61:ions in general, &c. Book L 

Execution of 'fome Enormity to which he is c- 
therwife exceedingly averfej yet fo that he fhall 
not be the Author of the Deed, but the other Per- 
fon who compeird him to it. Examples of the 
former kin^ are, when a Man by Superiority of 
Strength violently thrufts another upon athirdPer- 
fon, or ftrikes him with a forcible Bend of the o- 
ther Man's Hand : Or when any one commits a 
violent Rape upon a Woman that did not provoke 
his Lewdnefs by her own Fault. Her Body in- 
deed, in this Cafe fufFers Difhonour, but the Ble- 
mijh doth not reach her Soul. 7'he Bodyisfiaiti'd^ 
hut the Mind is pure, fays Lucretia in Livy, Lib. i. 
Ch. f8. See Hen. Stephens's elegant Difcouife on 
that Story in his Jpolog. for Herodot. Ch.xv. But 
a Nymph will not have the Benefit of this Inter- 
pretation, when with a faint Refiftancefhe lets her 
Ring be ftolen off from her * digitus male pertinax, 
as Horace calls it. An Inftance of the latter Com- 
pulfion may be when a Sergeant, or a Guards- 
man is commanded to kill a Man whom he knows 
innocent, under Pain of being immediately kill'd 
himfelf upon Refual: For he can by no Means lie 
under an Imputation in this Cafe, fince nothing is 
enjoin'd him but the bare Execution, which in it- 
felf is agreeable enough to hisPerfonandCharafter, 
and ought not to be refus'd upon the Hazard of 
lofing his Life : Efpecially fince tho' he threw a- 
way himfelf, he could not by that Means fave the 
other innocent Party .Yet it muft be confefs'd,that 
the bare Execution of fome Acts is fo very foul and 
deteftable, that it is a generous Bravery for a Man 
rather to die, than to apply his Body to fuch O- 
perations, tho' if committed, the Fault of them 
would not light on himfelf, but on others. To 
•which Cafe the Paflage of Arijlotle relates, above- 
cited: An Inftance of it may be, Suppofe a Man 
ihould be commanded to commit a Rape on his 
own Mother, which Faft, in Oedipus, tho' com- 

Xenophtn. Cvropxd. Lib. ili. / take all thofe Thing! which Men tdmm'it thro' Mipke, to he done agalnfl their Inclina. 
tion andDejign. Euripid. Hippol. Coronat. ver. 1354. Tour Ignorance and Error cleanfe the Deed from Jinful Stain. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES. 

• Our Author then believes, that this laft fort of Compulfion, as well as the fiift, excludes all Sorts of Imputation.' 
He explains himfelf better upon this Head, in his Abridgment of the Duties of a Man and Citizeni Lib. 1. Ch. i. §. 24. 
where he maintains. That we can have no more Ground to impute the Aaions committed in the hke Circumftances, 
than to the Spear, or Ax, that is ufed to kill an Enemy with j At leajf, fays he, u-hcever is reduced to that Keceffity. is 
not under an-j Obligation to facrif.ce himfelf for the Perfon to whom he fees himfelf conflram'd, upon Perd of Life, to do fome 
treat Mifchief I own that this Sort ot CompuUion much ledens a Sin, but yet it doth not feem to me (as Mr. 2itms 
remarks, Oiferv.xl and xlviii.) to free it from all Imputation at the Judgment-Seat of God. For indeed the Inftance 
of the Spear and Ax is not well apply'd, for they are Inftruments purely pafllve ; whereas a Perfon forced by the 
Threatninasof fome great Evil, without any phyfical and irrefiftible Violence, afts with a kind ot Will, and confents 
in fome Manner to the Attion, vifibly evil, which he performs. So that tho' before a civil judicature he ought not ri- 
fforoufly to be punifhed for the like Action, he can't attempt it without Hurt to his ownConfcience. Here alfo we may 
Ipply thofe Principles which we (hall lay down. Lib. ii. C*. vi. §. 2, ;, following, for in the Example which our Au- 
thor there alledges, of an Officer, who was commanded, under Pain of being put to Death himfelt, to put a Perfon 
to Death, for a''Crime of which he knew him innocent, the Evil he does to fuch an one, is as great as if he would 
warrant it himfelf, otheiwife this Execution were an uncertain Means, becaufe it depends entirely on him who laid 
the Obligation on him. And who is there that can alTure himfelf, th.u the Perfon who forces a Man to do fucK 
Things, Ihall have a greater Refpeft for him that executes his Orders, than for him againft whom he has ufed this Force? 
This laftReafon has yet a great Strength, as any one may fee, when a Son is forced to lie with his Mother : An Action 
which our Author feems to take fome Pains to excufe, when he is treating of the Cafe of CompuKion. See what is faid 
nponI;t. ii. CA. vi. §. 2. and upon lii-. viii.CA. i. §.6. Note ^. and Mr. ThomaJiiis'sDnine Civil Law, Lib. v.Ch. u. §. 149, 
and 161, err. 3s zKoWherner's Elerr.ents of the Laxv of Nature and Nations, C^. ii. §.9j'^. 

4 The Author refers to thefe Words of Horace, Lib. i. Od. ix. Pignufque directum Lacertis, aut Digito tnale fertinaci. 
See alfo to the fame Purpofe, Lib. ii. Od. xii. 

jiiit facili Sdvitia negat, 

Gtui pofcente magis gaudeat eripi, j mi l u 1 • 

' Mr P»/e»ior/ unwarily followeth a bad L<ir;« Tranflator. who has rendred thefe Words ill, though plain enough in; 
themfel'ves. They that do it, ftiall efcape, and they that will not do it, (h.ill periQi, as it the Greek had been, nf^-iuila. 
whereas it is a-paiw'®-. He that does it. The £n^////j Tranflator has amended this Fault. 

' But why muft this Cafe be excepted, if our Author's Principles be found > Or what Rule doth he give us to diftinguilh 
thefe forts of Thin-^s, where Force excludes not Imputation ? The Truth is, we muft cither excufe every Acl of Compulflon, 
how infamous foev'er it be in itfelf, or account every Thing vicious, which we cannot do innocently of ourfclves, and 
in our own Name, letthe Threatnings of him that would conftrainus, be never fo terrible. See A<*f 3. of this Para- 
graph. The Change of our Author, and the fmall Connexion there it between his Notions in this Matter, ftiew that he 
had not confidered it with fufficient Attention. 


mitted out of invincible Ignorance, yet tormented 
him fo, as to make him tear out his own Eyes. 
But when Arijiotle, Ethic. Nicom. Lib. in. Ch. i. 
alledges for an Inftance of a/o/w^Aftion, the do- 
ing a bafe Thing, upon the Command of a ' TyranC 
who has our Parents or Children in his Hands, and 
will fave or kill them, according to our Obedience 
or Difobediencej what he then calls cc'^pin ti, 
or a bafe Thing, " muft be underftood in a limited 
Senfe, fo as not to reach thofe more odious Villa- 
nies we are now fpeaking of. 

X. Ignorance likewife takes off all Imputation, 
fo far as it renders the Aftion involuntary . This 
Point may beilluftrated from ieveralPafl ages of ^- 
rifiotk's Morals i Magn. Moral. Li. i. Ch. xxxiv. 

'^Oraj' fxh ydp r\ ctyvo'.x ania. yi ts Trg^^a/r;, 
v^ iKcav TBTo -zp^T^a, &c. " Whenfoever (fays 
" he) Ignorance has been the Occafiori of doing 
*' a Thing, that Thing is not done willingly, and 
" confequently cannot be injurious. But when a 
" Man is himfelf the Caufeof his own Ignorance, 
" and out of that Ignorance commits a Deed, he 
plainly offers an Injury, and mayin Jufticcbe ac- 
countable for the Crime. This is the Cafe of 
drunken Men, who if they commit any Difor- 
der under that Condition, without Difpute do a 
real Injury, fince they themfelves have beeil 
the Caufes of their Ignorance. For 'twas ia 
their Power, whether or no they would tipple 
themfelves fo far out of their Senfes, as to 
make them (for Example) beat their own Father. 
The fame Rule will hold in all other Inftances of 
Ignorance,'ithe Caufe of which is in the Agent > 
fo that he who injures another upon the Strength 
of thofe Pleas, is neverthelefs properly unjuft. 
But thofe Perions cannot by any Means be called 
unjujl, who offend outof Ignorance, not of their 
For fuch Ignorance is to be 


own procuring 

C H A p. V. Of moral Anions in general, dec. 

*' efteem'd Natural j as when little Children ftrike 
" their Parents, their natural Ignorance, which is 
" the Caufe of the Faft , hinders it from being 
" iliVdUnJu/l; the Ignorance not at all depending 
" on their own Power ". So alfo Seneca Phoenif. 
vel iTiebaid. ver. 249. 


AUqiih intra vifcera 

Materna letum pr<ecocis fati tulit } 
Sed nunquid (^ peccavit ? 

An Infant with untimely Fate, 

Dies in the Womb before the Gift of Light j 
And has it therefore finn'd ? 

But this mull be extended no farther than human 

But in reference to Infants, it is farther oblerva- 
ble, that we chide and beat them for fome Ani- 
ons, not becaufe in human Judgment they be 
ftriaiy Crimes, but meerly for the falie of Amend- 
ment, that they may not prove troublefome to 
others by fuch Tricks, or may not get an ill Ha- 
bit when they are little, and fo keep it when they 
are grown up. And the fame muft be faid of de- 
lirious Perfons, provided their Difeafe was not oc- 
cafioned by their own Fault. For the Blows given 
to one in this Condition, have no more the pro- 
per Nature of a Punifhment anfwering to a Fault, 
than thofe we give to a kicking Horle, to break 
him of that Cullom. Fid. Anth. Matth<e. de Crimin. 
Proleg. Ch.W. §. f, 6, 7, 8. 

But he who is the Caufe of his own Ignorance, 
and who has wittingly and willingly hindred him- 
felf from the Knowledge of thofe things, which 
he might, and lliould have known , is in the fame 
Cafe as if he had oflfended upon Knowledge and 
Deliberation. Arijiot . M.:gn. Moral. Lib.'i. Ch.ix. 
We then blame difeas'd^ or defornCd Perfons^ when 
we judge them to have been the Authors of their own 
Diftemper or Disfigurement ; becaufe it was in their 
Power to have kept found and perfe£i. 

And more fully. Ethic. Lib. m. Ch. vii. l^gtfla- 
tors correct and punifi thofe who commit Evil^ pro- 
vided they did it neither upon Violence and Compulfion : 
nor out of fuch Ignorance as they did not themfelves 
occafion. For otherwife^ Ignorance itfelfispunifhable^ 
when contr ailed by the Pcrfon^s own Fault. Hence 
there is a ^ double Puni foment or dairi dagainfi Drun- 
kards^ becaufe the Spring of that Vice is in a Alan's 
felf he having the Power of avoiding itj and there- 
fore what he doth through Ignorance in that Condition.^ 
is neverthelefs to be charged upon him. In like manner 
they punifo thofe who plead Ignorance of the Laws^ 

when the Potnts were eafy, and fuch as ou^ht to 
have been known, fbc Cafe is the fame with all that 
are ignorant by their own Negle5l, they bein? Mat- 
ters of their own Powers, and capable of Diligence 
and Application. Ignorance of Univerfals, and that 
which we were oblig'd to know, does not take 
off Imputation} but only Ignorance of Particulirs 
and of what concerns the prefcnt Fact, yJrifiot 
Ethic. Lib.'m.Ch.n. He that is ignorant of his 
Duty or Interefl, ought not to be faid to all agalnfi 
his IVilly for Ignorance upon Choice doth not p'oduce 
an involuntary, but a wicked AElion. An Ignorance 
of Univerfals renders Men liable to Reprehenfion ; 
but an Ignorance of Particulars, or of the Circim- 
fiances of the ASlion, deferves Pity and Pardon, in 
as much as the Perfon thus offending doth truly pro- 
ceed involuntarily. An Example of this Ignorance 
is thus given by tully, de Invent. Lib. ii. Ch. xxxi. 
'^ Inhere was a Law in fome certain Place, forbidding 
to facrifice a Calf to Diana } now a Company of 
Mariners being in Diflrefs at Sea, made a Vow that 
if they gained the Port which was now in fight, 
thefd offer a Calf to the Deity who prefided there. 
It happened that in that very Port there flood a tem- 
ple of Diana, to whom no Calf was to be offered by 
the Laws -, but the Mariners not being acquainted 
with thefe Laws, offer' d the Calf which they pro- 
mised : and upon this Fall they are accus'd^ 

If an A6lion be done without any malicious 
Defign, and not with Ignorance voluntarily con- 
tracted, but fuch only as crept in by Inconfidera- 
tion and Inadvertency % the Imputation is not al- 
together taken away, yet it is confiderably dimi- 
nifhed. And thus far only may we allow the Say- 
ing of ^inSlilian, Inft. Lib. i. Ch. vi. Even an 
Error is commendable in thofe who follow great and 
noble Guides. Vide Ariftot. Ethic. Lib. v. Ch. x. 
Hither we may refer the Cafe propos'd by Ariflo- 
tie'', of a Woman that gave a Love-potion to her 
Gallant, of which he died. Now the Athenian 
Judges abfolved the Woman from this Indidment, 
becaufe fhe did the Fad undefignedly, and only 
mifs'd the EfFedl of her Potion , and procur'd his 
Death inftead of his Love, which was her only Aim. 
But to make this Sentence equitable, it muft have 
been fuppos'd as a Principle, that the Woman ne- 
ver fo much as thought the Potion fhe adminiftred 
was any way hurtful. For otherwife it were more 
rational to proceed according to ' the Law of the 
Roman Lawyers. Add. Anth. Matth. de Crimin. 
ad l.^S. D. tit. f. Ch. V. §. 6. 

XI. Farther, Since the Images form'd by the 
Fancy in Sleep are not in our Power, nothing can 
be imputed to us which we feem to doinaDream, 

» Tbefe are properly the ctf/iixfriiAiSx. of Ariftotle. •> Magn. Moral. Lib, i. Ch, xvii. 

Mr. Barb. NOfES on §. x. 

♦ The one for being drunk, and the other for having done wickedly in their Drunkennefs, for he treats not of all Sorts 
of Drunkennefs, but only of fuch as do fome Injury in their Wine. Ariflotle alludes to a Law of Pittacas, of which 
he fpeaks, Poiit. Lib, ii. Chap. xii. Our Author quotes it. Lib. viii. Chap. iii. §. 21. where we fhall fee upon what it is 

s Aphd quo/dam lex erat, ne qu'n Diarm. vitulum immolaret. Naiiti quidam, cum adverfd tempefiate in alto jattarentur, 
voverunt, fi portu—potiri effent, fe vitulum immolaturos. Cafu erat in eo portu fanum Dians, crc, 

6 The Roman Law is this. That when one gives a Potion to caufe a Mifcarriage, or to caufe Love, although the Party 
who gives it has no Defign to do Evilj neverthelefs by reafon of its Confequences, he fhould be condemned, befides fome 
Part of his Goods Confifcated, either to the Sjuarries, if he were of a mean Condition, or to Banifhment into fome 
Idc, if he were of a good Family. But if the Man or Woman, who had taken the Potion, died of it, he v.-as con- 
^"""^<* to Death without Mercy, Digejl, Lib. xlviii. Tit. xix. de Pcsnis Leg. xxxviii. §. 5. In fine, that we may have a 
juft Idea of invincible Ignorance, as to Imputation, let that be remembred which we have obfeived Chap, iii, §. 10. 
l^otei. For Ignorance purely concomitant, in the Manner we have explained it, be it vincible, or invincible, doth not 
hinder Imputation, and to know whether it be invincible or no, we muft judge according to common EJlituation, 
Tittm Obferv, xlv. See Chap. vii. §. 16. following. 

H 2 



fT^ 0/ moral A6lions in general, <Scc. Book I. 

only as far as by thinking on fuch things ' in the antedated, or that it fhould affect us backwards : 
Day-time with DeHghc, we have fix'd the Ideas unlcfs, perhaps, the future Crime fhould depend on 
deeply in our Minds " . Hence the Man whom fome ' paft or prefent Aft of ours, as a neceflary 
Tacitus ^ fvealis of, and reports to have feen the Effeft does on its Caufe : For it is a common thing 
Emperor Claudius in his Sleep , cover'd with a to impute the Effeft to him to whom the Caufe 
Crown made of Ears of Corn, was not guilty of properly belong'd. Indeed it is not at all abfurd, 
any Crime. And the FilTierman in 'Theocritus " that by Imputation of Favour a future Deed fhall 
entertain'd a very vain Scruple, when he appear'd procure fome good Thing to the Agent, or to 
concern'd for an Oath he had made in his Sleep, fome Body elfe, long before it is perform'd. For 
never to venture out again to Sea"*. Neither fince any Man may ( if he pleafes ) do a Kindnefs 
was Julius Cefar guilty of Inceft, upon account gratis, it is certainly in the Power of a Benefaftor, 
of his flrange Dream, recorded by Sueton.^. Yet who knows what will afterward happen, to con- 
Byblis was not altogether innocent, when, ^Ovid fer a prelent Favour under fome Term and Con- 
tells the Story, Met. ix. 46P. dition hereupon to be fulfilled. But fince ill Ac- 
tions cannot be imputed, but by way of Debt or 
S^pe I'idct, Sec. Guilt, it would be the higheit Abfurdity, to rec- 
kon fo far backwards, as to lay Imputation onPer- 
In Sleep fhe oft does the lov'd Shadow feem fons who neither had any Knowledge of Futu- 
To "rafp, and joys, yet blufhes in her Dream, rity, nor any Obligation or Power to hinder the 

Mr. Oldham. Thing from being done > nor, kflly, any Com- 
munication of Aftion with the Author of the 
Nor isP/«^^rJ:'''muchoutof theway, when he Fafts \ 

maintains, that a fair Argument may be drawn XIII. Beyondthefe ExceptionsnoHumanAfti- 
fromaMan's Dreams, as to the Temper and Com- on ought to be reckon'd involuntary or incapable 
poiure of his Mind : and therefore 'twas a good of Imputation, tho' to undertake it be never fo 
Saying of Epicurus, That a ivife Man ivill be like contrary to right Reafon, or tho' any Diforder of 
himfelf,eveninbisSleep\Diog.Laert.Ltb.yi. Some Mind violently hurry us into the Commiflion. 
apply to this Purpofe Pfal. xvii. 3. Fid. Clandia-a Indeed Plato '' lays it down for a Rule, That " in Lib.'ni. de Rapt uProferp.Theocrit Idyll. 2.2.. " thofe Injurieswhich 'tis impoflible to repair, no 

" Man is voluntarily injurious, bcc.iufe no Man is 

. Ka) yip C.V VTTVois " willing to admit the greatell of Evils into any 

rjxact, XV w aprcoi uavTgu'cTai.— " of his Concerns, and much Icfs into thofe Things 

" which are molt dear to him, and molt excellent 
The hungry Dog prefages in his Dream *' in themfelves j fuch as is his Soul '." To the 

A mighty Spoil of Crults.- fame Purpofe Arijiippus fays in Diogenes Laertius, 

*,' That all Miltakes (by which he means all fmaller 

XII. Laftly, It is againft Reafon, that the Im- Offences) " deferve Pardon, becaufe no Peribn is 

piiation of any future Crime fhould be as it were " willaken willingly, but as he is compell'd by 

• Nonn. Dionyf. —— — 'AtHjv^ov y> 

Taney's idle Pl.iy 

Mimicks by Night the Labours of the D.iy. 

b Ann. w.Ch.iw Sec Amtnian. Marctllm. til xv. Ch.u. « Idyll, ii. ^SieE\»2,Aus's Oath made in a Dream, J»Sozomen; 
Hifl. Eld. Lib. \ I. r Ctf. Ch.vil. Nam vifus erat per quietem matri ftiiprum iiituline. <" De ProfeSl.Virtut. 
Sent. 6 Cicero de Invent. Lib. i. A Remote Argument is fuch as depends on n Caufe and Principle too far diflant. For 
Infl'ance, If P. Scipio bad not married his Daughter to Tiberius Gr.icciius, Ly -whom fhe brought forth the young Gracchi, 
the Seditions had been prevented which thofe Brothers rais'd in the State : And ttierefore all thoje Diflurbanccs are chargeable 
en P. Scipio. ^De Leg. Lib. v. ' Vid. Timium, P. 1085. CT- Marfil. Ficin. Prf.fat. ad Plato, Lib.ix. de LL. Vuifulei. 
de Philofophia. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES on §. xi. 

' See what Mr. Bayle fays, concerning fuch as have dreamed that they were prefent at the Meetings of Magicians 
and Sorcerers, in his Anfvuer to the S)ueft, of a Provinc. Tom. i. P. 304i 505- 

* Some of thefe Quotations of our Author are not much to the Purpofe. He puts the Third Book of Claudian de 
Raptu Proferp. for the Second, and one Work for another; for his Qiiotation is taktn out of his Preface to his Poem ia 
VI. Conful. Honori. Omnia qui fenfuvolvuntur votadiurno, PeBore foptto reddit arnica quies. See Lucretius lib.iv. ver. 959, 
eye' and Cicero's Somn. Scip. Ch.\. Here he ou2,ht to have fpoken of the Adions of fuch as walk in then- Sleep, who 
have beaten, wounded, and killed others, while they were in that State. The Canon Law in the Clementines pro- 
pounds fuch .1 Suppohiion, and determines, th.u their Aa.ons are involunt.iry, and ccnfequently not puuifhable. St 
furiofus, nut infms, Jeu dormiens hominem mutilet, vel occidat, ntdlam ex hoc irregularitatem incurrit. Leg. de Homicid. vol. 
C/ caf Lib. v. rit.^. But Ur.Hertius adds, with Reafon (in hisTreatife De jiir. Germanic. Lib. iii. Paraem. i. 
§. 4.) That if a Perfon that w.ilks in his Sleep, being advortifed of v.'hat he does in his Sleep, does not fecure his 
Arms, and take other ncceffary Precautions to hindcr^him from doing any Milchicf wh.ufoevcr, he is not excufable. 
Sec Tiraquel. de Pccn. temper. Cauf 5. Mr. Thomafius has publifhed a-Trcatife of the Laws about Sleep and Dreams, 
which is the XL of his Difputations held at Leipfik, and are coUefted into one Volume, Prmted i6y5. 

NOTES o» §. XII. 

• 'tis in the Original, Prefent or Future, which is a plain Miftake, and ought to be correfted thus, Prefent or Pafi, 
for that a future Crime be imputed by way of Retrofpeftion, upon the account of fome Aftion, which it is necelfa- 
rily confequent upon, that Aftion nnift neceflarily be produced. This is fo true, that the Author himfelt, in his Ele- 
ments of Univerfal Civil Law, P. 568, from whence thefe Words are copied, exprefles himfelf exaftly lo. Neither 
the Englilj Tranflator nor Mr. Hertius were aware of this Miftake, which quire fpoils the Senfe. 

' Retnotum eft, quod ultra quam fatis eft, fetitur, hoc modo : eiuod ft non P. Scipio Cor.ieliam filiam Tderio Graccho 
tollocaffet, atque ex el duos Cracchos procreajfet, tanti feduiones natt non effent ; hoc incommodiim Scipioni afcribendum 
videtHr. Cicero de Invent. Lib. i. Ch. xlix. See alfo the Thought of Vindex above, J. 7. 

■ , 5 *' fome 

C H A p. V. Of moral Adlions in general, &cc. 


" fome Perturbation of Mind." And the Empe- 
ror JntoniuHS frequently advanceth the like Doc- 
trine ^ But Jrijiotle hath in many Places refuted 
this Opinion. As when '' he recites the following 
Argument of Socrates ', defign'd to prove, that 
it wai not in our Po^ver whether ive ivould be good or 
bad: " Becaufe, fuppofing we Ihould ask anyone, 
*' whether he had rather be juftor unjuH:, no Man 
*' would choofe Injufticej whence it fhould ap- 
" pear, that if fome Men are wicked, they are not 
" wicked of their own Accord, and confequently 
*' none are of their own Accord good." In Con- 
futation of which ^r//?o//6' hath us'd thefc Reafons > 
" That it would be abfurd for a » Lawgiver to 
*' enjoin good Aftions, and to forbid and to pu- 
" niih Evil, unlefs both were i(p' t\jun-y in our 
" Poz^er : And that otherwife there would be no 
*' manner of Caufe why Virtue fliould meet with 
" Praife, or Vice with Difgrace and Reproach. 
In another Work " he handles the Point more at 
laroe, and with good Reafon ' rejefts that com- 
mon Argument of the Stoicks, All defire and fol- 
lozo ivhat appears good to them ; but now no Man is 
Mafter of his oTon Fancy ^ but the Ends he purfues 
appear to him juft^ according as he is inclined and 
dfpos'd. For in fpight of this Objeftion, the Un- 
derilanding of what is juft, and what unjuft, muft 
be acknowledg'd both to be in the Power of Man, 
and to be attainable without much Difficulty or 
Labour **. In the flime Place Ariflotk well ob- 
fcrves, that as Ignorance contraded by our own 

Fault doth not render an Aftion involuntary, fo 

neither can an ill Habit, or a Mind corrupted by 

Frequency of finning * . "If (fays he) a Man, 

" not out of Ignorance, does Things which 

" may denominate him unjufl:, he is voluntari- 

" ly, unjuil} but he cannot, at his Will and 

" Pleafuic, turn from unjuft to juft again (but 

this we are to underftand J , either in a compound 

Senfe, /". e. that he cannot be jult and unjuft at 

the fame Timej orelfe in this Meaning, that the 

bare Will cannot prefently abolilh a confirm'd 

Dillemper of the Mind ; tho' by long and carneft 

Endeavour it may be overcome) " no more than 

" a fick Man can be found again when he plea- 

" ferh, tho' his Sicknefs, perhaps, was voluntary, 

" occallon'd either by his intemperate Way of 

" Life, or by his Difobedience to the Orders of 

" his Phyfician: Such a Perfon at firft had it in- 

" deed in his Power not to be fick j but when he 

" hath once negle£ted his Health, it is not in his 

" Power to reltore it : In the fame Manner, as 

one, who hath thrown a Stone out of his Hand, 

cannot recover it again, though at firft he had 

the Power of throwing or not throwing it. 

Thus the unjult and the intemperate, at fiift 

" might have been otherwife, and therefo.e were 

" voluntarily fuch, but being once under thofe 

" Conditions, they are not at Liberty to be with- 

" out them; that is, before they have rciorra'd 

" and correfted themfelves ^ ". 

It may not be amifs to caft an Eye upon what 




a Lih.'xs. §.3. ii^.vii. §.2i, 62. tib^yM, §.14. 
C/;. vii. ^ Vid Euflrat. ail loc. 

Lib. xi. §.18. •> Magn, Moral. Lit. I, Ch. is. 

Ethic. Lib. In. 

Mr. Barb. NOTES on §. xiir. 

_ ■* SaiKfuSTi); jip;), ix. tp' iyM yfi/£<^ to a-m^uiiii iitat it (pnuXnc,' ii y«^ tk, (fio""", ««wTi;V^I» antic Zy, ^Tariset ui /SsAoiTo o!km®^ 

thai, » ao'tx.®^, iSug ccv AfysiTo tkh uotr-i'M — — (TSAov a? £1 (fci-j>iOi TiHi unv, ix, «» ix-Lmii tl)i<ra« cpiuXoi a^t S%'ao» 

on isfi (rtrx^Mst, Magn. Moral. Lib.'i. Ch.ix. We mny obfei've, that there is fomething of Truth in this Notion, viz. 
That ordinarily Men do not fin for nothing, nor do any ill Thing purely and fimply for Evil-doin". 'Tis a common 
Maxim ufed by Sahift, Men are wicked for Rewards, take away them, and [car ce any Man will do Evil, Orat. 2. de Re- 
pub. Ordinan. See ii^.iii. Ch.'i. §.\. Note i,. following, and iii. viii. Cb.\\\. §.xix. Note 1,2. The lli^e. of this Prin- 
ciple is to make us merciful to our Neighbours Faults, a Confequence which the Emperor Antoninus draws from moft 
©t the foregoing Places; but when we deal with our felves, as we never are fevere to our own Faults, let us turn the 
Balance, and always fay, as Max. Tyriiis, though a Platonift, expreflTes himfelf pitiiily and in a few Words. Ex-na-m ij 
y-'^X.^ntlcc — ijui<riXTcn to, ir-nina Dijjert. xli. p. 426. Edit. Davis. 

' The Creek of Arijlotle runs thus: O J'» tojbt®- ^iy(^iix. irir aXviiin' J^k rl ^ le/ji/oSiTiii; iy. Ix to, (pa.u>M 7icu.r\i>, to 
^i KXAct >^ vzisS'xia. x.iMui ; xj iz't fd/j toi<, (puvMii ^/iojIm rarjj, kv TTfccri^' sVi ^s to?? xit.Xo'{(,, at fjutt XfKTlij; icttl toi iro.T®' 
€i7 u'ij rocvrcc tc^oHuTut, U /Atj i(p KJMt sV* TT^ariiv' uXt>.' [ui ioiKiv'^ £<p' iifMif to irTTisa'uton tUat, iCj to CpxoXoic, in ^l fyjccpTVp^a-it o'i t 
iTTXitot Kj -^o'/ot '/itoftjitof iVi ft -yi Tji <«f!T_^ sffKi)'©-, sTi ^£ Ty KtlyjA \J/oy^- ti!a,it(Sh ^i y^ ij/oyv^ BK sVi rcTi tcy.nir'oii. 
yirifl. Mag. Mor. Ch. \x. 

' The Greek is, '£< <^s t»? Atyoi, in natlsi IipiivTat tS ^mtof/iitss ayaSi, "^ 01 ^ittrairioei a kusioi, ksXi' oToroj jro^' iy.xrii 
»T<, ToisTo li, TO TsA©- ^imTcti UuTM. Ethic, ad Nicom. Lib. in. Ch.yii. He anfwers to this. That as every one is hlm- 
lelf the Caufe of that Difpofition which caufes Things to appear to us after a certain Manner, fo he is in fome Senfe 
the Caufe of that Appearance, as thefe Words import, ii u. ai J;c«5-®- 'tx.vrx r s^sas sVi isui, uin®^, xj -f (pavrua-Ui sVai 
7!ai a-jTH', iiTi©-. Sec Eu/iratms's Comment on the Place. 

* The Greek is, Ei' i'l fi>ii aytout rii TTfocr]-}, i^ at 'i^xi lao^x®-, ijcat a^ix.®^ at eiIj' i /j^/,v ioct ys fiiXttTai, aS'ix.®- at Ttxntri- 
Tai, yy fra» a'^' im 'p totrat, hync,- >^ li tsrcu'; irvx,it, ixaiv totyii, aKfurai /iiCTiuait, ic, a7r{6at roT<; larfoTi' Ton ]£ it 
i^it avT^ /*« »oiriry ^foijji.aii o'i, ix. tTr airyrsf i^' af>tvii XiSot, iti xvtoi cJliualo» ava!icitiif a*' o/*»^ st' uutm to /2x.Xiit, ;^ 
{•yosi" D rfi af^c'A '5' *"'■?'■ *"■'" o^s '^ 'Tf oi^'iKCii, iCi tJ ax.o>ka^oi, i^ a^xi^i /k s'I?' T018T014 jU/ii ysj/so^' ^io ixotTii; liirl yaou,iiot<i 
es ixiTi \hfi ^n siVai. Ethic. Nicom. Lib. iii. Ch. vii. 

' That is to fay, that Sinners, as fuch, can't defire to be good Men. See the Art of Thinking, Part. ii\. Ch.\vin.§.6. 

' Now that a Man may hinder himfelf from yielding to a PafTion, and may reform an ill Habit at length, if he 
pleafes to take the Pains, appears not only from the fecret Checks v>'hich he finds in himfelf when he fins, and the 
inward Senfe he has of the Freedom of Will by which he afts, but alfo bv Experience. It oftens happens, that in 
the very Moment when a Man offends, the Prefence of fome confidcrable Perfon, or of a Magiflrate, who lias Power 
to punith the Action, is of Force to prevent the Commiflion ; and there are fome Men who can curb themfelves in, 
when their Paffions are ftrongeft ■ Sometimes alfo a fmall Thing is able to make us refill a Temptation. Suppofe, 
for Example, a Drunkard by ProfertTon, being in perfeft Health, and free from all Cares, comes thirlfy into a Tavern, 
w.iere he finds his Companions with Glafs in Hand, who doubts, but that upon a Wager, he could, and would re- 
fift .all Allurements of the Ob)e£ls which might tempt him, and tiie moft earneft Entreaties of his Comrades J Since 
then the Hopes of a fmall Gain, or a little Vainglory, is able to oblige him to abftaln from a Thing he loves Co well, 
Wi>y may he not be able, by little and little, wholly to abilain from it, being moved with better Arguments, and a Principle of 
Vu'tue! It is certain, at leaft, that if a Prince refolves to make fevere Laws againft Drunkeniiefs, and fees tiiem well ex- 
ecuted, he'll foon put a Stop to that Vice.'Twas by this Means that the Madnefs of Duelling, not long fince fo very common in 
France, Brandenburg, Saxony, Sec. is almoft quite laid afide, becaufe of the fevere Prohibitions of that pernicious Cuftom ; and 
welhouldfee fewer Examples of it, if the Lav/s againft it were no: eluded, by making a Duel pafs for a fingle Rencounter. 


i-4 Of moY^l A&'ions in general, Sec. Book I. 

the Author of the Treatife De Principiis Jufti t? XIV. A Man is not only liable to havehisown 

Decori />. i6f, &c. hath advanced on the Subjed Aftions imputed to him, but hkewifc the Actions 

of moral Habits. " Thofe moral Habits which of other Men. Yet this cannot rightly be, unlefs 

*' we commonly call Evil, are not' (fays he) really he has Tome way or other efficacioully concurr'd in 

*' ' Sins, nor worthy of Punifhment, if confi- their Produftion. For otherwife Reafon will ne- 

" der'd in themfelvesj becaufe they do not touch ver fuffer tl\at theEffe£t of a moral Aftion itliould 

" the EfFeft vvith any moral Caufality, fo long be transferr'd from one to another, unlefs this o- 

" as they continue Habits^ but only as they break ther Perfon had fome Influence on the Aftion, by 

" out into Acts. And if they prove a Hindrance fome Performance, or fome Oraiflion of his own. 

" to Virtue, this is done by an elicit ASl of Mens Arrian. EpiEl. Lib.'i. Cb. xxviii. ■ No Man fuffcrs 

" "Will, which Will is then the Caufe of the for the FaS of another. Marc. Antonin. Lib. viii. 

" moral Vice. But to eftablifh a moral Caufe fu- §. f ?. Unto my Free-will my Neighbour's Free-will 

« perior to the Will, is to take away the Nature {as his Life., or his Body) is altogether indifferent. For 

" of that Facultv, it is to turn one elicit into an although ive are all made one for another^ yet hai'e 

" enjoin' d Aft, and to attribute to Habits an ac- our Minds andUnderJlandings each of them their own 

*' tual Efficacy of operating without any Opera- proper and limited J urifdiRton. Elfe another Man's 

" tion. For we operate only by the Will, and Wickcdnefs might be my Evil; which Gov» would 

" nothin'^ truly moral can work before the elicit not ha-ve.^that it might not be in attothcr Maris Power 

" Aft of that Power, from which alone proceeds to make me unhappy. Thus when a Sound arrives at 

*' the Morality of any Performance. For an ill our Ears againft our Confent, the bare Hearing can 

" Habit before the Aft of the Will, is only a be no Crime, if we proceed no further} unkis, as 

" />/;jy;ir^/ Thing, or a Mode of the Soulj but * Ltician De Imagin. fpeaks, Tou fanfy^ any Crime ;>» 

" when the Soul works finfully by the Will, the bare Act of Hearing. Though fometimes in- 

" then the Habit ceafeth, and is fuperfcded. The deed a quiet and filent Hearing is conftrued as a 

" Efficacy by which ill Habits difpofe the Mind Token of Confent. And 'twas on this Account 

" to ill Aftions, is different from that (for In- that the brave Germanicus., when on the News of 

" ftance) by which lewd Difcourfe inftils Wan- Auguflus'^ Death, his feditious Soldiers offer'd him 

" tonnefs into the Minds of the Hearers: Becaufe the Empire, llarted immediately in Confufion from 

*•' that Difcourfe may be properly faid to work an- his Seat of Command, as if he had been already taint- 

" tecedently to theWill of him to whom it isap- edwithRebellion^Tuck. Anm\. Lib. i.Ch.xxxv. So 

*' plied, though the Effeft doth not always follow." alfo' Themift.Orat.xix.Heretofore, in Crimes of this 

Which abitriafe Doftrine may fitly enough be ex- firt^ no Dijlin^ion was made between Misfortune 

plained by this Similitude: Splaynefsof Foot init- andGuilt: it being jud^ d as heinous to hear a vilbnous 

felf, and as long as the Foot refts, is not a Fault a- Propofal, though againfi one'sWill^ as to contrive the 

gainft the Rules of Dancing, but when the Spark Plot., or to attempt the Execution. But this was in' 

makes an ill Step ■■, the moral Caufe of that Mifcar- deed to cenfure and reproach Nature for framing our 

riage is not the turning out of the 'Toes too far, con- Ears flat and open^andfor not puttingit in ourPow- 

lider'd in itfelf, but the Will of him that hath fo er to clofe and contrail them., as we do our Eyes or our 

awkwardly mov'd them. Mouth: ftnce thefe alone., of all our Inflruments of 

The fame Author adds. That " the Reafon why Senfe, are placed beyond our Will and Command., ly~ 

" we hate ill Habits, is partly becaufe the Perfons ing ready to receive of Neceffity every Thing that flows 

*' got them by ill Aftions, and partly becaufe they in, like a Houfe without Gates or Doors. But you 

*' are more prone to ill Aftions on the Account of at length., have reflor'd our Faculty of Hearing to its 

" them :" And that tho' they are Difeafes of the Mind, juft Character of Innocence. 

yettheydo notdefervePuniJhmcntinthemlelves^butbe- Sometimes, then, it happens that an Aftion is 

caufe they were voluntarily co>itraBed. As if we fhould not imputed to the immediate Performer of it, but 

fay, when we beat an unlucky Boy that puts out his to him who commanded it to be done. As when 

Ankle by a wanton and negligent Leap, the Rea- a Superior, under the Penalty of the fcvcrefl E- 

fon why we beat him, is not the putting out his vils, and fuch as heisreallyable to inflift, enjoins 

Ankle {in itfelf) but the idle Leap that caus'd it. a Subjeft the bare Execution of fome Deed. Thus, 

Mr. Barb. NOfES. 

See Chap.'w. §.7* Notez. foiegoing, and Mi-. Clerc's Ontology, Chitp.\iU. §.4. In a word, we m.-iy f.iy, witli an antient 
Creek Vost, That it is, in truth, "hard to reform an ill Habit, that is become almofl: natural, but not impolllble, fince 
we have feen feveral Perfons reform their Manners by good Advice given them by others, as his Words Ihew, 

To y) iiT05->)>«i jj«A830» EtwoWi? yjaiAKi? iri^uy 

K«/ roi ;7o».<ii ticut' 'l-nuhi. Arijioph. Vefp. ■ver. 1446. 

' Very well, but they are anfwcrable for their evil Difpofitions, becaufe they have brought tiicm on themfelves; 
by their own Fault. In (hort, all thefe Reafonings contain nothing in them but tlie idle Speculations of fubtil Plii- 

NOTES on §. XIV. 

* The Grceh o^ Arr'un runs thus: Ai' i^^irfiov '/»yoi/ ^laW i^iU, Sec. Antonimts's thus, T« t,«.^ a-poaiprixS to tJ tA»- 
O-c'oi moxifiriKM hiiriK li^iKCpo^i* iVii/, «5 >^ to ■TtiAjfiau.Ti.ot «ut», ;^ to (raf.xiiJ''io»- j^ <^ « in fAjU>iij*^ i^iiJAaiir imxn ytycyxu,ir^ 
cu,ui Ttc ityi/iimiKCi hfiZt i-'.xiot I'ti' lS'!xv xvfiav 'ly^i' hu' toi 'i/Ai^iv i rS ■!:Mt'">» xukm f/*S x«xi!» utxf orrsf t* sjo|t tS &iu, 
iia ftJi ir «»« ^ ro If/A a.-vx,i~». Marc, Antonin. Lit;. 8. §. 56. 

* Lucian's Greek is this, 'Ex-lo? «' y^i tiv* vojW/i^'f; ccxpouTi®^ ivSwI'm nvcii. Apolog, tn fine. 

' Themiftius's Words [Ornt. xix, De humanitate Theodojii, p. zjo. Ed. Par. Hard.) are, K«i zu^ai p i onx-nfiTa oV 
ru ToiiJs iyKM/A-ari uSUytfija. JVcf^');"'"!©", a^' c* jVoj Ka,6W>tx.i to jSaAsSo-«i' Ti luv a.hiTit,m, >^ to s-^flsc^ ^>, a-posAo^Bov kxi 
T81 -J^ dii'Via? 'l'/r.>.ni/i* %i tSto, k tS a!>^f<aTK. on tw a.r.cnv iTiii^a-iv u.vci.Trf!r\aft,it£tu, yy XZ """"ftf 'Tj* fi^i<l>afx y^ to fo^a sip' 
ifjwi xXuit y^ iaci'/vumi, j/ra )^ t« oirct,- a,»s' avrv ft'On ci^ii'oi^ i ait&ijin? ciis-tipuyf im ^<P if^" iiu<r.ut, >^ i'';efo^ ituyKn jtut to 

z as 

C H A p. V. Of moral Anions in general, Set. 

as * Procopiusf^TtJl. Goth. Lib. i.wdXohkrves.,^^ An 
*' AmbafTador, at the Command of him whom he 
" repiefents,fpeaksfuchandruchWordsj in which 
*' if there appear any Fault or Offence, it ought 
*' not to be charged on him, but on his Matter, 
" whofe Orders and Inftruftions he is under a Ne- 
*' ceffity of obeying." When the Roman Senate 
declar'd the League with the Samnites to be bafe 
and inglorious, and voted the delivering up the Ge- 
neral , the Author of it, to the Enemy, it was a 
very fenflefs Propofal mov'd by one of the grave 
Fathers, that the lame Punifliment fhould be in- 
Aided on the Perfon who held the Stvine during 
the Ceremony of making the Agreement' '' . When 
Mithridates put to Death jittilius and other Con- 
fpirators againft his Life, he pardon'd Attili- 
us's Freed-men, who were of the Company, 
ui S'ia-TroTyi ^ixKovmatjUfyiis S «^ Perfons that only 
cbcfd thier lawful Majler. 

JBut it's more ufual that the Aftion fhall be im- 
puted both to the Performer and to the Com- 
mander of it. And this is chiefly done in thefe 
three Ways: Either, that the Commander fhall be 
the principal Caufe of the Aftion, and the Per- 
former, the inferior and accefTary Caufe, or that 
both lliall be deem'd equally guilty, or that the 
Commander fhall be the inferior Caufe, and the 
Performer the Principal. And in all Cafes the 
Concurrence to another Man's Action is made ei- 
ther politively or privately, by fome Commiffion 
or OmifTion. 

Firft then, he is efteem'd the principal Caufe of 
anAftion committed immediately by another Man, 
who commands fomething to be done by one un- 
der his Power and Sway, or who by his bare * 
Jluthority., not eafily to be refilled, moves a Man 
to the Performance of fome Deed, which he 
could not have enjoin'd by Command or Power, 
properly fo call'd. And this lalt was the Cafe of 


Pifo in^ facitui^ whom Tiberm himfclf fA-f«/Ji 
from having any Guilt in the Civil JVar ., fince as 
he was a Son he could not decline his Father's Order* 
"*. But now his Father, by his paternal Right 
and Power, could not have oblig'd him to engage 
in fuch a Crime, and therefore he was mov'd only 
by his Authority. 

Secondly, He who gives a Confent necelTarily 
requifite to the Performance, and without which 
the Agent had not proceeded. Comp. Faler. Max. 
Lib. ii. §. 8. §. 2. ' Liban. Prcgymn. He is to fuffer 
for the Fault., iviihout whofe Leave it had not been 
committed. Id. ibid, fhey are not fo properly to be ac- 
counted the Authors of Crimes., whofe Hands commit 
them., as they who gave the Power and Authority of 
committing them. 

Thirdly^ He who ought to have forbidden an 
ill Action, and did not; provided he had a full 
Obligation thus to prohibit it, and that upon the 
Account of that Obligation other Men had a Right 
of exafting fuch a Prohibition from him. Vide 
Lib. xW.D. adL.Aquil.Lib.W. De Noxal. a^. Lib. 
i. §. I. D.famll. furt.fec. Seneca Troad. ^li non 
vetat peccare cum poffit., jubet. Not to forbid a Sin, 
when in our Power, is to command it. Sophocl. 

PhiloSlet. * Men are influenc'dintoFicc by bad 

Inflruclors. On this Score Diogenes beat a School- 
mailer, whofe Boys were too much given to their 
Bellies, Not Imputing the Fault (as ' Plutarch fays) 
to them for not learning better Things., but to him for 
not teaching them. Libre, virtutem doceri poffe. Vide 
iElian. Lib. iii. Ch.x. Juvenal. Sat.x1v.233. 

Nemo fat is credit tantum delinquere^ quantum 
Permittas ; adeo indulgent fibi latius ipft. 

All think too ftreight th' Indulgence they receive % 
And to themfelves a kinder Licenfe give. 


Add.Lib.'w. §.2. D.DeOffic.Proconf. ThusMefd- 
linus in lacitus An. 4. '<> advifed, that a Decree of 

> Thi! Ctifiom efiifing Swine at times of Pacification, is accounted for, Livy, Lib. f. Ch. xxiv. Si populus Roni. prior de- 
fecerttfubhcoConjilio, dolo male ; Tu ilia die, Jupiter, P.Rom, fie ferito, ut ego hunc Porcum hodie feriam : tantoque magis fe- 

rito, qiumo magis poles pollcfue. Id ubi dixit, Porcum Silice percujfit. To this Purpofe, Virg. Ed. viii. 641. dfa jungebant 

fcedera Porta. See Mr. KeniietV Rom. Antiquities, Part if. Ch. xvii. •> Cicero de Invent Lib. ii. Mamertiii. P.inei. i. 
Whatever is tran failed by his Commilfion, is properly the Deed of the Emperor. Seneca Troad. Ad authores redit fceleris coafti 

culp.i. The Guilt of Mifchief afled upon Force turns on the Authors « Appian. B. Mithridat. <* Add. Lib, xxxvii.' 

Print. D. adL.Aquil. Lib.ix. §.2, &c. D. De Injuriis ; Ant. Matth. deCrimin. Proleg.Ch.i.§. 13. 

Mr. Barb. A" O 'FE S oȤ. xiv. 

, f "^A^ Greek is this, ^h^i^'i- »o-ei «» e« rS Jtip,^vSi<S>- arniMiUi tUt-f, ix. iivrU rw auT^-Jst kirlav, «» yi ix. dyahl Tv%airn P,ti, 

ProcDp. Hift. Goth. Lib. i. Among the Creeks, where a Mafter had an abfolute Authority over his Slaves, thefc were loolced 
upon as meer Tools, whatever they did, whether Good or Evil, employed by their Mafter. See Baron ,9»^H/i««;«j upon 
Callimachus Hymn, m Cerer. Yet we ought to obferve, thatanAdlion perform 'd at the Command of a Superior, is not 
altogether excuCible at the Judgment-Seat of Go d, efpecially if he doth any Thmg which he knows clearly to be Evil in it- 
ielt. See §. 2. Note 9. So that we muft by no means approve the Opinion of the Antients. That it is a fort of Virtue to 
commit a Fault in Obedience to a Mafter, as the Poet (peaks, Pro Dominispeccare, etiam virtutis loco eft. Publ. Syr. fi. 567. 

'Authority here, fignifies not a Power, or Command, which one has over another, but the particular Refpeft which'a 
Perlon bears in his Mind to another, either upon the Account of his Merit, or Superiority, or fome other Reafon, which en- 
gages him to pay a great Deference to his Will and Pleafure (for which Reafon the Trench Tranflation renders it. La Confidi- 
ra;;o«,^Refpecl or Regard) according to Lwfs Diftinction, fpeaking of K. Evander, Authoritate magis quam imperio re- 
geuat ea Loca, Lib. i. Ch. vh. He ruled more by his Authority than Command. And, on the contr